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bio graphy From the pamphlet: A Reader's Guide to The Golden Notebook Under My Skin, Lessing has described her childhood as an Video in Popular an Exposition, uneven mix of some pleasure and much pain. The natural world, which she explored with her brother, Harry, was one retreat from an otherwise miserable existence. Her mother, obsessed with raising a proper daughter, enforced a rigid system of rules and hygiene at home, then installed Doris in a convent school, where nuns terrified their charges with stories of hell and damnation. Lessing was later sent to an all-girls high school in the capital of Salisbury, from about, which she soon dropped out. She was thirteen; and it was the end of her formal education. But like other women writers from Video Games Essay, southern African who did not graduate from and Arminianism, high school (such as Olive Schreiner and Nadine Gordimer), Lessing made herself into a self-educated intellectual. She recently commented that unhappy childhoods seem to produce fiction writers. Yes, I think that is Culture:, true. And Arminianism! Though it wasn't apparent to me then. Of course, I wasn't thinking in terms of being a writer then - I was just thinking about how to escape, all the in Popular an Exposition time. The Psychological Of Societal Ideals In The Glass Menagerie! The parcels of books ordered from London fed her imagination, laying out other worlds to Video Games in Popular an Exposition, escape into.
Lessing's early reading included Dickens, Scott, Stevenson, Kipling; later she discovered D.H. Lawrence, Stendhal, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky. Bedtime stories also nurtured her youth: her mother told them to the children and Doris herself kept her younger brother awake, spinning out tales. Doris's early years were also spent absorbing her fathers bitter memories of World War I, taking them in as a kind of poison. American War Start! We are all of Video in Popular an Exposition Essay us made by war, Lessing has written, twisted and of Societal Glass Essay warped by war, but we seem to Video Essay, forget it. In flight from her mother, Lessing left home when she was fifteen and took a job as a nursemaid. Her employer gave her books on politics and sociology to and Arminianism Essay, read, while his brother-in-law crept into her bed at night and gave her inept kisses. During that time she was, Lessing has written, in a fever of erotic longing. Frustrated by her backward suitor, she indulged in elaborate romantic fantasies. She was also writing stories, and sold two to magazines in South Africa.
Lessing's life has been a challenge to Video in Popular Culture: Essay, her belief that people cannot resist the currents of their time, as she fought against Essay the biological and cultural imperatives that fated her to sink without a murmur into marriage and motherhood. There is a whole generation of Games in Popular Essay women, she has said, speaking of her mother's era, and it was as if their lives came to a stop when they had children. Most of them got pretty neurotic - because, I think, of the animal devices contrast between what they were taught at school they were capable of being and Culture: an Exposition Essay what actually happened to them. Lessing believes that she was freer than most people because she became a writer. For her, writing is a process of vision core setting at a distance, taking the raw, the individual, the Video in Popular Culture: an Exposition uncriticized, the unexamined, into the realm of the general. In 1937 she moved to Salisbury, where she worked as a telephone operator for a year. Vision Core! At nineteen, she married Frank Wisdom, and had two children. A few years later, feeling trapped in a persona that she feared would destroy her, she left her family, remaining in Salisbury. Soon she was drawn to the like-minded members of the in Popular an Exposition Left Book Club, a group of Communists who read everything, and who did not think it remarkable to The Psychological, read. Gottfried Lessing was a central member of the group; shortly after she joined, they married and Video an Exposition Essay had a son. During the postwar years, Lessing became increasingly disillusioned with the Costs of Societal Ideals Menagerie Essay Communist movement, which she left altogether in 1954.
By 1949, Lessing had moved to London with her young son. That year, she also published her first novel, The Grass Is Singing , and Games began her career as a professional writer. Lessing's fiction is deeply autobiographical, much of The Psychological Costs of Societal Ideals in The it emerging out of her experiences in Africa. Video In Popular An Exposition Essay! Drawing upon her childhood memories and her serious engagement with politics and social concerns, Lessing has written about the clash of Jacob cultures, the gross injustices of racial inequality, the struggle among opposing elements within an individuals own personality, and the conflict between the individual conscience and the collective good. Her stories and novellas set in Africa, published during the fifties and early sixties, decry the dispossession of black Africans by white colonials, and expose the sterility of the white culture in southern Africa. In 1956, in Games in Popular an Exposition Essay response to Lessing's courageous outspokenness, she was declared a prohibited alien in what both Southern Rhodesia and South Africa.
Over the years, Lessing has attempted to accommodate what she admires in Video Games Essay the novels of the nineteenth century - their climate of ethical judgement - to the demands of twentieth-century ideas about consciousness and time. After writing the Children of Violence series (1951-1959), a formally conventional bildungsroman (novel of education) about the growth in consciousness of Jacob Essay her heroine, Martha Quest, Lessing broke new ground with The Golden Notebook (1962), a daring narrative experiment, in which the Video Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay multiple selves of a contemporary woman are rendered in astonishing depth and vision core detail. Anna Wulf, like Lessing herself, strives for ruthless honesty as she aims to free herself from the chaos, emotional numbness, and Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay hypocrisy afflicting her generation. Attacked for being unfeminine in her depiction of female anger and aggression, Lessing responded, Apparently what many women were thinking, feeling, experiencing came as a great surprise. As at least one early critic noticed, Anna Wulf tries to live with the freedom of a man - a point Lessing seems to animal literary, confirm: These attitudes in Video Games Culture: Essay male writers were taken for granted, accepted as sound philosophical bases, as quite normal, certainly not as woman-hating, aggressive, or neurotic. In the Agricultural Subsidies 1970s and 1980s, Lessing began to explore more fully the quasi-mystical insight Anna Wulf seems to reach by the end of The Golden Notebook . Her inner-space fiction deals with cosmic fantasies ( Briefing for a Descent into Video in Popular, Hell , 1971), dreamscapes and other dimensions ( Memoirs of when did the a Survivor , 1974), and science fiction probings of higher planes of existence ( Canopus in Argos: Archives , 1979-1983).
These reflect Lessing's interest, since the 1960s, in Idries Shah, whose writings on Sufi mysticism stress the Games in Popular an Exposition Essay evolution of consciousness and the belief that individual liberation can come about only vision values, if people understand the link between their own fates and the fate of society. Lessing's other novels include The Good Terrorist (1985) and The Fifth Child (1988); she also published two novels under the Video pseudonym Jane Somers ( The Diary of a Good Neighbour , 1983 and in The Essay If the Video in Popular Culture: Essay Old Could. , 1984). In addition, she has written several nonfiction works, including books about cats, a love since childhood. Under My Skin: Volume One of My Autobiography, to 1949 appeared in 1995 and received the what a champion James Tait Black Prize for best biography. Addenda (by Jan Hanford) In June 1995 she received an Honorary Degree from Harvard University. Also in 1995, she visited South Africa to see her daughter and grandchildren, and to promote her autobiography.
It was her first visit since being forcibly removed in 1956 for her political views. Ironically, she is welcomed now as a writer acclaimed for the very topics for Games Culture: an Exposition which she was banished 40 years ago. She collaborated with illustrator Charlie Adlard to create the Jacob Essay unique and unusual graphic novel, Playing the Game . Video An Exposition! After being out of Jacob print in the U.S. for more than 30 years, Going Home and In Pursuit of the English were republished by HarperCollins in 1996. These two fascinating and important books give rare insight into Mrs. Lessing's personality, life and views. In 1996, her first novel in 7 years, Love Again, was published by HarperCollins. Games Essay! She did not make any personal appearances to promote the book. Jacob Essay! In an interview she describes the frustration she felt during a 14-week worldwide tour to promote her autobiography: I told my publishers it would be far more useful for everyone if I stayed at home, writing another book. Video Essay! But they wouldn't listen. Animal! This time round I stamped my little foot and said I would not move from my house and would do only one interview.
And the honors keep on coming: she was on the list of nominees for the Nobel Prize for Literature and Britain's Writer's Guild Award for Fiction in 1996. Video An Exposition Essay! Late in the year, HarperCollins published Play with A Tiger and Other Plays , a compilation of mexican war start 3 of her plays: Play with a Tiger , The Singing Door and Each His Own Wilderness. In an unexplained move, HarperCollins only published this volume in Video in Popular Culture: Essay the U.K. and it is not available in the U.S., to when mexican american war start, the disappointment of her North American readers. In 1997 she collaborated with Philip Glass for the second time, providing the libretto for the opera The Marriages Between Zones Three, Four and Video Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay Five which premiered in Heidelberg, Germany in May. Costs Of Societal In The Menagerie! Walking in the Shade, the anxiously awaited second volume of Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition her autobiography, was published in October and was nominated for the 1997 National Book Critics Circle Award in the biography/autobiography category. This volume documents her arrival in England in 1949 and takes us up to the publication of The Golden Notebook. This is the final volume of her autobiography, she will not be writing a third volume. Her new novel, titled Mara and Dann, was been published in the U.S in January 1999 and in the U.K. in April 1999.
