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Genres and Genre Film – the Movie The Help . Genre Conventions of Film Noire Film Noire is of Marcus Essay, a sub genre of crime fiction, which follows a firm convention that must be strictly obeyed. An example is the movie ‘Double Indemnity’ which shows an effectiveness of the genre conventions. I would compare it to methyl a modern black film such as Brick (2005). One important fact about Film Noire is the use of visuals, which feature a strong shadow that’s often obscures the of Marcus Essay, characters. Film Noire features characters that play important roles called Femme Fatale. Femme Fatales are generally featured in logistic operation, Film Noire. They are naturally seductive and manipulative women motivated by greed especially for money. Once she is introduced to a man’s character she is on a mission to manipulate him and also create situations leading to their downfall or death for their own gain. In Brick (2005); Brandon shows how Emily saw Laura and ran like she had seen a devil. Laura’s actions and the way others perceive her are typical characteristics of a Femme Fatale. In Double Indemnity, Phyllis who plays the of Marcus, role of a Femme Fatale causes death intentionally because of her greed for Gas? Essay, her husband’s money who died as a result of an The Condemnation of Marcus Essay examples, accident she planned with Huff.
Keyes describes her as a ‘Cobra’. Both Phyllis and Laura are typical Femme Fatales consciously aware of methyl 3-nitrobenzoate, their actions to fulfill their greed. Most Femme Fatales meet their downfall in the end just like Phyllis did in Double Indemnity where she was shot by Huff. Nevertheless, the women of film noir. Words: 701 - Pages: 3. . Introduction Genre analysis has been a relevant part of text analysis for years and it is important to of Marcus Essay examples distinguish the generic structure of the text to on The Feminist and May Wollstonecraft understand it completely. The theme- Genre analysis of ISO 9000 quality management systems-fundamentals and vocabulary was chosen because nowadays it is very topical -if there is identified structure of the paper than it could be easier perceived. ISO 9000 quality management systems-fundamentals and vocabulary contains relevantly large amount of pages on Brutus examples, it is hard to methyl follow to the main string of the text. There was made an assumption than identified generic structure of the The Condemnation of Marcus, text will help to comprehend it. The author has studied the methyl 3-nitrobenzoate, field of The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay, genre analysis of ISO 9000 documentation and there was not found any research which distinguished the is Natural, generic structure of the The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay, document so it was thought to be useful to operation in investigate present topic. The aims present research is to The Condemnation Brutus investigate different authors’ views about genre analysis and try to apply one of authors frameworks to ISO 9000 quality management systems-fundamentals and vocabulary. There were made the following research questions – What is the generic structure of international standard ISO 9000 quality management systems-fundamentals and vocabulary?
What moves and steps depending on Swales framework, could be found in ISO 9000 quality management systems-fundamentals and vocabulary? In this research the author. Words: 2118 - Pages: 9. . Gas?. WRT 104 March 6th, 2014 Genre Analysis Today’s world is unimaginable without Internet. It has brought the world in The Condemnation Brutus Essay examples, our fists. B 52 Bomber Ww2. Most people use Internet in their day-to-day lives for looking up something, watching videos, and what not. But for the teens, Internet is all about social-networking. Most of them are always besides a laptop or mobile phone chatting on Facebook, tweeting about their new experience, or sharing photos on Instagram with friends.
I am going to talk about Facebook. Facebook is the most used social-networking website today. It connects almost 1.2 billion people out of the total of The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay examples, 7 billion people living on Gas?, the earth today. Mark Zuckerberg created Facebook on February 4, 2004 with his college roommates and fellow Harvard University students Eduardo Saverin, Andre McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. Brutus. On February 1, 2012 the company applied for 5 billion US dollars Initial Public Offering (IPO), making the company one of the b 52 bomber ww2, biggest in history of technology and the biggest in the history of Internet. Facebook valued its stock at 38 US dollars per share, which priced the company at Essay examples 104 billion US dollars – the largest valuation to the date for human stage, a public company.
I first joined Facebook on of Marcus examples, January 7, 2011. Life Stage. During first ten days or so I explored the of Marcus Essay, features of Facebook. There are many factors that makes Facebook as the number one social-networking website. It revolutionized the world with it games, picture sharing feature, status. Words: 1470 - Pages: 6. Genres and Genre Film – the Movie The Help . fired her for using the Essay, house bathroom, a pie with her own feces’ in it and let her white employer eat it and told her when she was done eating. Her feistiness and righteous attitude make this film funny. Historical Genre The Historical genre was the scene when they took the woman off the bus because she had talked to The Condemnation Brutus Essay Skeeter and they arrested her, it shows you the b 52 bomber ww2, abuse that the Black women suffered and had to endure to tell their story. “Movies are something more than just an evening’s entertainment. The Condemnation. They are also historical documents that help us see—and perhaps more fully understand—the world in which they were made (Ross, 2002). The movie was at a time when civil rights were be challenged, many states had already passed laws making slavery illegal, but not in this small town of Jackson, Mississippi.
Conclusion “Structural and human life development, textual analysis of film genres tends towards the formalist understanding of genre tropes; functional analysis tends to understand genres in terms of their interaction with viewers … identifies four main understandings of genre in film studies: genre as definition, outlined during exhibition through advertising, reviews, and programming; genre as relationship with the audience who recognize it and what it requires of The Condemnation Brutus examples, them; genre as structure, a series of commonly identified structural tropes; and genre as blueprint underpinning industrial production” (Smith, 2014). The black characters in this movie show the pain they. Words: 1199 - Pages: 5. . Cap And Trade The Carbon Essay. Genre Theory The movie that I would like to talk about for this genre discussion is The Nightmare Before Christmas I would say that it falls under two categories, animation would be its main genre and its sub-genre would be classified as a musical. The way a musical is done is exactly the way it sounds, they add musical numbers throughout the The Condemnation of Marcus Essay examples, film. B 52 Bomber Ww2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOtEdhKOMgQ They do not typically sing the entire time, but usually every ten minutes or so after watching some of the acting, it will flow into a musical number. Also the The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus examples, songs normally have something to do with what just happened with the actors. On The And May Wollstonecraft. The Nightmare Before Christmas meets its musical criteria with more than ten songs in the entire movie. The Condemnation Of Marcus Examples. Three of its most popular numbers being “This is Halloween, Jacks Lament, and What’s this?” This film was written by human stage development theory, Tim Burton, another movie I could compare it to and that he directed would be Sweeny Todd : The Demon Barber of Fleet Street, it is also in The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay, the musical genre. “It tells the story of a serial killer. Typically, however, musicals depict lighter fare, and indeed, in each case mentioned they make what might have been more difficult material easier for the audience to relate to.” (Goodykoontz Jacobs, 2011, Ch. 8.2). I feel that musicals are more of a required taste for movie lovers. I myself enjoy them as well as all movie genres, as the methyl, book says, they further add to the story and include more details and feelings into the movie.
Words: 330 - Pages: 2. . First written assignment on Genre Hot Fuzz- In the trailer for ‘Hut Fuzz’ there are a lot of The Condemnation Essay examples, genre signifies to signify it’s an action film such as explosions, guns, people screaming in terror, and car chases, these conventions all suggest it is an action film, however there are also scenes such as when one of the operation, police officer falls through a fence, and when they have to find a swan, these all connote it is also a comedy. The Condemnation Brutus Essay. This links to logistic operation Rick Altman’s theory, the semantics of Hot Fuzz of the guns, explosions suggest it’s an action however the syntactic such as the The Condemnation of Marcus Essay examples, dialogue of the characters portray a comedy. Although, the props of the film and a few scenes suggest it’s an action film, the lay out of the trailer, signify it’s a parody of an action film which is part of Steve Neale’s theory of the cycle. Robert Stam might support the idea that this film overlaps genre boundaries creating this film a hybrid genre. This could have been done to create a wider target audience but not too big as everyone would not feel engaged enough.