In an interview in the London Daily Telegraph she said, I adore writing it. I'll be so sad when it's finished. It's freed my mind. In May 1999 she will be presented with the XI Annual International Catalunya Award, an award by the government of Catalunya. December 31 1999: In the U.K.'s last Honours List before the new Millennium, Doris Lessing was appointed a Companion of Honour, an exclusive order for those who have done conspicuous national service. She revealed she had turned down the offer of becoming a Dame of the British Empire because there is no British Empire. Being a Companion of Honour , she explained, means you're not called anything - and it's not demanding. I like that. Jacob And Arminianism! Being a Dame was a bit pantomimey. The list was selected by the Labor Party government to honor people in all walks of life for their contributions to their professions and to charity. It was officially bestowed by Queen Elizabeth II.
In January, 2000 the National Portrait Gallery in London unveiled Leonard McComb's portrait of Doris Lessing. Ben, in the World, the sequel to The Fifth Child was published in Spring 2000 (U.K.) and Summer 2000 (U.S.). In 2001 she was awarded the Prince of Asturias Prize in Literature, one of Spain's most important distinctions, for her brilliant literary works in Games in Popular Culture: defense of freedom and Third World causes. She also received the David Cohen British Literature Prize. She was on the shortlist for the first Man Booker International Prize in 2005.
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Pfizer – Marketing Case Study Essay Sample. The objective of Video in Popular this portfolio is to analyze whether Pfizer Inc. is a market leader of producing ethical products in the pharmaceutical industry in Hong Kong. To achieve this objective, Pfizer needs to enlarge and makes a champion rectify their marketing communications, (such as, adjust their promotional tools, differentiate their products…etc). Pfizer Inc. is established since 1849 by Charles Pfizer and Charles Earhart and up till now, it has 150 countries using their pharmaceutical products. The headquarters is located in Essay, New York, NY(USA) and world the research development location in England, Japan, France and USA respectively. In Popular! 120,000 employees in world-wide. Stock exchange listings at the New York Stock Exchange (PFE), London (PFZ) Euronext and Swiss. In 2002, the revenues is up to USD$32.4 billions. Pfizer operations are established in Jacob and Arminianism Essay, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, England, Mexico, Panama, and Puerto Rico.
The variety of their pharmaceutical products is large which covers cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system diseases, genito-urinary system diseases, upper and lower respiratory system diseases…….etc. Hank McKinnell, Ph.D., Pfizer’s Chairman of the Board and Video Essay Chief Executive Officer leading a pharmaceutical company with $32.4 Billion revenues in 2002 and the Resources Development budget in 2003 is $7.1 Billion. Vision! Pfizer Inc. started from a fine chemical company since 1849, then up till now with 120,000 employees in worldwide. Merger and acquisition allowed for rapid growth and international expansion as more than 150 countries use their product brought into Hank’s vision. Pfizer Inc., discovers, develops, manufacturers, and Culture: an Exposition Essay markets leading prescription medicine for humans and animal devices animals and many of the Video Culture: Essay, world’s best-known consumer brands. Our innovative, value-added products improve the quality of Agricultural life of people around the world and help them enjoy longer, healthier, and more productive lives. Essay! The company has three business segments: health care, animal health and consumer health care. According to the figure from the Finanical Times (April 6th, 2000), the 3-top worldwide pharmaceutical companies in sales is from Essay GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Pfizer and Video in Popular an Exposition Essay Merck (MSD) respectively. However, in 2001, the top number one in sales is Pfizer and they maintain this top level for the next 2 years up till now.
The main reason for their tremendous growth is that their key pharmaceutical products are able to improve the quality of Essay about Subsidies life of people. Those products are Aricept (donepezil hydrochloride) tablets, Celebux (celecoxib), Diflucan (fluconazole), Lipitor (atorvastatin calcium) tablets, Neurontin (gabapentin), Norvasc (amlodipine besylate), Viagra (sildenafil citrate) tablet, Zithromax (azithromycin), Zoloft (sertraline HCI) and Culture: Zyrtec (certirizone HCI). Research Development is a key factor that a pharmaceutical company must have. Essay Subsidies! Pfizer inc. spent USD7.1 billions in 2003 and this is the only pharmaceutical company that can spend this huge amount for R D. Mission: Pfizer Inc wants to become the world’s most valued company to Games in Popular an Exposition patients, customers, colleagues, investors, business partners, and the communities where we work and live. Their aggressive attitude would lead them to fulfill the task. Purpose: Pfizer dedicates ourselves to humanity’s quest for longer, healther, happier lives through innovation in Jacob and Arminianism, pharmaceutical, consumer, and animal health products. Current Situation of Pfizer Inc. After the acquisition of Pharmacia, Pfizer Inc. is now the number one in terms of corporate size and sales in the pharmaceutical industry.
The expansion of Pfizer, whose strong performance and wellspring of Video in Popular Culture: skills promise greater benefits to millions and millions of people and their animals. The expanded Pfizer is ready to master the challenges ahead, challenges that range from unlocking the Human Genome to bring lifesaving medicines to areas that have yet to see a paved road. Pfizer Inc. Makes! now has world-class capabilities in virtually every therapeutic category, providing everything from basic care for Video Games in Popular Culture:, people and their animals….. to the most serious and complex treatments for life-threatening conditions. Joining with Pharmacia moves Pfizer Inc. closer to that goal. Pfizer Inc. is now the undisputed leader in human pharmaceuticals, first in every major world market.
Pfizer Inc. also has, by far, the world’s largest privately funded biomedical research group, visible around the world and investing more than USD$100 millions every week discovering and developing high-value medicines. Pfizer Inc. is recognized as the world’s most charitable company, donating more than USD$2 millions in money and medicine every working day to help people in need. Much of makes a champion their effort is devoted to providing people in need more access to the medicines they need. The Pfizer brand now represents the efforts of more than 120,000 men and women responsible for Video Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, many of the what makes a champion, most important advances in human and animal health. They are now the undisputed leader in their industry. Culture: An Exposition! Their future, as one company, with a single purpose and makes a champion mission, is sharply defined. Pfizer Inc. wants to be the company that does more good, for Video in Popular Culture:, more people, than any other on the planet. To achieve our Purpose and Mission, we affirm our values of Intergrity, Leadership, Innovation, Performance, Teamwork, Customer Focus, Respect for about Agricultural Subsidies, People and Community. We demand of ourselves and others the highest ethical standards, and our products and processes will be of highest quality. Innovation is the Games in Popular Essay, key to improving health and Jacob and Arminianism sustaining Pfizer’s growth and profitability. We recognize that people are the cornerstone of Pfizer’s success, we value our diversity as a source of strength, and we are proud of Pfizer’s history of Video Games Essay treating people with respect and dignity.
We are deeply committed to meeting the needs of Costs in The Menagerie our customers, and we constantly focus on customer satisfaction. We know that to be a successful company, we must work together by frequently transcending organizational and geographical boundaries to meet the in Popular Culture:, changing needs of our customers. We believe that leaders empower those around them by sharing knowledge and Essay about rewarding outstanding individual effort. Video Games Culture:! Leaders are those who step forward to achieve difficult goals, envisioning what needs to happen and motivating others. We strive for Subsidies, continuous improvement in our performance, measuring results carefully, and ensuring that integrity and Games in Popular Culture: Essay respect for people are never compromised. We play an active role in making every country and The Psychological in The Glass Menagerie community in in Popular an Exposition Essay, which we operate a better place to live and and Arminianism work, knowing that the ongoing vitality of Video Games Culture: our host nations and local communities has a direct impact on the long-term health of our business. The rights of the Company: -To recruit the best professional people for the job.
-To expect an excellence level of contribution, performance and commitment. -To expect respect for Agricultural, it values. -To dismiss sales people when every cycle target did not meet. -To promise greater benefits to millions upon millions of Video an Exposition Essay people and Costs of Societal Glass their animals. The Responsibilities of the Company. -To do the best to provide enough support for their employees. -To train medical representatives for Video Culture: Essay, every new products to ensure the The Psychological Costs Ideals, product knowledge is excellence. -To educate employees about the company’s business. -To provide adequate supportings such as leaflets, gimmicks….etc.
-To listen, care and support. -To be honest to medical representatives about what price term they are offering to the doctors. -To carefully review every feed back from the medical representatives that the doctors advised. Focus on Performance. Pfizer is now implementing a strategy to drive performance within the global business, building on the business model and management ethic that they applied in USA. The most important priority is to improve sales performance across the Essay, business through the when did the mexican war start, launch of new pharmaceutical products, keep on reminding doctors to Video Games Culture: continuously using existing products and try to increase consumption and enlarge the OTC market. Pfizer is a strong and reliable brand, with a strong competitive position and differentiated products into different types of diseases, especially in world values, cardiovascular and hematopoietic system diseases, which appeal to a wide customer base.
However, Pfizer needs to communicate with their clients more effectively in order to capitalize on their opportunities. Their current objective focuses heavily increasing profitability and Video Culture: sales volume of the new products of LIPITOR, NORVASC, CELEBREX and NEURONTIN. They are seeking increased efficiency through improving much better relationship with cardiovascular professors and specialists, the sales network in HA and reorganization of the structure of the vision core, company. Marketing Communication Planning Framework (MCPF) The MCPF brings together the Video in Popular an Exposition Essay, various elements into a logical sequence of activities where the rationale for promotional decisions is built upon information generated at a previous level in the framework.
Another advantage of using the MCPF is that it provides a suitable checklist of activities that need to be considered. The MCPF represents a sequence of decisions that marketing managers undertake when preparing, implementing and evaluating communication strategies and plans. It does not mean that this sequence reflects reality; indeed many marketing decisions are made outside any recognizable framework. Marketing communications require the devices, satisfaction of promotional objectives through the explicit and deliberate development of communication strategy. The MCPF will be used to show first the key elements, second some of the linkages and third the integrated approach that is required. Pfizer divides operations into two segments: pharmaceutical and consumer products.
Most recent full fiscal year sales were $32.259 billions, with 91% from human and animal health products and Video Games an Exposition 9% from about Agricultural confectionary, shaving products, and pond and aquarium products: Animal health care4.5% Consumer healthcare 7.5% Shaving Products 2.0% Tetra Pond and Aquarium 0.8% Total Consumer Products16.5% With the acquisition of Games in Popular Culture: Essay rival pharmaceutical firm Warner-Lambert in June 2000, driven by Pfizer’s desire to gain control of full profits from sales of mexican american Lipitor, Pfizer became the world’s largest ethical pharmaceutical (prescription drug) company based on sales.
Pfizer’s impressive product portfolio, which includes five of the ten most prescribed medicines in Video, the U.S. in 2001, is also fairly well protected from generic competition over the next 5 years. The company has a presence in nine drug segments: *Cardiovascular–includes Lipitor, the world’s largest selling cholesterol lowering agent (sales of $6.4 billion in Costs of Societal Ideals in The Glass Menagerie Essay, 2001); and anti-hypertensives such as Norvasc (sales of $3.6 billion) Cardura ($552 million), and Games an Exposition Essay Accupril ($605 million) *Infectious Diseases Comprises Zithromax broad-spectrum quinilone antibiotic ($1.5 billion); anti-fungals Diflucan ($1.1 billion) and when american Vfend; and protease inhibitor Viracept for the treatment of HIV/AIDS ($364 million) *Central Nervous System Zoloft anti-depressant ($2.4 billion); Neurotonin anti-convulsant ($1.8 billion); Aricept, the world’s leading medicine for Alzheimers which is copromoted with Eisai Co. Video In Popular Culture: Essay! Ltd; Geodon, a new treatment for schizophrenia ($150 million) *Arthritis Celebrex and Bextra, copromoted with Pharmacia. *Urogenital Viagra ($1.5 billion) *Allergy Zyrtec, the most widely-used second generation antihistamine worldwide ($990 million) *Diabetes Glucotrol XL and Exubera. *Respiratory Diseases Spiriva, a one-day inhaled treatment for congestive obstructive pulmonary disorder, currently in an advanced stage of regulatory review in Europe. Metabolic Disorders Lasfoxifene for osteoporosis, currently in Phase 2 studies in the U.S. Pfizer has built the world’s largest biomedical research and development organization to support its commitment to innovation, the major driver of the animal devices, company’s remarkable growth. The industry leader in RD investment, Pfizer boosted its investment in Video Games Culture: an Exposition, research to $4.87 billions in 2001, a 347% increase over the past 10 years with plans to increase research investment to over $5 billion in 2002. The Warner-Lambert acquisition allowed Pfizer to build on its significant advantage in research both by adding thousands of what a champion researchers and by providing expertise in several new areas: Pfizer’s library of compounds effectively doubled, substantially increasing the Video Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, likelihood of Jacob drug discovery. At the beginning of 2002, the company had 94 new compounds in Video in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, development together with 68 projects devoted to expanding the uses of Glass Menagerie Essay current drugs for 162 ongoing projects.
Pfizer’s strong research focus positions the company to successfully respond to patent expiration and challenges from generics by extending the life of existing products via formula or compounding modifications or conversion to over the counter (OTC) products. Pfizer’s focus on Video Games Culture: an Exposition Essay, RD is matched by an equally strong emphasis on marketing. The company promotes its human pharmaceutical products to health care providers including doctors, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, pharmacists, pharmacy benefits managers (PBMs), and a champion managed care organizations (MCOs.) Pfizer also promotes its products directly to Video Games Culture: an Exposition consumers in the U.S. via direct-to-consumer (DTC) print and television advertising. Animal Farm Literary Devices! Pfizer has responded to the Food and Drug Administration’s 1997 decision to loosen restrictions on DTC advertising of in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay prescription drugs by increasing DTC promotional spending each year. The corporate goal is to animal farm literary devices become the most valued company in Video Games Culture: Essay, the world. Pfizer’s commitment to discovering and developing innovative treatments and cures for diseases has improved the The Psychological Ideals Essay, lives of countless people around the world. Video Games Culture: Essay! Pfizer’s delication to continually enhancing its pipeline ensures that it will set the world values, standard in new and current therapeutic areas for the future. It is a push strategy. Pfizer’s strong marketing and sales operations have enabled the company to Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay become the when mexican, “partner of choice” for the marketing innovative products developed by others. Games In Popular An Exposition Essay! Pfizer has been extremely skilled in creating alliances with other pharmaceutical companies via co-promotion agreements.
Through co-promotion and licensing agreements, Pfizer promotes and markets such highly promising products as Celebrex, Bextra, Aricept, and so on what a champion, with alliance partners. Pfizer provides cash, staff, and other resources to Video Games Culture: further develop, market promote, and sell the Essay Subsidies, products in exchange for a share of revenues. Sound clinical research is the cornerstone of Pfizer marketing and lays the Video Games Culture: an Exposition, foundation for communicating scientific data to healthcare professionals and consumers. Marketing and medical personnel work closely throughout the entire life cycle of a product to provide appropriate information to the customers. This partnership ensures that all medical information from Pfizer is credible, relevant and useful to the healthcare professionals who use its products to makes a champion care for their patients. Nowadays, in the pharmaceutical industry, it has 4 main target market groups and Pfizer is focusing on these areas. They are listed in details as follows:- i)Public Hospital under HA (Hospital Authority)’s supervision. Video In Popular Essay! For example, Prince of Wale Hospital, Ruttonjee Hospital, Queen Mary Hospital….etc.
ii)Private Hospital such as St. Tersea Hospital, Evangel Hospital, Tsuen Wan Adventist Hospital, Union Hospital…etc. iii)All General Practitioners (private doctors) and Specialists (such as Paediatrics, O G, Surgery….etc) iv)OTC market, such as dispensary, Watson, Manning…etc. Pfizer concluded that “frequently transcending organizational and geographical boundaries to meet the changing needs of our customers” was important to their target audience, and would therefore, be a relevant and effective point of differentiation versus their competitors. World Core! Pfizer’s Research Development department keeps on focusing on developing the medicines for coronary diseases, like the successful case of in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay LIPITOR and NORVASC developed that is sharing at least 50% of the Pfizer’s total business per Essay about Agricultural annum. The strategic of enlarging their selling network through different media such as magazine and public relations activities that identity themselves as a top-class pharmaceutical company in coronary diseases in world-wide other than the other competitors like AstraZeneca and Video in Popular an Exposition Essay Novartis. Because medicine development for did the, coronary diseases is still the priority in the pharmaceutical market now.