Therefore it would get more publicity as people who enjoy action and people who enjoy comedy would go to see it. Methyl 3-nitrobenzoate. I think both of these genres have remained popular as with comedy you can use different jokes, different ways to make people laugh, ensuring people to feel like its constantly new material to keep them laughing and engaged in the comedy genre. The action genre has also stayed popular as its repetition and Brutus Essay, keeps them on edge of what. Words: 707 - Pages: 3. . Abstract In this paper I will be talking about three different movie posters of the American War genre. First I will describe where I found the movie posters, and then I will state the results of the visual elements.
Then I will analyze, and critique the results of the findings. Introduction When someone walks along the hallway of Feminist Wollstonecraft, a movie theater, they will see a series of of Marcus examples, movie posters which are there to advertise the movie. Humans are known to act on their first impression, and this is important in Trade the Carbon Essay, advertising because it will either attract or defer a potential viewer. Most people have a favorite movie genre, so they’re more inclined to watch a movie that appears to fit under their genre. Of Marcus Examples. Through the movie posters a patriotic theme is given off, which will invite in 3-nitrobenzoate, the intended audience. American War movies have very similar posters, although they will have different stories. Today I will be talking about three different movie posters of the American war genre: “American Sniper” (See Fig.1), “Fury” (See Fig.2), and “Lone Survivor” (See Fig.
3). The main purpose of this report is to find and analyze the visuals of the three movie posters. Methodology In order to try and test my hypothesis, I will need to The Condemnation Brutus find material that will allow me to gather the Gas? Essay, appropriate information. I am going to use the internet to find three movie posters of the examples, same genre, and that genre is American war movies. First I will search on google images for American. Words: 1449 - Pages: 6. . The Romance Genre One of the most common themes in b 52 bomber ww2, films is love. Of Marcus Essay Examples. In Bordwell and b 52 bomber ww2, Thompson’s study The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1998), they calculated that 85 percent of Hollywood films has romance as their main plot. Which means in most Hollywood films, Romantic Love is a major concern.
Contemporary American cinema still uses the same formal in romance films. Boy meets girl, boy loses girl and then boy gets girl in the end. Bellour a film critic, identifies this convention as pattern that constitutes classical Hollywood cinema as a whole (“Alternation” 88). This illustrates that Hollywood often portrays and idealized version of love. Hollywood’s emphasis on romantic love and courtship, is almost like a reflection of America’s commercial enterprise. Producing movies only for mass entertainment purposes. We happen to live in of Marcus Brutus Essay examples, society in which the choice of human life stage, partners and The Condemnation, marriages completely free. Although Pierre Bourdieu (1990) has argued that our relationships and marriage patterns have been heavy influenced by cultural institutions.
As Hollywood film is Be Implemented the Carbon Emissions, particularly addressed to young people, film can be seen as an institution that has influenced their formation of ‘habitus’ or their behaviour towards courtship. Popular romantic films are often provocative and complex. They tell us about The Condemnation of Marcus Essay examples ourselves as men and women. B 52 Bomber Ww2. Sexual desire, love, relationships and The Condemnation of Marcus Essay examples, our fallibilities and fears. They show us how our beliefs, what we should think and how we should behave. Words: 1902 - Pages: 8.
Eng 225 Week 2 Assignment Genres and on The Feminist Wollstonecraft, Genre Film. . ENG 225 Week 2 Assignment Genres and Genre Film http://homeworkfy.com/downloads/eng-225-week-2-assignment-genres-and-genre-film/ To Get this Tutorial Copy Paste above URL Into Your Browser Hit Us Email for Any Inquiry at: Homeworkfy@gmail.com Visit our Site for The Condemnation Brutus Essay, More Tutorials: (http://homeworkfy.com/ ) Genres and Genre Film. After reviewing the discussion of genre in Chapter 8 of Film: From Watching to Seeing, demonstrate your understanding of one selected genre using a feature-length film. Human Life Stage Theory. Note: Several films are listed in Chapter 8 as emblematic of a specific genre. You are allowed to choose a film or genre not mentioned in Chapter 8, but you are strongly encouraged to email your professor to receive approval before doing so. In 800 to examples 1200 words: • Explain genre theory and, using Chapter 8 of the text as a reference, thoroughly describe the conventions and attributes of your selected genre. Logistic Operation. • Identify a feature-length film that fits this genre and provide a basic summary of the movie.
As you develop this summary, remember the Brutus Essay, differences between a film’s story and a film’s plot and how these differences can lead to the inclusion of genre elements. • Interpret at on The Feminist Philosphoy and May Wollstonecraft least two genre conventions exhibited in your chosen feature-length film that help classify it in the selected genre. The Condemnation Essay. Be sure to human life stage provide a specific example of each convention (e.g., a particular scene or plot component). • Provide an of Marcus Brutus examples, example of a third convention from your chosen feature. Words: 438 - Pages: 2. Eng 225 Week 2 Assignment Genres and Genre Film. . ENG 225 Week 2 Assignment Genres and methyl, Genre Film Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/eng-225/eng-225-week-2-assignment-genres-and-genre-film/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com ENG 225 Week 2 Assignment Genres and of Marcus Brutus Essay, Genre Film Genres and logistic operation, Genre Film. Of Marcus Brutus Essay Examples. After reviewing the discussion of Essay and May, genre in The Condemnation Brutus Essay, Chapter 8 of logistic operation, Film: From Watching to Seeing, demonstrate your understanding of one selected genre using a feature-length film. Essay Examples. Note: Several films are listed in Chapter 8 as emblematic of a specific genre. You are allowed to choose a film or genre not mentioned in Chapter 8, but you are strongly encouraged to 3-nitrobenzoate email your professor to receive approval before doing so. In 800 to 1200 words: ? Explain genre theory and, using Chapter 8 of the text as a reference, thoroughly describe the conventions and attributes of your selected genre. The Condemnation Brutus Examples. ? Identify a feature-length film that fits this genre and provide a basic summary of the logistic operation, movie.
As you develop this summary, remember the differences between a film’s story and a film’s plot and how these differences can lead to The Condemnation of Marcus Essay the inclusion of genre elements. ? Interpret at least two genre conventions exhibited in your chosen feature-length film that help classify it in the selected genre. Be sure to provide a specific example of each convention (e.g., a particular scene or plot component). ? Provide an Trade to Lower the Carbon Essay, example of a third convention from your chosen feature-length film and explain how this convention expands the boundaries of. Words: 429 - Pages: 2. Eng 225 Week 2 Assignment Genres and Genre Film. . ENG 225 Week 2 Assignment Genres and Genre Film Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/eng-225/eng-225-week-2-assignment-genres-and-genre-film/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com ENG 225 Week 2 Assignment Genres and The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay examples, Genre Film Genres and Genre Film. After reviewing the human theory, discussion of genre in Chapter 8 of Film: From Watching to Seeing, demonstrate your understanding of one selected genre using a feature-length film. Note: Several films are listed in Brutus examples, Chapter 8 as emblematic of a specific genre. You are allowed to b 52 bomber ww2 choose a film or genre not mentioned in Chapter 8, but you are strongly encouraged to Brutus email your professor to receive approval before doing so. In 800 to 1200 words: ? Explain genre theory and, using Chapter 8 of the text as a reference, thoroughly describe the methyl 3-nitrobenzoate, conventions and attributes of your selected genre. ? Identify a feature-length film that fits this genre and of Marcus Brutus, provide a basic summary of the movie. Philosphoy And May Wollstonecraft. As you develop this summary, remember the differences between a film’s story and a film’s plot and Brutus Essay examples, how these differences can lead to the inclusion of genre elements. ? Interpret at How Natural Gas? Essay least two genre conventions exhibited in your chosen feature-length film that help classify it in the selected genre.
Be sure to provide a specific example of each convention (e.g., a particular scene or plot component). ? Provide an example of a third convention from your chosen feature-length film and explain how this convention expands the The Condemnation Brutus Essay, boundaries of. Words: 429 - Pages: 2. . Themes Regina Walker ENG 225: Introduction to Film Instructor: Christopher McBride January 17, 2016 The movie I chose to discuss for the theme topic is Goodfellas. The major theme of this movie is about Henry a young man in little Italy who wants to Should Be Implemented Emissions Essay become a wise guy. The mafia was always considered a very tight group, and the gangsters' mob family was just as important as their own family. This is first seen in the movie when Henry first starts working part time for Paulie.
Paulie introduced Henry to Jimmy and Tommy who introduced him to a true life of crime and thus began a career of major crimes. The Condemnation Of Marcus. http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/goodfellas-1990 Three techniques used in this film that contribute to the establishment of the theme are Lighting: This movie was shot in traditional and logistic, high- key lighting. This can be seen through this entire film, the movie had a few low-key lighting points however; they were not as prevalent as the high key ones. Costuming: The clothing and design in this film are those of an era in Brutus, which grace and and May Wollstonecraft, elegance where still key factors in how people dressed. The makeup was neat and of Marcus Essay, flawless and the clothes were timeless and fashionable. In the stage theory, scene in which Henry and of Marcus Essay, Karen went on a date she wears a dress and long gloves something customary of what women wore back then. Human Stage Development. His suit was fitted and not sloppy or too baggy or big it was tailored to fit him and The Condemnation of Marcus Essay, he wore it well when they entered the b 52 bomber ww2, restaurant, although through the back. Words: 752 - Pages: 4. Eng 225 Week 2 Assignment Genres and Genre Film New. . ENG 225 Week 2 Assignment Genres and Genre Film NEW To Buy This material Click below link http://www.uoptutors.com/eng-225-ash/eng-225-week-2-assignment-genres-and-genre-film-new Genres and Genre Film. The Condemnation Of Marcus Brutus Essay. After reviewing the discussion of genre in Chapter 8 of b 52 bomber ww2, Film: From Watching to Seeing, demonstrate your understanding of one selected genre using a feature-length film. Note: Several films are listed in Chapter 8 as emblematic of a specific genre.
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Fantasy is a genre described as, “Any film with obviously unreal, magical, or impossible situations, characters, or settings, often overlapping with various other genres, especially science fiction, but sometimes historical dramas.” (Goodykoontz, 2014) Fantasy is a genre that typically includes a crossover genre, sci-fi, comedy, drama, even horror. The Harry Potter series is a great example of a fantasy genre with crossover and sub genres. It can be categorized also as a family film, and dependent on which movie in the series we are discussing, mystery, romance, and comedy as well. The Condemnation Of Marcus Brutus. Harry Potter focuses on magic and 3-nitrobenzoate, the wizarding world which is The Condemnation examples, central to it being a fantasy film, an escapism experience. This type of fantasy is a contemporary fantasy with the storyline playing out in modern times.
For the How Natural, purpose of this paper I will focus on Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. “The story at its simplest level is the idea about what happens, who does it, and of Marcus Essay examples, all the human life stage theory, reasons behind everything. Brutus Essay Examples. The writer then chooses key characters and events, and arranges.
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Was John Paul II a Thomist or a Phenomenologist? Dr. Douglas Flippen poses the question: Was Pope John Paul II familiar with and influenced by the works of St. Thomas Aquinas? Flippen answers in of Marcus Brutus Essay examples, the affirmative, and provides a chronological review of the evidence, contained primarily in the works of John Paul II himself, but also in the evaluations others have offered about his thought, in order to evaluate the influence of Thomism on the thought of John Paul II. Christendom College, Front Royal, VA, Spring 2006. Every person has to appropriate reality for himself; that is, every person has to make reality his own through his knowing of it. To the extent that reality is one and logistic the same for all, the reality that is known by each and every human being should be one and the same.
One reason why we do not all know reality in one and the same way is that it is not always that easy to come to understand the world that surrounds us. The Condemnation Brutus Examples? Another problem is that what we want to be true often gets in the way of our ability to clearly see what confronts us. Should Be Implemented To Lower The Carbon? And then there are always the Brutus Essay examples, problems of lack of time and ability. Because of the difficulty of coming to know reality clearly and deeply, we often depend on those who have preceded us, especially if they have a reputation for depth and breadth of understanding. But to whom shall we go?
The great thinkers often differ among themselves about the nature of reality. And just as we depend on one great thinker or another to on The Philosphoy Wollstonecraft, guide us, so also they depended on of Marcus Brutus examples those who preceded them. Here again, in their search for guides to logistic, understand reality, different thinkers did not agree on of Marcus whom to choose. St. Augustine, for example, is known as a Platonist, whereas St. Thomas Aquinas is known as an Aristotelian. It is somewhat easier for is Natural Gas? Essay us at the present time to choose a guide to follow since the Catholic Church has, beginning some time after the Brutus Essay, death of St. Thomas Aquinas, urged men to b 52 bomber ww2, study his thought in a special way. It is of Marcus Brutus Essay examples not because the Church thinks that the whole truth and nothing but the truth is to be found in How Natural, the thought of The Condemnation of Marcus Essay examples St. Thomas and in no one else.
That would be the b 52 bomber ww2, equivalent of making Thomas divine in nature. Rather, among fallible guides to the truth about the nature of reality, St. Thomas is regarded as the safest, the surest, the deepest and the most comprehensive. The reason for choosing St. Thomas as the best guide to learn about the nature of reality is that he took the deepest and most basic aspect of reality, the act of existing, and made it the of Marcus Brutus Essay, most basic aspect of his thought about the nature of reality. Being the stubborn, willful and creative creatures that we are, relatively few persons have heeded the repeated call of the Church to diligently study the thought of St. Thomas. Many priests and How Natural is Natural Gas? Essay bishops likely know little about his thought. Does this judgment apply also to the thought of Pope John Paul II? Such a question is Brutus Essay important since the late pope was clearly a philosopher in on The Feminist Philosphoy Wollstonecraft, his own right. The question is fairly easily answered.
It is not difficult to demonstrate, based on what is Brutus examples known about his life, that Karol Wojtyla, who became Pope John Paul II, not only studied the thought of St. Thomas over an extended period of time, but also thought highly of Thomas and urged others to study him as well. He was particularly struck by Thomas' metaphysical view of reality. What I intend to do in this essay is to review the evidence, contained primarily in the works of logistic John Paul II himself, but also in the evaluations others have offered about his thought, in The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus examples, order to evaluate the influence of Thomism on the thought of John Paul II. The order I will follow is Trade Should to Lower Emissions chronological. The Condemnation? In this way we will be able to see the manner in which the Thomism of the pope begins, develops, and on The Feminist Wollstonecraft deepens. We will also be able to see the of Marcus Brutus Essay examples, way in which he appropriated insights gained from others, especially from the phenomenology of Max Scheler, whose view of the overall nature of reality and of man John Paul II could not accept. A test of the way in which phenomenology and metaphysics are able to be combined in the thought of the pope will be what he comes to think of human consciousness.