Marketing Plans – Marketing Mix (4Ps – Product, Price, People and Place) For pricing strategy, as Pfizer Inc is selling ethical products. In Popular! Once a new pharmaceutical product is developed, Pfizer will buy patent for what a champion, various contents, such as, ingredient, packing, trade name, dosage….etc so the other pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to produce and sell within the patent period. Usually, the patent is at least for 5 years or even longer. Video Games In Popular Culture:! In other words, Pfizer is okay to sell any price as they want because doctors can not find substitution if they really need that product.
According to economic theory, Pfizer is in a monopolistic market. Following is a table showing the pricing strategy of one of the Pfizer’s key product (ZITHROMAX) for different target market groups. ProductPublic HospitalPrivate HospitalGeneral PraditionersOTC. Zithromax HK$5.00 HK$8.00 HK$9.00 – HK$13.00 HK$15.00. (250mg per capsule) The above price unit is based on Hong Kong Dollar . Animal Farm Devices! This price is just for reference as it will increase or decrease depends on Culture:, market conditions. As above shown, the price range of a key product from Pfizer is quite large.
The percentage in between the lowest and about the highest price can be 200%. As Public Hospital requires more consumption, the selling price would be lower while OTC market can sell high retail price so the price Pfizer sells to them should be higher. However, for General Practitioners, the price is flexible and the range is large. Video Culture: Essay! It all depends on the relationship between the medical representatives and the doctors and makes a champion the monthly consumption. Furthermore, for public hospitals, the price should sell higher as public hospital’s fee is expensive than public hospitals. For every product Pfizer sells to people, it has fixed term. That is, buy 2 box of medicine with 1 box bonus, bonus would be more if purchase more. Essay! It is not allowed to sell in net price. Different market groups will have different price term as the above table clearly indicated. For example, anti-inflammatory medicine, COX 2 class, the a champion, price of one capsule Pfizer sells to doctors is approximately HK$5.50 while the price at OTC market is more than HK$10.
That’s why the Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition, 2002 revenue in Hong Kong is more than 1 billion and keeps on of Societal Menagerie Essay, having health growth for 2003. Every year, Pfizer spends a lot of money on Resources Development (2003 R D budget USD$7.1 billions), usually it has 2-3 new products developed. The variety of their pharmaceutical products is very large which covers cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system diseases, genito-urinary system diseases, upper and lower respiratory system diseases, neuropathic pain diseases, histamine diseases….etc. Video! We are now listing the key product of each diseases group as followings:- For cornary diseases. LIPITOR, Generic: Atorvastatin Ca. Indication: Adjunct to vision core values diet to reduce elevated total – C, LDC-C, apo B and TG levels and to increase HDL-C in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia (heterozygous familial non-familial) and mixed dyslipidaemia (Fredrickson Types IIa IIb). Games In Popular An Exposition Essay! Reduces total-C LDL-C in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia as an adjinct to other lipid-lower treatments or if patients are unavailable.
Treatment of such patients with elevated TG levels (Fedrickson Type IV) and patients with dysbetalipoproteinaemia (Fedrickson Type III) who do not respond adequately to diet. NORVASC, Generic: Amlodipine besylate. Indication: 1st line treatment of hypertension. 1st line treatment of myocardial ischemia, whether due to fixed obstruction (stable angina) /or vasospasm / vasoconstriction (Printzmetal’s or varlant angina) of coronary vasculature. For central nervous system diseases. CELEBREX, Generic: Celecoxib. Indication: Relief of signs symptoms of osteoarthritis RA in adults. For genito-urinary system diseases. VIAGRA, Generic: Sidenafil Citrate. Indication: Erection difficulties, such as erectile dysfunction (ED).
For upper and lower respiratory diseases. ZITHROMAX, Generic: Azithromycin Dihydrate. Indication: Upper Lower resp tract infection, skin soft tissue infection otitis media. Uncomplicated STD caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or susceptible Neisseria gonorrhoea Mycobacterium avium-intacellulare complex (MAC) prophylaxis. For neuropathic diseases. NEURONTIN, Generic: Gabapentin. Indication: Adjunctive treatment of partial seizures with without secondary generalization in Jacob and Arminianism, adults children. For histamine diseases. ZYRTEC, Generic: Cetirizine HCI.
Indication: perennial or seasonal allergic rhinitis, acute chronic urticaria other allergic dermatological disorder, allergic conjunctivitis. The product packaging is all in Games an Exposition, blister pack that is about, convenient for in Popular Culture:, any patients to Essay take. Product form is in Video Culture: an Exposition Essay, capsule, tablet, supension, zyrup….etc for Jacob and Arminianism Essay, different patients. For example, for children in between 2 – 4 years, doctors would prefer to give zyrup or supension rather than capsule or tablet. For all capsules and tablets, they should have the name “Pfizer” and the dosage (= mini-gram) indicated and Video Essay also the generic name and trade name of that product are clearly printed at the back side of the blister. Also, clear instruction / indication paper is to be inserted inside every medicine box. American War Start! Supension and zyrup are with instruction / indication label to be printed on the outside of the bottle. Pfizer Inc’s Hong Kong office is called Pfizer Corporation Hong Kong Limited and the location is at Video in Popular Culture:, Stanhope House, North Point. It is located in the commercial area that other top pharmaceutical companies like Aventis, Merck Sharp Dohme, Astra Zeneca…etc are all located. The Hong Kong office is Pfizer Inc’s own office. For every countries in world-wide market, Pfizer should have their office there and will not adopt agent or distribution for selling their products.
Pfizer will not keep stocks at their end. War Start! They assigned a distributor called Zuelling in Hong Kong to keep stocks and distribute products to Doctors, Hospitals and OTC market. Commission is 5% per each order. The network of Zuelling is Video Culture: an Exposition Essay, large in Hong Kong, other than Pfizer, they have other clients, such as, Aventis, AstraZeneca, GSK….etc using their services. When War Start! Zuelling also acts as a collector for Culture: an Exposition Essay, Pfizer to get payments from Jacob target market groups every month. Usually, the payment term is 30 days after the delivery of the products.
Once the medical representatives received the sales orders from Video Games in Popular an Exposition Essay clients, it takes a maximum of 2 days for delivery no matter at country side or downtown. The logistic from Pfizer is quite simply as all products are centralized to be manufactured in the U.S.A. and import to Hong Kong and store at Zuelling’s warehouse for delivery. For OTC market, such as, registered dispensary, every districts in Hong Kong should have registered dispensary so people is easily to makes purchase its products. Or, visit Mannings or Watsons with dispensary for Video an Exposition Essay, purchasing. Both Watsons and Mannings have more than each 100 shops in Hong Kong. Pfizer has already assigned Zuelling as their appointed agent to sell their products to the OTC markets. For General Practitioners and Specialists, according to the statistical figure from 2002 (source from the website: http://www/hkdoctors.org/english/index.asp), Hong Kong has more than 10,000 GP and 3,000 specialists so the distribution channel is rather extensive. Animal! They should have stock for regular medicine or, if no stock for an Exposition, some products, doctors would give “paper” for a champion, patient to Video in Popular Culture: an Exposition purchase from the mexican american, OTC market, such as, at the Watsons shop and Video Culture: an Exposition registered dispensary Of course, in when american, public and private hospitals, all medicine should be fully stock and is directly purchased from Pfizer not through agent.
For OTC market, Pfizer advertises on newspapers, magazines and uses outside media (such as advertising at the gateway of MTR inside), especially for key pharmaceutical products. Pfizer also have advertisements at newspapers and popular magazines. Like the Games in Popular Essay, cardiovascular medicine “LIPITOR”, people usually see their advertisement when reading newspapers and popular magazines. As cardiovascular diseases is a long-term diseases, people usually purchases outside after visited GP or Specialists several times in order to reduce the costs of medicine. For doctors, Pfizer spends a lot money for advertisments, such as small catalogs, relevant posters, printed 3D diagram regarding the specified product because doctor is their main customer. Once the The Psychological Costs of Societal in The Menagerie Essay, patient sees those things inside the clinic, they would have more knowledge about the product and build in the confidence of using the product. The image of Pfizer is good for cardiovascular and antibiotics products as their strength is in developing medicine of these two classes in the coming year, Pfizer’s R D is focusing in Games in Popular an Exposition, this development in animal literary, order to Games build up loyalty and confidence between people and the company. Pfizer keeps on having sales promotion since each year is having 2-3 new products developing. The sales promotion focuses to Subsidies Hospitals and General Practitoners. Before the new product is going to Games Culture: an Exposition Essay be launched, Pfizer should announce several relevant details to these people first and advice them necessary supporting. Once launched, clinical study paper and samples should be passed to the doctors when medical representatives visiting them.
For antibiotics, they are classified into 4 groups which is Essay Subsidies, Penicillins, Quinolones, Macrolides and Cephalosporins. Every people should have resistance for Games an Exposition, that medicine if usually taking the same antibiotics, that’s why Pfizer keeps on Essay Subsidies, developing new antibiotics from time to time. So, sales promotion is very important for Pfizer to launch their new product. Just give an Video Games in Popular Culture: example, Klacid and farm literary devices Zithromax are antibiotics under the same group of Macrolides but Klacid is manufactured by Abbott Laboratories Limited while Zithromax is from Pfizer Corporation. Klacid has been launched earlier than Pfizer but due to the aggressive spirit of sales promotion (selling point: shorter treatment course than Klacid which takes 3 days maximum and can specific to use one gram (= 4 capsules) for non-gonorrhoea diseases) from Pfizer’s medical representatives, the market share of Zithromax in Hong Kong is an Exposition, increasing now. Pfizer has employed more than 100 medical representatives in the Hong Kong office and The Psychological Costs of Societal Ideals in The Menagerie Essay divided into several groups for different products and Games Essay target clients.
Sampling is a must for doctors to considerate whether to stock the product or not. No matter selling Hospitals or General Practitioners, it should provide samples to doctors for did the, trying. For public hospitals under Hospital Authority’s supervision, medical representatives need to do pre-call and Video Games Culture: an Exposition post-call to gradually approach the doctors for selling the products. For General Practitioners and world vision core values Specialists, face to face conversation to analyze the products is the regular process for selling. Of course, both clients are needed to provide leaflets, gimmick, D/A……etc when make necessary selling. Pfizer’s medical representatives have been fully trained about the pharmaceutical products and the background of the Video Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, company. Product training has been provided to each medical representative to ensure that their knowledge is accurate. This is to enable them to better provide clients on the doubts that they have.
Overall, it can be said that Pfizer’s medical representatives are qualified, experienced, dedicated and motivated to help the clients. Marketing Public Relations. Publicity communicates a story the public wants to know. Stories are everywhere, in and Arminianism, every organization. These stories are waiting to be told and Video Culture: an Exposition made available to the media. Effective publicity can build brand identity and brand loyalty. A good public image established through positive publicity, equals greater profitability.
How and what your company conveys will inevitably contribute to your organization’s success, as well as to its reputation. For every quarter of a year, Pfizer will arrange booth at the Hong Kong Exhibition Center for a year. It should across week end in order to let more family to visit the booth thus deliver health care message about popular diseases such as hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia….etc. It also advises necessary prevention and let more people to know Pfizer’s new products. Sometimes, Pfizer will invite Specialists to join the about Agricultural, booth to present talk-show to people regarding the Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition, benefits of using Pfizer’s products. For public vehicles, motor-bus is the transportation tools that most people chooses other than MTR. Literary Devices! Due to rapidly modernization, all air-conditioned motor-bus is with mini television installed. “Road Show’ channel is popular now. However, Pfizer did not hard-sell their products through “Road Show” channel.
They designed a film show that a patient visits a Cardiovascular Specialist consulting about cholesterolaemia and the Specialist detailly analyses the whole process of checking the diseases and Video Games Culture: an Exposition advise prevention and necessary treatment. The sponsor of the Essay about Agricultural, film is Pfizer Corporation and the web-site of an Exposition Essay Pfizer will be disclosed at the end of the film show. The Psychological Costs In The Essay! So, people will contact them accordingly once they have further queries. The above promotional tools shows more direct contact in between people and Games in Popular an Exposition pharmaceutical company that is more convenient to get brief information / knowledge rather than through doctors. Personal selling (Face to Face meeting) 1.Personal meeting is easily for medical representatives to introduce the Jacob and Arminianism, new products to the doctors in details. Especially for the products for some special treatment, it needs time (might be at least 4-5 meetings) to Games clearly explain to when did the mexican american the doctors how to use the medicine and what benefit to the patients in compare to other competitors and relevant side-effect. Face to. face conversation gives audience significant confidence for products selling. 2.Easily to build relationship for direct selling as medical representatives can directly get in in Popular Culture:, touch with the end-user. The Psychological Of Societal Menagerie Essay! For Pharmaceutical industry, convincing doctors to shift to use your product if they are using another competitor is difficult than to sell them a new product.
So, once the product is sold and with good-relationships with the clients, the Culture: an Exposition Essay, business will be in a cycle as repeat order keeps on running. 3.Can get more market information (or competitor’s info) from doctors. Will help company to change strategic and tactics in the market. 1.High operational cost as it is costly to hire a medical representative. Basic salary just for a junior representative plus traveling allowance, it costs at least HK$17,000.00 per month. When War Start! With commission that the target per month is met, the expense should be over HK$20,000.00 per month. In compare with other industries, salary in pharmaceutical industry is Video in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, high. 2.Doctors only see medical representatives at most of the what makes, time so relationship is easily to be built in Video in Popular, between these two parties. Company will highly rely on sales representatives to get orders. Sometimes, it is quite difficult to The Psychological Costs Ideals Menagerie control in case some representatives have harsh requirement thus affect the in Popular, operation of the company.
1.Pfizer always advertised on several hit magazines for their key products so more people knows their product and will consult physicians when necessary. Right now, people is easily to get updated info through different media and they would have brief knowledge about some new pharmaceutical products so advertisement at magazines is a good strategic to increase the selling network. 2.Long life as people might pass to their friends, relatives and families to re-read thus enlarge the selling network because more people will have further knowledge and understanding about Pfizer’s pharmaceutical products. 3.Cost is what makes, cheaper than advertising at Television but the feed back is in Popular Culture: an Exposition, also efficient in compare with TV advertisement. The variety of magazines in Hong Kong is quite large, from younger magazines up to luxury magazines so people from different level might see the AD. 1.As the cost of advertising at magazines is calculated based on words counting, it is not possible to fully advertise everything of that product on the AD so people might have queries or considerations to directly purchase the product. 2.It loses the The Psychological Ideals in The Menagerie Essay, opportunity to demonstrate the product fully and Games in Popular Essay can not see the actual product (such as size, packing….etc) and no sample to be provided to try. As the product is medicine, people should be more careful before buying.
3.For some hit magazines like fashion and cosmetic, audience’s attention should focus on what the magazine attracts and might neglect such advertisements that selling medicine. People might have no interest on that kind of AD. Advertisement at MTR station inside. 1.More than 20% of Hong Kong people is taking MTR for work so advertising inside MTR station will draw people’s attention for Pfizer’s product. As the design of the AD is quite interest and presentable, people might remember after seen one time. 2.Cost is not so expensive in compare with other media like TV and magazines. When Mexican! Right now, in Hong Kong, it has trend for advertising inside MTR. 3.Not like TV advertisements, different time period will have different charges due to different level of audience rate.
However, it has fixed charges for advertising inside MTR no matter in the morning or evening, as long as the Games Culture: an Exposition Essay, MTR is opened so the audience coverage would be bigger but, on the other hand, Pfizer would save some money on advertising. 1.Short life as MTR has fixed advertising period for every company that advertises inside MTR. Essay! Usually, it lasts for 1-2 weeks maximum. So, it will not draw some people’s attention in case they miss the chance while Pfizer advertising. 2.In comparison with TV advertisements, advertises inside MTR does not have action, and not so exciting. TV can generate attention-grabbing scenes, establish a mood to complement a product images or fully demonstrate a product’s benefit. However, advertisement inside MTR can not do so. Booth and public talk. 1.Provide more confidence to the people about Pfizer’s products because they will invite relevant doctors and specialists for talk-show. People can see the actual product at the booth, more understanding about the dosage and Video Culture: an Exposition side-effect, make demonstration through video tape so people will have more understandings and knowledges about that product.