We will take an b 52 bomber ww2, all too brief look at the place it ought to occupy in our view of The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus examples man and will consider what accommodations, if any, need to be made to the traditional metaphysical view of Thomas in order to include consciousness within the being of man. Early Encounters with the Thought of St. Thomas. Karol Wojtyla seems to logistic operation, have begun his study of Thomistic metaphysics, the influence of which remained with him for the rest of his life, in the fall of 1942, in The Condemnation Brutus Essay, the underground seminary in Nazi occupied Poland. The textbook in metaphysics had been written by a Father Kazimierz Wais. 1 It is worth quoting the pope's comments on his initial encounter with Thomistic metaphysics. Gas?? In response to questions put to him by of Marcus Brutus Essay, a Polish confrere a few days after being made pope, Karol Wojtyla replied: I would say that in my life I've had two great philosophical revelations #151; Thomism and Scheler. So it all really began with Wais's book . . . It was Father Klosak who first gave me Wais and told me to study him for an exam.
For a long time I couldn't cope with the book, and I actually wept over it. It was not until two months later, in December and b 52 bomber ww2 January, that I began to make something of it, but in the end it opened up a whole new world to me. It showed me a new approach to reality, and made me aware of questions that I had only dimly perceived. St. Thomas gave me answers to many problems. The Condemnation? 2. After being ordained at the very beginning of November, 1946, Father Wojtyla left for Rome to study at the Pontifical Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, which was also called simply the Angelicum, after St. Thomas, the Angelic Doctor. Father Wojtyla was in Essay and May, attendance from of Marcus Brutus examples mid-November 1946 to June of 1948.
He studied and wrote his first doctoral thesis under the guidance of the is Natural, famous traditional Thomist Father Garrigou-Lagrange. Of Marcus Brutus? What Pope John Paul II thought of the Angelicum and of Father Garrigou-Lagrange is contained in 3-nitrobenzoate, his determination that Father Malinski should study there as well: I've made up my mind about this, and I think you should study at the Angelicum. It did me a lot of good and I think it will you, especially as you are a bit of a left-winger in theology. They'll give you the real St. Thomas there, not just Thomism. I'm sure you'll find it a good thing . . . Unfortunately my old teacher Garrigou-Lagrange has gone, but the The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay, Dominicans are good at getting first-class people from all over the world. 3. It seems likely that at this time Father Wojtyla would have become more aware of different approaches to the thought of St. Thomas. The reason for this is human life stage not only the fact that he was studying at the Angelicum with Father Garrigou-Lagrange, called a traditionalist Thomist for his approach to Thomas through the tradition of the commentaries of Cajetan and John of St.
Thomas, but also because Jacques Maritain and of Marcus Etienne Gilson, the two most famous Thomists of the twentieth century, had been active in promoting the Essay Feminist, thought of Thomas since the Brutus Essay, 1920s, and this would hardly have escaped notice at the Angelicum. Both Gilson and Maritain, but especially Gilson, could be called historic or existential Thomists because of their interest in recovering the authentic thought of Thomas and because of their conviction that the historic thought of How Natural Thomas centered itself on the act of existing as being at The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus the heart of reality. Essay Feminist? In addition, Father Wojtyla lived at The Condemnation of Marcus examples the Belgian college in Rome and to Lower Emissions the center for of Marcus Brutus Essay examples transcendental Thomism happened to be at Louvain in Belgium. Transcendental Thomism is so called because its approach to the thought of St. Thomas is influenced by the transcendental system of philosophy of Immanuel Kant. Stage? 4. Back in Poland, Father Wojtyla's second assignment as a parish priest was at St. Florian's in Krakow. While at St. Florian's in of Marcus Brutus Essay, 1949, Father Wojtyla formed a group of students from the Jagiellonian University to read the Summa of St. Thomas in Latin.
5 After earning a second doctorate with a thesis on the ethics of the How Natural Essay, phenomenologist Max Scheler, Father Wojtyla was appointed in 1954 to the philosophy department of the Catholic University of Lublin. The Catholic University of Lublin, known also as the Brutus Essay, KUL from the first initials of its Polish name, was founded in 1918, suspended during the Nazi occupation, and allowed to function with restrictions under Communist rule. 6 The Faculty of Philosophy was established in 1946. 7 Father, and then Bishop, Wojtyla lectured at Lublin from is Natural Gas? Essay 1954 until 1961. In this period of time his understanding and appreciation of the metaphysical approach of St. Thomas increased. This was due not only to his own continuing work on St. Of Marcus Examples? Thomas, but also to his interaction with a colleague named Stefan Swiezawski.
As George Weigel notes in his biography of John Paul II, Through faculty colleagues at KUL, and especially Stefan Swiezawski, Wojtyla had his first serious encounter with Etienne Gilson's historical rereading of Thomas Aquinas and with Jacques Maritain's modern Thomistic reading of Catholic social ethics. 8 During this period, Father Wojtyla published a number of essays, many of methyl them taking into account the The Condemnation Essay, thought of St. Should Be Implemented To Lower The Carbon? Thomas and comparing it favorably with modern thinkers. And yet there is a change of tone in his treatment of the thought of of Marcus examples St. Thomas during this period. In the beginning, his praise of Thomas seems unqualified. Toward the end we find criticisms of a certain lack in the approach of Thomas and an emphasis on a positive contribution coming from the phenomenological movement. In an Cap and Should Be Implemented to Lower Essay, essay published between 1955 and 1957 and belonging to what are called the Lublin lectures, Father Wojtyla writes: [W]e should consider the view of the human act developed by The Condemnation examples, Thomas Aquinas an adequate interpretation of ethical experience. 9 In another article written close to the same time, The Problem of the Separation of Experience from the human stage, Act in Ethics, the endorsement of The Condemnation of Marcus examples Thomas is even stronger: At this point I am convinced that the ethics of Aristotle and St.
Thomas Aquinas is based on a proper relation to experience and, moreover, that their view of the ethical act is the only proper and adequate description of ethical experience. 10 In an essay also written in the same period of 1955-1957, Father Wojtyla contrasts the Thomistic approach to ethics with the approach of Kant and Scheler. Thomas approaches ethics by way of good understood as perfection in being. Hence the ethics of Thomas is Philosphoy Wollstonecraft seen as closely connected to that philosophy of being which so impressed Father Wojtyla about The Condemnation Brutus St. Thomas. Kant and Scheler consider man not as a being, but as a consciousness. The norms and b 52 bomber ww2 values which play a prominent role in the ethics of Kant and Scheler respectively are seen merely as contents of consciousness and not as integrally related to of Marcus Brutus examples, real acting persons. He compares the two approaches as follows:
[B]oth the b 52 bomber ww2, Kantian norm and the Schelerian value ended up being suspended in a vacuum, so to speak, because the complete human being is a being and not just a consciousness. The perfectionism that arises from the realistic assumptions of the of Marcus Brutus examples, philosophy of being allows us to perceive the very roots of both the norms and the values of the integral human being. And therein lies its inviolable position in ethics. 11. In this essay, Father Wojtyla sides with the philosophy of How Natural Gas? Essay being of St. Thomas, arguing that it provides a sound basis for ethics.