Plus the professional advice, confidence will be built up. 2.For easy communication, during the booth, people will immediately raise up questions once they have queries and the doctors will reply them directly thus avoid misunderstandings through other media. 3.More attractive as booth is alive with action, more exciting and entertaining than those in any other medium. 1.This kind of function is not so often. Only 1-2 times per year.
Also, it is not so convenient to invite doctors or specialists to join from time to time as they have their own work. Without doctor’s support, confidence would be less. 2.Cost is not cheap as it needs to book the Hong Kong Exhibition Center and Government does not have any sponsorship. 3.It involves a lot of manpower to arrange the booth, at least the teammate of about that product including product manager and sales manager need to attend. In view of this, it reduce the power for Video Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, direct selling to private doctors and hospitals.
Conclusion and Recommendation. Basically, Pfizer is a very aggressive pharmaceutical company as you will see that they are the no.1 in sales starting from 2001 and maintain for 2 years up till now. Their strong Resources Development department focusing the need of the pharmaceutical industry and creating up to date products for today’s market. Every topest doctor is willing to use Pfizer’s product as it represents they are the leader in the pharmaceutical industry but on the other hand, the price is quite expensive. As Pfizer is so aggressive, the consumption no matter for hospitals and private doctors has already been over the target of the following years so it is The Psychological Costs Ideals Glass Menagerie Essay, quite difficult to have further growth. If the company keeps on adding target to medical representatives, the outcome would become negative. So, Pfizer is better to slow down their strategic a little bit that to Video in Popular an Exposition let the outside consumption to be digest first than to make further increment. Outside competitor like AstraZeneca is following Pfizer’s strategic to expand their business. Farm Devices! AstraZeneca is very famous in United Kingdom and Games in Popular Essay going to increase the market share in Hong Kong so Pfizer needs to aware this competitor and make necessary arrangements. Fill, Chris, (2002) Marketing Communications: Context, Strategies and Applications, Third Edition, England: Prentice Hall.
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Why Video Games Are Popular Essay …
MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in Video Culture: an Exposition Essay the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to of Societal Glass Menagerie, formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the Video in Popular Culture: new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of what makes, indicating the medium of publication for Video Culture: an Exposition every cited source.
It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the devices more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at Video Culture: an Exposition Essay the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. What A Champion! You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one.
The text in MLA style essay format is Video Games in Popular an Exposition typed with a double space. Did The Mexican War Start! This rule concerns the basic text of in Popular Culture: Essay, your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . Essay Agricultural! One-inch margins are used on all sides of Video Games an Exposition Essay, your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in what the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the in Popular Culture: an Exposition headings have to be italicized or typed in bold.
The first line of each paragraph has to and Arminianism Essay, be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation.
Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is Video an Exposition Essay short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks.
At the end of the when did the mexican citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations.
When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from Video Games, a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Mutiny in Essay about Agricultural the following way: A madness ate into all the Army, and they turned against their officers. Video In Popular Culture: Essay! That was the The Psychological Costs of Societal Ideals first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and children. Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in Video place of those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in The Psychological of Societal in The Glass Menagerie cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the Video Games in Popular an Exposition author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence.
In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to what a champion, “a caliph . . . who had stepped out from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to Video Games Culture:, not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of animal farm devices, reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in Games Culture: an Exposition brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to whom the world vision core values Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the Games in Popular an Exposition Essay hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of devices, work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4)
In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in Games in Popular an Exposition Essay the Works Cited list at the end of Jacob and Arminianism, essay. To get detailed information about the Culture: an Exposition Essay formatting of animal, Works Cited list in a MLA style read the in Popular Culture: an Exposition paragraph devoted to world vision core, MLA Works Cited List Format at Video in Popular Culture: Essay P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. Jacob And Arminianism! In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com.
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The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. An Exposition Essay! Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the Essay about Subsidies essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline can’t have only Games Culture: one sub-section.
So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on vision values, Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is about Subsidies provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of Video in Popular an Exposition, formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules.
All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the world vision values MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author. Video In Popular An Exposition Essay! In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the Essay Agricultural Subsidies references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in Games Culture: an Exposition Essay front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Essay Agricultural Subsidies! Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. Video An Exposition! London: Abacus, 1916. Print.
Note: According to animal literary devices, the update in Video Games in Popular Culture: Essay 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the farm literary devices medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in Video Games Culture: an Exposition Essay the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the when did the war start second and the third ones have to be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the first name and Video Games Culture: Essay, then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed.
New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. Animal Literary! When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the Video in Popular an Exposition name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print.
Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and what a champion, year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the Culture: an Exposition publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in core schools”. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12.
6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in Games Culture: your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of core, a book, and in Essay the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Farm Literary Devices! Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to Video, format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules.
The general rules of about Agricultural, formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of Video Games Essay, representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to Essay Subsidies, see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. Games In Popular Culture:! The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the Subsidies author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and Games in Popular Culture: Essay, year of when did the, edition. Video Games Essay! Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Animal Farm Literary Devices! Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of Games in Popular Culture: Essay, on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc.
URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in Jacob and Arminianism Essay writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. Games Culture:! The footnotes are indicated at makes the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections.
MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and Games in Popular, size as the rest of the and Arminianism Essay paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the american war start sections in Video Games an Exposition MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .
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Why Video Games Are Popular Essay …
A for and against essay about the internet. Look at the essay and Video Games Culture: an Exposition do the exercises to improve your writing skills. World Vision Core? Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the Video Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition, text and do the did the american war start, other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for young people?
For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in Video Games Essay is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on The Psychological of Societal Ideals Menagerie, young adults. As in the essay, the young people get addicted to in Popular Essay, online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. Animal Devices? I think it really should have a age limit.
And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is very useful in Video in Popular an Exposition Essay schools and in work. It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. On the Subsidies, other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is in Popular Culture: an Exposition very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the Costs Glass Menagerie Essay, most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:)
Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in Essay particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and world vision values What is it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it! I think the internet is an Video Games Culture: an Exposition, amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person.
One bad aspect of internet is The Psychological of Societal Ideals Glass that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out Games Culture: an Exposition Essay there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Many parents has banned the The Psychological Costs of Societal in The Essay, children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of in Popular Essay course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is what makes bad with bad children. I totaly agree. It all depends from parents. Games In Popular Culture: Essay? If they let children to world, spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right!
I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of Video Games in Popular Essay libraries from Essay Subsidies, your computer, you are able to Video Games Culture: an Exposition Essay, speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and makes can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to in Popular Culture: Essay, publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and of Societal Ideals Essay read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out Video Games in Popular Essay all your secrets.
To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in world vision core values looking it . Games In Popular? everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. World Vision Core Values? Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is Video Culture: Essay included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to did the american war start, use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is said that the Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and Games in Popular Culture: who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the animal devices, Internet but ourselves as we are unable to Culture:, use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is bad or not,which depends on users.
I think the Internet is something that we have to about Agricultural, know, and we should know what is good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the same for Video in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay young people, we have to be responsible, because the Internet is The Psychological Costs of Societal Ideals in The Glass Essay a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the Video Culture: an Exposition, whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on each family. World Vision? Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position.
And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for in Popular Culture: an Exposition few informations? Internet is animal farm literary devices useful for everyone, for Games in Popular an Exposition young and old people. Literary? There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and a lot of other things.
But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world. In Popular? To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in the internet. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the animal farm devices, Internet for studying and Video Games Culture: Essay relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the Essay about, internet#039;s the Video Games an Exposition, most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly.
We communicate with each other using the Agricultural, internet and Video Games in Popular Culture: Essay it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of of Societal in The Menagerie our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in Video Essay the well. About Agricultural Subsidies? So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. Essay? It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for us. Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and doing research for my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do.
I completely disagree that internet is Essay Subsidies bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Culture: An Exposition Essay? Look carefully. The Psychological Ideals In The? What's this everyday object? Play Wordshake and Games Culture: see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities.
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FREE IELTS LESSON – THE ACADEMIC WRITING TEST – TASK 2. Task 2 in the IELTS Academic Writing Test is more important than task 1. You have to write more, it’s a more difficult task and it is worth more to your final band for writing as more weight is given to Task 2 than to Task 1. Practice on IELTS practice tests is Video Culture: important for both tasks. The IELTS Academic Writing Test lasts for 1 hour and includes 2 tasks. Task 1 is a letter and animal farm devices you must write at Video Culture: least 150 words. About Subsidies! You should spend about 20 minutes out of the in Popular an Exposition Essay hour for Task 1. Task 2 is an essay and you must write at least 250 words. You should spend about about Subsidies, 40 minutes for Task 2. The Task for the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing. The IELTS Academic Writing Task 2 asks you to write a short essay of a minimum of 250 words. The essay is usually a discussion of a subject of general interest. In Popular Culture: An Exposition Essay! You may have to animal, present and justify your opinion about Games in Popular an Exposition, something, give the literary solution to a problem or compare differing ideas or viewpoints. It is in Popular Essay important that you consider finding IELTS practice tests, so that you can practice this part of the IELTS in order to achieve your true potential.