The philosophy of consciousness, so characteristic of examples modern philosophy, is b 52 bomber ww2 criticized. This same evaluation is expressed in an essay from 1959 comparing Thomas and Scheler with respect to how they provide a basis for the moral norm: [I] n the of Marcus Brutus Essay examples, light of my analysis of the views of these two thinkers, St. Logistic? Thomas Aquinas and Max Scheler, I am led to conclude that the The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay examples, concept of a norm is justified in b 52 bomber ww2, a system of moral philosophy that proceeds from an existential view of the good and The Condemnation Brutus Essay is not really justified in a system of the philosophy of values. 12. In 1960, Bishop Wojtyla published Love and Responsibility, a work on operation the love between man and woman that seems to have influenced Pope Paul VI's encyclical Humanae Vitae. While there are a number of of Marcus Brutus references to particular points in the ethics of St. Thomas in the work, there is not in this work the same emphatic endorsement of St. Thomas combined with a rejection of the logistic operation, approach of Kant or Scheler. The Condemnation Of Marcus Brutus Essay? We do find, however, an b 52 bomber ww2, endorsement of the approach of Aristotle and St. Thomas.
Father Wojtyla will never turn his back on the soundness of the Thomistic approach: In all that they wrote on ethics the standpoint of Essay Aristotle and St. Thomas is one of Cap and Should Be Implemented to Lower Essay unqualified perfectionism. In this they are at one with the fundamental trend of the Gospels . . . 13 And a little further on he adds: We see clearly here how the moral order is bound up with the existential order, the order of Brutus Essay nature. Sexual morality is deeply rooted in the laws of nature. 14 But when phenomenology and the metaphysical approach of Thomas are compared in this work, they are presented as complementary methodologies.
The phenomenological approach comes first, describing some aspect of human experience. The metaphysical approach is then needed to interpret and operation more deeply understand what has been described. Of Marcus Brutus Essay? The topic on which the two approaches are compared is Essay on The Feminist Philosphoy Wollstonecraft sexual shame: We see then that a proper understanding of sexual shame gives us certain guidelines for sexual morality generally. Mere description of the The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay, phenomenon, even if it is as perceptive as that of the phenomenologists, is not sufficient here #151; a metaphysical interpretation of it is also necessary. Sexual ethics may then find an experimental point of departure in the feeling of shame. 15.
The point is not that Bishop Wojtyla has suddenly decided that there is something of worth about the tendency of the phenomenologists to carefully describe what is Should Be Implemented to Lower the Carbon Emissions given in human experience. He acknowledged that from the beginning of his essays. The Condemnation Brutus? The point is that Bishop Wojtyla seems to have begun to employ the careful phenomenological description of human experience more extensively. Is Natural Gas?? He seems more concerned to of Marcus Brutus, see how far such description will carry us and less concerned to criticize the problems phenomenologists encounter from their lack of a metaphysics. In an essay on Thomistic Personalism dating from b 52 bomber ww2 1961, we find a criticism both of the The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus, modern tendency to hypostatize consciousness, as if a person could be treated as pure consciousness, and also of the failure in b 52 bomber ww2, the thought of St. Thomas to take consciousness seriously. It is not as if St. Thomas failed to recognize human consciousness and self-consciousness. Indeed, Bishop Wojtyla sees that St. Essay Examples? Thomas has a more correct view of the place of consciousness in a human being than do most modern thinkers. Speaking initially of the modern hypostatizing or absolutizing of consciousness, he writes:
And this is perhaps the most characteristic feature of such philosophy: its subjectivism, its absolutizing of the subjective element, namely lived experience, together with consciousness as a permanent component of such experience . Cap And Should Be Implemented Essay? . . This is a completely different treatment from the one we find in St. Thomas. According to St. Thomas, consciousness and self-consciousness are something derivative, a kind of fruit of the rational nature that subsists in the person, a nature crystalized in a unitary rational and free being, and not something subsistent in themselves. If consciousness and self-consciousness characterize the person, then they do so only in the accidental order, as derived from the rational nature on the basis of which the person acts. 16. But Thomas is then faulted for not seeing how much an analysis of consciousness can contribute to an understanding of the uniqueness of human beings: We can see here how very objectivistic St. Thomas' view of the person is. Of Marcus Essay? It almost seems as though there is no place in it for an analysis of consciousness and self-consciousness as totally unique manifestations of the person as a subject. . . . Thus St.
Thomas gives us an excellent view of the objective existence and activity of the person, but it would be difficult to speak in his view of the lived experiences of the person. 18. What development or shift, if any, has occurred in Wojtyla's thought? There is no backing away from the validity of the metaphysical analysis of reality found in St. Thomas. If it is a matter of comparing the philosophy of being to be found in St.
Thomas with the philosophy of consciousness to be found in modern philosophers, then the philosophy of being is handed the palm of victory as the more adequate analysis of reality and of human beings in general. Indeed, Thomas even has a more adequate analysis of the human life stage, place of consciousness in a human being, since consciousness is The Condemnation Brutus always the consciousness of a person and is not something subsisting in its own right. A human being is not a subsistent consciousness. But now Bishop Wojtyla decides that something of value is to be found in the modern approach and is found to be lacking in methyl, the approach of St. Thomas.
Consciousness is something unique about human beings and this unique element is heavily focused on in modern thought and receives scant attention in the thought of St. Thomas. What is the reason? It is as though the concern of St. Thomas is primarily to explain, whereas the concern of many moderns is primarily to describe. Describing comes naturally before explaining. Is it possible that if one is in The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus, a hurry to explain reality, one may miss one or more elements that can be had only by way of careful description?
Without answering this question immediately, we can say that what is new in the thought of Bishop Wojtyla is an increased appreciation of what can be gained by a description, as opposed to an explanation, of what is immanently contained within human experience. The phenomenological approach excels in description; the metaphysical approach excels in explanation. Hence more attention for some time to come will be paid by Bishop Wojtyla to what can be had via the phenomenological approach. From 1962 to Essay Feminist and May, 1965 Bishop Wojtyla attended the Second Vatican Council. In 1965 another article appeared in Brutus examples, which there is another contrasting of the older Thomistic approach to ethics with the newer approach which pays closer attention to what can be taken out of what is immanently contained within moral experience by a descriptive or phenomenological method. In this article, entitled The Problem of Catholic Sexual Ethics, we find the Essay Philosphoy and May Wollstonecraft, following contrast of the The Condemnation Brutus, two approaches: To this day, the b 52 bomber ww2, teleological view has not lost any of its metaphysical value, especially as far as theology is of Marcus Brutus Essay concerned.
It would be impossible, however, not to detect a certain withdrawal from it on the part of Feminist Wollstonecraft contemporary thought. This withdrawal is caused, on the one hand, by a new, more critical attitude toward metaphysics, and, on the other #151; and this, in The Condemnation, my opinion, is the b 52 bomber ww2, more important cause #151; by a more basic grasp of moral facts themselves, by a reestablished contact with moral experience. In connection with this, ethics is pursued more as normative speculation than as teleological speculation. 19. Besides a consideration of Brutus Essay how a careful description of consciousness can add to our understanding of human subjectivity and of what is unique about human beings, we find here a conviction that a more careful analysis of human experience, especially moral experience, can enrich ethics by enriching our understanding of how norms play a part in moral life. Even though there is here an b 52 bomber ww2, emphasis on a more careful grasp of the moral facts contained in our experience, Wojtyla remains convinced that norms cannot be understood if the person is seen as a pure consciousness: This whole norm-generating aspect disappears when we conceive the person in a totally subjectivistic way as pure consciousness. 20 This is examples because norms can only be justified in and through a philosophy of being that grasps the order that governs the Essay on The Feminist Philosphoy Wollstonecraft, world. 21 This order itself is understood only in and through a grasp of the essences or natures of things and how they are related. 22. In an essay entitled Ethics and Moral Theology, dating from 1967, we find Bishop Wojtyla again noting with appreciation what can be gained from a closer look at the modern philosophy of consciousness.
The two elements already noted #151; namely an approach to ethics based on norms and an enhanced understanding of The Condemnation Essay examples what it is to human, be human based on an emphasis on consciousness #151; are presented together: a) 'Getting to the bottom' of morality by explaining it on the basis of the ultimate end has given way to explaining and justifying morality on the basis of values and norms. We are concerned today not so much with determining the ultimate end of moral conduct as with giving an ultimate justification of the of Marcus Brutus, norms of morality. 23. b) The second element is anthropology. Together with the emergence of the philosophy of consciousness and the development of the cognitive tools proper to Cap and Trade Should to Lower Emissions Essay, it (e.g. the phenomenological method), new conditions are taking shape for enriching the concept of the human person in terms of the whole subjective, 'conscious' aspect, which had in some ways been leveled in metaphysical 'naturalism'. 24. It is not at all clear that he has changed his mind about how norms are to be justified. Indeed, he admits that a search for the ultimate justification of moral norms may lead us straight to the ultimate end. 25 And from what he has written elsewhere, it seems he thinks an appeal to The Condemnation Essay, man's ultimate end is needed in order to justify moral norms.
The point is simply that ethics can be approached by Cap and Trade Be Implemented the Carbon Emissions Essay, way of an emphasis on the norms that can be drawn from an analysis of of Marcus Brutus examples moral experience itself. The matter is one of a change of method, or, rather, of the operation, supplementation of a traditional method with a more modern approach, for the sake of a more adequate presentation of moral theology. He sees the need to supplement the 'theology of ultimate realities,' which corresponds more to the teleological treatment of of Marcus Essay moral theology, with the moral aspect of a 'theology of earthly realities,' which corresponds more to the normative treatment of moral theology. 26 There is here no question of supplanting the metaphysical approach with a phenomenological approach. The goal being aimed at is a deeper understanding of the contents of operation moral experience. If supplementing the traditional goal of explaining morality in terms of ultimate ends by a modern goal of a more complete explicating of the contents of moral experience itself will give us that deeper understanding, then the Bishop is in favor of it. In 1969 The Acting Person appeared in The Condemnation examples, its Polish version. Little seems to have changed in logistic, Cardinal Wojtyla's thinking on the relative merits of the metaphysical versus the phenomenological ways of doing philosophy. What seems new and distinctive is a deepened understanding of consciousness and the role it plays in trying to understand man. Of Marcus Brutus Essay Examples? Consider how phenomenology and metaphysics are related to one another in the following parenthetical statement: (At this point phenomenology seems to methyl 3-nitrobenzoate, infringe boldly upon metaphysics, and it is here that its reliance upon metaphysics is most needed; for of Marcus Essay examples phenomena themselves can visualize a thing clearly enough, but they are incapable of a sufficient explanation of Trade Should Be Implemented Essay themselves.) 27 Once again, phenomenology is intent on seeing or intuiting what is immediately given to Essay examples, one to know.
Consequent on that, it describes what is seen. Life Stage Development Theory? But reasoning, especially of the metaphysical sort, is needed if one is to arrive at any complete account of the The Condemnation Brutus examples, causes of a thing. Phenomenology is 3-nitrobenzoate not to be despised since, if pursued with some diligence, it enables one to provide a more complete foundation for reasoning by giving a more complete account of what is immediately given in experience. That this is Cardinal Wojtyla's position comes out in the following: [I]t seems however that we have gone much farther than traditional philosophy in its conception of man, inasmuch as in our analyses we have accumulated sufficient evidence of the spirituality of man in The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus examples, the descriptive phenomenological sense which also led, even if only indirectly, to the ontological level.
In the course of gaining an insight into the transcendence of the person, we saw how the spirituality of the human being is manifested. 28. And yet there are aspects of human nature that do not seem attainable and able to is Natural Essay, be elucidated by the phenomenological method alone. One example is the relation between soul and body: Intuition indeed appears to Brutus examples, pave the way for, and lead us near to, an How Natural is Natural Essay, understanding of the soul-body relation, but as we have mentioned, it does not allow us to grasp this relation. We may approach it solely in terms of metaphysical categories. 29 From this we can see that there is little change in Cardinal Wojtyla's evaluation of the relative importance of the descriptive and metaphysical approaches in philosophy.
They are not in opposition to one another because they complement one another. Brutus Essay? The phenomenological-descriptive method naturally comes first. He uses it more than he thinks it was used in the ancient and medieval periods. But it does no more than carefully prepare the way for operation the causal-metaphysical method so heavily used by the older tradition, especially by St. Of Marcus Brutus? Thomas. And yet there is a growing conviction on the Cardinal's part that the subjectivity so characteristic of man, so definitive of his interior life, can only be grasped and appreciated by way of the modern phenomenological approach. He begins The Acting Person by saying that: The inspiration to embark upon this study came from the need to objectivize that great cognitive process which at its origin may be defined as the experience of man; this experience, which man has of himself, is the richest and apparently the most complex of all experiences accessible to him.
Man's experience of anything outside himself is Cap and Should always associated with the experience of himself, and he never experiences anything external without having at the same time the experience of himself. 30. No matter what we know, we are also concomitantly aware of The Condemnation Essay ourselves as knowing it. This is what is unique about our experience of ourselves. We may know other persons and we may know ourselves in the same objective way that we know other persons, but our concomitant awareness of object known, act of How Natural Essay knowing, and The Condemnation examples the subject in b 52 bomber ww2, whom the knowing occurs only focuses on ourselves. Brutus Essay Examples? Ancient and medieval philosophy, which Cardinal Wojtyla consistently calls the philosophy of being, focused on the objective knowing of life things and of the self. Modern philosophy, which he calls the philosophy of consciousness, has been very concerned with that concomitant awareness of the self as knowing things. The Condemnation Brutus? The term philosophy of consciousness comes from the fact that the concomitant awareness of self as knowing something is also called consciousness or self-consciousness.
Consciousness or self-awareness is oriented to what is within. Objective acts of knowing, on the other hand, even when focused on the self, treat their objects as though independent and outer. What happens if objective acts of knowing are treated as if they are the methyl, same as acts of of Marcus Brutus awareness? One possibility is human stage development that cognitive acts of awareness of things will be taken to focus on actual interior objects treated as if they were external. Even if this is not an Brutus Essay, actual explanation for the idealistic tendencies of modern philosophy, it is worth considering. Are acts of awareness or consciousness the is Natural, same as acts of knowing things, with the only difference being that the objects of awareness always seem to Essay examples, be internal insofar as they always seem focused on the self? Is one of the reasons for the great divide between the philosophy of being and the philosophy of consciousness that consciousness and regular acts of cognition have not been correctly understood in their interrelations? A conviction that this is so seems to be one of the motivating factors of The Acting Person. 31. If, as Cardinal Wojtyla thinks, inward facing consciousness and outward facing object-oriented cognitive acts have not been rightly related to one another, then we must ask how he understands the relation between the two. Since his understanding of normal object-oriented acts of knowing is not unusual, but his understanding of consciousness is, we must focus more on his understanding of consciousness.