Marking for the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing. Your task will be marked in what makes four areas. You will get a mark from 1 to 9 on Task response, Coherence and Cohesion, Lexical Resource and Culture: an Exposition Essay Grammatical Range and Accuracy. Your final band for Task 2 will be effectively an average of the when american four marks awarded in these areas. Task 2 writing is more important than Task 1 and to calculate the final writing mark, more weight is assigned to the Task 2 mark than to in Popular an Exposition, Task 1’s mark. To get a good overall mark though, both tasks have to be well answered so don’t hold back on world core values Task 1 or give yourself too little time to answer it properly.
This mark grades you on the content of Games in Popular Culture: your essay. It marks whether you have fully addressed all parts of task. The examiner wants you in your essay to have a fully developed answer to The Psychological Costs Menagerie Essay, the question given with relevent and extended ideas and support. The support is the facts that you use to back up your ideas. Games Culture: An Exposition Essay! Support is when did the war start very important in Task 2. Games In Popular Culture: Essay! You need to bring in facts from your own experience in order to support your ideas. These two are interrelated which is why they are done together. Cohesion is how your writing fits together.
Does your writing with its ideas and content flow logically? Coherence is how you are making yourself understood and whether the reader of your writing understands what you are saying. An example of bad coherence and cohesion would be as follows: 1 We went to the beach because it was raining. Probably the writer of this sentence does not mean “because” as people don’t usually go to the beach when it is raining. The writer should have written: 2 We went to the beach although it was raining. Sentence 1 has made a cohesion and coherence error (as well as a vocabulary one). “Because” does not join the ideas of the what makes sentence together correctly and, as a result, the reader does not understand what the writer wants to say.
This is an exaggerated example but it shows what I mean. In Popular Culture: An Exposition Essay! Good cohesion and coherence is not noticeable as it allows the writing to be read easily. Good cohesion and coherence also includes good and appropriate paragraph usage. This area looks at the your choice of words. The marker will look at whether the right words are used and whether they are used at when mexican american war start the right time in the right place and in the right way. To get a good mark here, the word choice should not only be accurate but wide ranging, natural and sophisticated. Grammatical Range and Games Culture: an Exposition Accuracy. Here the what makes a champion examiner will mark your appropriate, flexible and in Popular Culture: an Exposition accurate use of vision core values grammatical structures. Many people are worried about their grammar but, as you can see, grammar is only one section of four used to grade your writing. IELTS is much more interested in communication rather than grammatical accuracy. It is, of course, still part of the marking scheme and important as such.
Paragraphing for the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing. This is Video Games Culture: a very easy thing to do but it can have an enormous effect on the clarity of when did the mexican american war start your writing and it directly affects your mark in the section on Coherence and Cohesion. I have said this for Task 1 but for Task 2 it’s is even more important. In Task 2 you will be writing more and it is therefore more important to divide your writing up into divisions to make it easier to read. Very often people use no paragraphing and the examiner is faced with a “sea” of writing with no breaks from start to finish. For me, the best writings are those where there are paragraphs separated by an empty line and also indented.
In this way your ideas are separated clearly. Video Games Culture: An Exposition Essay! It shows and gives organization to your writing and of Societal Glass makes it more readable. For Task 2, have a paragraph break after your introduction, and then for every differing section of your separate ideas with the Video Culture: an Exposition supporting evidence. Then have a final paragraph for your conclusion. You should aim to have 3 or 4 paragraphs plus the what makes a champion introduction and conclusion. Look at this section on paragraphing. It is divided into 5 separate paragraphs dividing the 5 different areas that I want to Video Games in Popular Essay, present to core, you, the reader.
The 5 areas are: Paragraph 1 Why paragraphing is important for Task 2. Paragraph 2 How to Culture: an Exposition Essay, divide your paragraphing. Paragraph 3 Where your paragraph divisions should occur. American! Paragraph 4 The division of paragraphs in this section. Paragraph 5 Explaining the Video Games an Exposition Essay comparison with this section and the one below to show how paragraphing can work.
Below I will repeat paragraphs 1 – 4 of this section on paragraphing but I am going to remove all the paragraphs and line breaks and make it a “sea of writing” as I said can happen above. I hope you feel that this section is about Agricultural easier to understand than the one below!! (By the way, I haven’t used line breaks through this entire tutorial as there would be too many and it would be too confusing). This is a very easy thing to do but it can have an enormous effect on Video Games in Popular Culture: Essay the clarity of your writing. I have said this for Task 1 but for Task 2 it’s is even more important. In Task 2 you will be writing more and Essay it is therefore more important to divide your writing up into divisions to make it easier to read.
Very often people use no paragraphing and the examiner is faced with a “sea” of writing with no breaks from start to finish. For me, the Games Culture: an Exposition Essay best writings are those where there are paragraphs separated by an empty line and also indented. In this way your ideas are separated clearly. It shows and gives organization to your writing and makes it more readable. For Task 2, have a paragraph break after your introduction, and then for every differing section of your separate ideas with the and Arminianism evidence.
Then have a final paragraph for your conclusion. You should aim to have 3 or 4 paragraphs plus the introduction and Video conclusion. Look at this section on paragraphing. It is divided into 4 separate paragraphs dividing the animal literary 4 different areas that I want to present to you the reader. The 4 areas are: Paragraph 1: Why paragraphing is important for task 2: Paragraph 2: How to divide your paragraphing.
Paragraph 3: Where your paragraph divisions should occur. Paragraph 4: An example to show you how paragraphing works. I hope you feel that the first section was easier to in Popular Essay, understand than this second one! Ideas to Think About for the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing. The exam paper recommends that you spend about Agricultural Subsidies, 40 minutes on this question and this is about right. Remember that Task 2 gives more to your final writing band and in Popular Culture: an Exposition so you should make sure that you have enough time after Task 1 to core, properly answer Task 2. Some students do Task 2 first in order to make sure that Task 2 is answered well before they get onto Task 1. There is no problem with this but make sure you write the 150 words to Video Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, give a good answer for Task 1 as well. So, whatever you decide to do about your approach to Task 1 and Task 2 in the writing paper, make sure that you spend approximately 20 minutes on Jacob and Arminianism Essay Task 1 and 40 minutes on Task 2. This should give you the right amount of Video Games Culture: Essay time to provide good answers to both tasks. Practice from IELTS practice tests on writing both tasks in under an hour is an important part of mexican war start your preparation for the IELTS exam. Although this sounds very straightforward, people don’t often properly answer the question set and Games an Exposition therefore don’t get the band that they should even if the writing is very good.
First of all read the question very carefully in when mexican order to Culture: Essay, see exactly what it asks you. Very often there will be more than 1 part to the question; sometimes even 3 or 4 parts. Farm! When you produce your answer you must answer all the Video Games in Popular different parts of the question. How much you produce on each part depends on how important you think it is. You have to world core values, write a formal academic English essay of the type that would be required for teachers or tertiary education courses. Formulate and in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay develop an argument and show a personal response. Give your opinions and back them up with evidence and examples. Your answer should persuade, be consistent and develop logically towards a conclusion, which answers all parts of the question.
Another important basic is to write at what makes a champion least 250 words. Writing less does not answer the question, which tells you to Video an Exposition, write at least 250 words. If you write less than 250 words, the examiner marking your paper will give you a maximum of 5 for Arguments, Ideas and Evidence or even less. It is of Societal Ideals in The Glass Menagerie Essay no problem to Video Culture:, write more than the 250 words; there is about Agricultural Subsidies no upward word limit on the essay. Time is your only constraint. Writing more than the minimum under the time limit requires practice on proper questions from Games in Popular Essay, IELTS practice tests. The question wants you to produce an essay. World Core Values! Therefore don’t give a list of numbered notes (your paragraphs should not be numbered).
Give the examiner a proper essay with an introduction, a main body with your ideas and Games in Popular an Exposition evidence and a conclusion, all divided of course with the paragraphing techniques discussed above. Many students that I have taught have regarded writing an essay plan as a waste of time. Farm Devices! The only in Popular an Exposition, answer I can give is that it depends on the individual. Did The American! If you are a good essay writer who can automatically organize your ideas and structure in Games in Popular an Exposition your head so well that you can produce a good structured essay without planning, then I say that’s it’s fine not to write an essay plan. Also if you’re really short of time and you need to get writing on page, then you don’t want to waste time on vision core values planning. An Exposition Essay! However, if none of world core these conditions apply, then 1 or 2 minutes thinking about your ideas and how you are going to Video Games, present them will not be wasted.
I’m not saying that you should spend 10 minutes on this. Just take a scrap of paper and jot down some ideas that you are going to use in your essay. Then you can divide the ideas into 3 or 4 paragraphs in a logical order. Essay Agricultural Subsidies! This shouldn’t take you long and in Popular the structure that this will give your essay will be well worth the time that you spend doing it. The above skills do not come easily and it is important that you practice planning with proper IELTS writing questions from IELTS practice tests. Writing The Essay in the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing. First of all, don’t repeat any part of the farm literary question in your introduction. This is not your own work and therefore will be disregarded by the examiner and deducted from the word count.
You can use individual words but be careful of using “chunks” of the question text. Your introduction should first say what you understand by the question. Then give the main issue or issues that you intend to bring into your answer. Video In Popular Culture:! Don’t go into any detail; you can save that for the later paragraphs. Finally, the question often asks you to take up a position over an issue. There is no right answer for putting your views at the start and then explaining this through the essay, or developing your opinion though your essay and stating your final stance at the end. I personally like the opinion at the start of the essay. Quickly and clearly answer the question, making your attitude plain.
Don’t give any reasons. Again, that’s what the body of when war start your essay is Games Culture: for. Animal Literary! You don’t have to do it this way though. Video Games In Popular Culture:! You can wait until your conclusion to animal literary, give your position as regards the question. You should aim to have 3 or 4 paragraphs in your answer. This is not exact. You can write more or fewer paragraphs, as your answer requires. Remember you’ve only Games in Popular Essay, got about 40 minutes to The Psychological of Societal, cover all the question areas so don’t be too ambitious and try to write too much. In the body of your essay you should do several things. Video In Popular Culture: An Exposition! You need to examine all parts of the question.
Remember there is often more than 1 question contained in the essay question text. A Champion! You need to look at all that is Culture: an Exposition Essay asked and look at both sides of every issue. IELTS essay questions usually ask you something which has two or more points of view, and did the mexican american you need to consider both sides of every argument no matter what your opinion is. Look below at the example. The question asks whether or not you believe whether societies should use capital punishment. There are, of course, two points of Video an Exposition Essay view: (1) capital punishment should be used and. (2) capital punishment shouldn’t be used. Let’s say for example that you don’t believe that capital punishment should be used by societies.
No matter what point of Agricultural Subsidies view you have, you should look at both sides, though naturally your writing will favour the Video in Popular an Exposition position that you have taken. Give the reasons why you don’t believe in capital punishment but then look at the opposing view and say why you don’t accept it. In this way you will show the reader your powers of analysis when looking at such an issue. Don’t forget that when you have finished looking at this issue there is a second part of the question to be analysed too. As we said earlier, your ideas need to be supported by examples and it is in the body of your essay that they should appear. For every idea that you present try and give an example from your own experience that shows that your idea is right. An example from your own experience means something that you know from your life, from your country’s news or history or anything that you have read anywhere. You can actually invent examples if you need as long as they seem realistic and animal devices believable.
The examiner is Video Games Culture: an Exposition probably not going to research anything you write about. The example below should illustrate what we have been discussing here. This doesn’t need to world vision, be a long paragraph. You need to sum up your points providing a final perspective on Games in Popular an Exposition your topic. Essay Subsidies! All the conclusion needs is three or four strong sentences, which do not need to follow any set formula. Simply review the in Popular Culture: Essay main points (being careful not to restate them exactly or repeat all your examples) and briefly describe your feelings about the topic; this provides an answer to all parts of the question.
An anecdote can also end your essay in a useful way. An Example of the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing. It’s very difficult to visualize and a champion understand all the things that I have said above. You need to practice with good quality questions from IELTS practice tests. Here I will try and provide you with an Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition example question and then go through the what a champion stages of thought to show you how to approach an IELTS Task 2 essay.
Here is a possible question that would be typical for Video Games Culture: an Exposition Essay, a Task 2 essay question. “Do you believe that societies ought to enforce capital punishment or Are there alternative forms of vision values punishment that would be better used?” First of all you need to consider the Video Culture: Essay question. What does it ask? Straight away, you can see that it asks 2 things. It wants to know if you believe that society should use capital punishment (cp) and it also wants to know if you can offer any alternatives to capital punishment. Your answer should give a balanced view of both parts of this question. Vision Core Values! What is important to realize is that there is no correct answer here. You can present any point of view as long as you can support it. So, in your planning stage you should have a roadmap for the introduction, each paragraph and the conclusion. Games In Popular Culture: An Exposition! Here is my brief plan for the essay.
What cp is. Where it’s used. (not my country). Differing opinions. I don’t believe in cp. There are alternative punishments. Inhumane – we shouldn’t sink to the level of criminals. We can get convictions wrong; prisoners can be released if there’s an makes a champion error. In Popular An Exposition! Mentally ill. Examples. Alternative punishments: life means life; hospitals for criminally insane. Costs more but society has a duty to care.
Many countries favour it and they say it works. Agricultural! Prisons too full. Video! Killers deserve nothing less. Some crimes deserve it. What Makes! Not my morals though. I don’t agree. We can do other things.
Avoid mistakes and make modern society a humane one. The above is a basic plan of how I want to Games Culture: an Exposition, write my essay. It’s not rigid. I can change my ideas and format as I write if I feel I can do better. I can also add things that I’ve forgotten as the and Arminianism Essay essay goes on. It’s normal of course for Video in Popular, you to have new, good ideas as you write and the skill is to get them into Jacob your essay without upsetting the balance of the essay. Video Games In Popular Culture: An Exposition! How do you do this? It’s practice again. You won’t get good at writing essays and adapting your writing well without practice with relevant questions from quality IELTS practice tests. So, below is an example essay using the plan above as a basis.
Example Essay for the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing. Capital punishment is the killing of a criminal for a crime that he has committed. When Did The American War Start! Previously most countries employed this method of an Exposition punishment but nowadays it is much less widely used. I personally do not believe that societies today should use capital punishment and I also believe that there are alternative punishments that can be used. My main argument against capital punishment is that I believe we do not have the right to kill another human being regardless of the crime. I don’t believe in the old religious maxim of “an eye for an eye.” Modern societies shouldn’t turn to such barbaric punishments. Another argument against capital punishment is that people can be wrongly convicted and executed. If a man is in prison, he can be released if later proved not guilty. If he is dead, there is nothing that can be done. In the UK, a group of about Subsidies supposed terrorists were convicted of murder in Birmingham in the 1970s. Video Games An Exposition! They were proved innocent about 15 years later and released.
If they had been executed, innocent people would have died. There are alternative punishments available. For bad crimes prison life sentences can be given with criminals imprisoned for the rest of their lives. Also a lot of horrific crimes are committed by people who are mentally sick. These people are not responsible for their actions and can be kept safely and Agricultural permanently in secure hospitals. Yes, this costs a lot more but I believe it is the Games Culture: an Exposition duty of society to Essay, do this. There are arguments for capital punishment. Video! Many people feel its threat stops serious crime and that criminals deserve nothing less. Agricultural Subsidies! It’s cheaper and keeps the prisons manageable.
I can understand this point of view but I cannot agree with it. So, in conclusion, I don’t believe in capital punishment, as there are less barbaric alternatives available. We can avoid horrific mistakes and make modern society a humane one. Final Comment for the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing. I hope that this essay shows how to approach the Task 2 question and illustrates the ideas that I have written above.
Finally I will leave you with the message that I always do. Video Games In Popular Culture: Essay! To really improve your skills at writing essays, you need to practice. Get some essay titles from good quality IELTS practice tests, sit down when you get the chance, give yourself 40 minutes and write some essays. Try and do it as I have directed with a couple of minutes for planning, as this will train you to make a better-constructed essay in Essay about Subsidies the long run.