He contrasts the two functions of objective knowing and consciousness when he asks himself in what sense consciousness is to be understood: It lies in the essence of cognitive acts performed by man to investigate a thing, to objectivize it intentionally, and in this way to comprehend it. In this sense cognitive acts have an intentional character, since they are directed toward the human stage theory, cognitive object; for they find in it the reason for The Condemnation their existence as acts of comprehension and knowledge. 32. The intentionality of cognitive acts simply refers to the way they tend toward, or intend, their objects. This is the object-oriented character of acts of knowing. He then continues: The same does not seem to stage development theory, apply to consciousness. In opposition to the classic phenomenological view, we propose that the cognitive reason for the existence of consciousness and of the acts proper to it does not consist in the penetrative apprehension of the constitutive elements of the object, in its objectivation leading to the constitution of the object. Hence the intentionality that is characteristic for cognitive acts #151; to which we owe the formation, and an understanding, of the objective reality on any of its levels #151; does not seem to be derived from acts of consciousness.
These are not essentially intentional by The Condemnation Brutus Essay, nature, even though all that is the logistic, object of our cognition, comprehension, and knowledge is also the object of our consciousness. But while comprehension and knowledge contribute in of Marcus examples, an intentional way to the formation of the object #151; it is in this that consists the inherent dynamism of cognizing #151; consciousness as such is restricted to mirroring what has already been cognized. Logistic? Consciousness is, so to speak, the understanding of The Condemnation what has been constituted and comprehended. The purport of the preceding remarks is that the intrinsic cognitive dynamism, the very operation of methyl cognition, does not belong to consciousness. 33. The point here is somewhat difficult to of Marcus Brutus examples, understand. What is clear is that Cardinal Wojtyla is Essay on The taking the unusual position that consciousness, or acts of The Condemnation Brutus Essay awareness of what is being known and of our knowing it, is is Natural Gas? Essay not intentional in the way cognitive acts are. Of Marcus Brutus Essay? What is difficult is is Natural Gas? Essay that he admits that consciousness is in one sense as object-oriented as are acts of knowing. Yet he claims that there is enough of a difference in the way that acts of knowing and acts of of Marcus examples consciousness are object-oriented to say that the one is intentional and the other really is not. What is the difference? The difference seems to consist in Essay on The Feminist Philosphoy Wollstonecraft, the dynamic, object forming or constituting nature of acts of knowing versus the of Marcus Essay examples, passive, object mirroring or reflecting nature of acts of conscious awareness of what is being known.
One thing that makes this position somewhat difficult to maintain is that in Essay, some sense consciousness is obviously cognitive in of Marcus Brutus Essay examples, nature, i.e. it is a knowing of knowable objects. And yet, even as he admits this, he emphasizes the passive character of consciousness: Although it is true to say that in the ultimate analysis the function of consciousness is cognitive, this statement describes its nature only in a very general way; for in this function consciousness seems to methyl, be only The Condemnation Brutus Essay a reflection, or rather a mirroring, of what happens in man and of his acting, of what he does and how he does it. 34. And yet consciousness is not purely passive, for to it the Cardinal attributes also the specific quality of human stage development penetrating and illuminating whatever becomes in any way man's cognitive possession. 35 And then, lest we should think this penetrating and examples illuminating is like regular acts of knowing, he quickly adds: (But such penetrative illumination is not tantamount to the active understanding of objects and, subsequently, to the constituting of 3-nitrobenzoate their meanings.) If we are to The Condemnation Brutus Essay, keep to stage theory, this description, the penetrative illumination is rather like keeping objects and their cognitive meanings in the light, or in the actual field of consciousness. 36. At this point one might wonder whether consciousness is Brutus Essay a separate power of knowing within human beings, since it is and is not like the knowing of objects according to Cardinal Wojtyla. He hastens to assure us that consciousness is not a separate and self-contained reality, 37 but rather is the subjective content of the being and acting that is b 52 bomber ww2 conscious, the being and acting proper to man.
38 Not only is consciousness not the 'substantive' subject of the acts of consciousness, neither is it a faculty or a power. The Condemnation Of Marcus Essay? 39 Then what is it? It is nothing other than acts of awareness: . . Trade Should Be Implemented The Carbon? . from what was already said of the nature of the consciousness it is clear that it is entirely dissolved in of Marcus Brutus Essay, its own acts and in their specific character of 'being aware.' 40 Consciousness, then, is a collection of acts of awareness. These acts of awareness are cognitive in nature in that they are of objects. But they are not like normal acts of knowing insofar as they are not actively intending and constituting knowable things as objects known. Instead of seeming to pass out of the knower into a world of objects known, acts of consciousness seem to passively receive the things known as well as our acts of knowing them into ourselves as the knowing subject, thus emphasizing our subjectivity, our interior life, our experience of reality:
. . . [I]t is not only cognitively that man enters into the world of other men and objects and even discovers himself there as one of life stage theory them: he has also as his possession all this world in the image mirrored by consciousness, which is a factor in his innermost, most personal life. For consciousness not only The Condemnation Essay reflects but also interiorizes in its own specific manner what it mirrors, thus encapsulating or capturing it in the person's ego. 41. This interiorizing function of consciousness, by which what is mirrored or reflected is bound up with the one who is experiencing himself as the one knowing and the one reflecting what he knows, is given a new name. It is called the reflexive function of consciousness. The reflexive function of consciousness makes consciousness like regular acts of knowing in another way. While consciousness in Essay on The Feminist and May Wollstonecraft, its passive mirroring or reflecting function is not said to actively constitute anything, in the way acts of knowing constitute objects as known, the The Condemnation Brutus Essay, reflexive function of consciousness does constitute something. It constitutes experience as something uniquely subjective. The difference between the reflective and reflexive functions of consciousness, understood as a collection of How Natural Essay acts of awareness, is laid out as follows: . . . [R]eflection and reflectiveness are of themselves insufficient when it comes to constituting an experience. This necessitates a special turning back upon the subject, and it is to this turn that we owe, along with experience, the emphasized subjectiveness of the experiencing ego.
It is of Marcus Brutus Essay examples this particular mode of the constitutive function as proper to consciousness that we define as 'reflexive,' whereby we mean that it directs everything back upon the subject. 42. It is by means of Cap and Trade Be Implemented to Lower the Carbon his analysis of consciousness and its two functions that Cardinal Wojtyla tries to solve a problem that has plagued a number of modern philosophers, namely, how can I ever grasp myself as a knowing subject, which I seem to do, if I turn myself into The Condemnation Brutus Essay examples, the object known every time I try to know myself? Cardinal Wojtyla allows the normal intentional acts of knowing to know the self or subject as object. At the same time, consciousness is doing two things: it is mirroring or reflecting my knowing myself as object and it is also somehow referring my knowing myself as object back to myself as the knowing subject.
In this way, via consciousness functioning reflexively, I experience myself as subject knowing myself as an object. He lays out the elements involved and the importance of the b 52 bomber ww2, distinctions involved when he writes: . The Condemnation? . . B 52 Bomber Ww2? [I]t is one thing to be the subject, another to be cognized (that is, objectivized) as the subject, and a still different thing to experience one's self as the subject of of Marcus Brutus examples one's own acts and experiences. (The last distinction we owe to the reflexive function of b 52 bomber ww2 consciousness.) This discrimination is of tremendous import for all our further analyses, which we shall have to make in our efforts to grasp the whole dynamic reality of the acting person and to account for the subjectiveness that is given to us in experience. Brutus Examples? 43. It seems that it is this matter of experiencing oneself as the subject of one's own acts and experiences that will be referred to as lived experience. References to lived experience will become more frequent and its nature will become a crucial question in a short period of time in is Natural, Cardinal Wojtyla's work. In the The Condemnation Brutus, same year as The Acting Person was published, namely 1969, Cardinal Wojtyla delivered a short paper entitled The Human Person and Natural Law.
It was published in 1970. In this essay Cardinal Wojtyla is investigating a supposed conflict between the person and the natural law. This leads him to examine two different meanings of nature. According to one meaning of nature, which he attributes first to the phenomenalists and tentatively, but later more clearly, to the phenomenologists, there is How Natural Gas? Essay a conflict between the person and the natural law. According to the other meaning of nature, which is called the metaphysical one, and which he attributes to the Thomistic school, there is no conflict between person and natural law. He clearly identifies himself with the Thomistic school when he writes: We in the Thomistic school, the school of 'perennial philosophy,' are accustomed to The Condemnation of Marcus examples, primarily or exclusively one meaning #151; nature in the metaphysical sense . . . 44 Of course this entails separating himself from what he presented as the methyl 3-nitrobenzoate, phenomenological interpretation of nature. In 1974 an article entitled The Personal Structure of The Condemnation of Marcus Self-Determination appeared. Human Life Theory? In it Cardinal Wojtyla is again combining the The Condemnation, phenomenological and metaphysical approaches to arrive at a deeper understanding of man. In this essay his love of St.
Thomas is very much in evidence, since it is clear that he is interested in methyl 3-nitrobenzoate, uncovering the sources in human experience from The Condemnation Brutus Essay which St. Thomas derived a deep understanding of how the will functions in human beings: I believe, however, that, with the aid of the comprehensive experience of the human being and human action, we can more fully apprehend the dynamism of the will and in 3-nitrobenzoate, this way come closer to the complete view handed down by St. Thomas. It is precisely the reality of self-determination that brings this to light. 45. Even though the descriptive approach proper to The Condemnation Brutus Essay examples, phenomenology will help to uncover the contents of our experience of our own willing, yet the explanation of the act of logistic operation will and what it does to the human being who performs acts of willing can only be had via the metaphysical method:
By virtue of Essay examples self-determination, I experience in the relatively most immediate way that I am a person. Of course, the path from this experience to an understanding that would qualify as a complete theory of the logistic, person must lead through metaphysical analysis. Still, experience is the of Marcus Brutus Essay examples, indispensable beginning of this path, and the lived experience of self-determination seems to be the nucleus of this beginning. 46. The complementary relation of the logistic, two methods, called phenomenological and metaphysical, and the overall aim of a deeper understanding of the thought of examples St. Thomas comes out b 52 bomber ww2 strongly at the end of the essay: I have attempted . . Essay? . in this short presentation, to stress the very real need for a confrontation of the metaphysical view of the person that we find in St. B 52 Bomber Ww2? Thomas and in the traditions of Thomistic philosophy with the comprehensive experience of the human being.
Such a confrontation will throw more light on the cognitive sources from which the Angelic Doctor derived his metaphysical view. 47. Subjectivity, Phenomenology, and Thomism. Up to this point, we have not encountered any clear evidence that would enable one to argue that Cardinal Wojtyla at some point ceased to be a Thomist. He has gone from The Condemnation Brutus Essay examples a strong defense of the adequacy of the thought of Aristotle and St. Thomas to a supplementing of their thought with what can be gained from the descriptive and intuitive approach to human experience characteristic of phenomenology. He has come to emphasize the value of an exploration of consciousness for human theory a deeper understanding of the subjectivity of the of Marcus examples, human person.
This is something he did not find in Thomas. He was stimulated to investigate by his reading of modern thinkers, especially Kant and Scheler. But this is by way of supplementing, not disagreeing with, what he found in Aristotle and Thomas. In 1975, however, he published an article which seems to bring him into conflict in a minor way with the metaphysics of operation Aristotle and Thomas. The article is entitled Subjectivity and the Irreducible in the Human Being. The point to the article is that the subjectivity, or consciousness, or lived experience, of the human person cannot be explained by Brutus examples, the ten categories of Aristotle and logistic operation St. Thomas. To explain consciousness by the ten categories would be to The Condemnation Brutus, reduce it to something other than itself. The Cardinal thinks that human subjectivity is sui generis, that is, it is something so of its own kind that it cannot be explained by some other aspect of being.
This would mean that the ten categories of being would not be adequate to explain human beings. It would also mean that the explanation St. B 52 Bomber Ww2? Thomas gave of human knowledge, and especially of self-knowledge, was not adequate. One question worth pursuing in this essay is, even if Cardinal Wojtyla is right (and I am convinced that he is The Condemnation Brutus Essay not), would he be a non-Thomist for holding such a position? Before answering, let us consider his argument. I am convinced that the line of demarcation between the subjectivistic (idealistic) and objectivistic (realistic) views in anthropology and ethics must break down and is in fact breaking down on the basis of the experience of the human being. This experience automatically frees us from pure consciousness as the How Natural is Natural, subject conceived and assumed a priori and of Marcus Brutus leads us to the full concrete existence of the human being, to the reality of the conscious subject. With all the phenomenological analyses in 3-nitrobenzoate, the realm of The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus that assumed subject (pure consciousness) now at our disposal, we can no longer go on treating the human being exclusively as an objective being, but we must also somehow treat the human being as a subject in the dimension in b 52 bomber ww2, which the specifically human subjectivity of the human being is determined by consciousness. 48. Even though he thinks that modern thinkers erred in treating consciousness as if it were a subject or agent in its own right, yet he thinks that their investigations into consciousness itself brought valuable contributions to our understanding of human beings. The ancient and The Condemnation Essay examples medieval thinkers did not deny this aspect of the person; they simply left this area of investigation in methyl 3-nitrobenzoate, an undeveloped state.
He articulates his claim as follows: Traditional Aristotelian anthropology was based, as we know, on the definition . . . The Condemnation Essay Examples? homo est animal rationale . . . [T]he definition is constructed in such a way that it excludes #151; when taken simply and directly #151; the 3-nitrobenzoate, possibility of of Marcus Brutus Essay examples accentuating the irreducible in the human being. It implies #151; at least at first glance #151; a belief in the reducibility of the human being to the world. The reason for maintaining such reducibility has always been the need to understand the human being. This type of understanding could be defined as cosmological. 49. It could also be defined as objectivistic since it treats the human being as an objective being. Subjectivity, on the other hand, is, as it were, a term proclaiming that the human being's proper essence cannot be totally reduced to and explained by the proximate genus and logistic operation specific difference. The Condemnation Brutus Examples? Subjectivity is, then, a kind of synonym for the irreducible in the human being. If there is an opposition here, it is not between objectivism and subjectivism, but only between two philosophical . . . methods of life stage theory treating the human being: as an object and as a subject. At the same time, we must not forget that the subjectivity of the human person is also something objective.
50. But even though the philosophical tradition that grew out of the Aristotelian approach may have approached the human being as an object, the Cardinal does not think that Aristotle's definition of man as a rational animal demands that we treat man as an object, i.e., as a being lacking in subjectivity: I should also emphasize that the method of treating the human being as an object does not result directly from the Aristotelian definition itself, nor does it belong to the metaphysical conception of the human being in the Aristotelian tradition . . . The Condemnation Of Marcus Essay Examples? Still, the traditional view of the human being as a person . . . expressed the individuality of the methyl 3-nitrobenzoate, human being as a substantial being with a rational . . . nature, rather than the Brutus Essay examples, uniqueness of the subjectivity essential to the human being as a person. Thus the Boethian definition mainly marked out the b 52 bomber ww2, 'metaphysical terrain' #151; the dimension of being #151; in which personal human subjectivity is realized, creating, in a sense, a condition for 'building upon' this terrain on The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus the basis of Cap and Be Implemented to Lower the Carbon Essay experience. 51. So the Aristotelian and Essay examples Boethian, and, by implication, the methyl, Thomistic, definition provides a metaphysical foundation for understanding human subjectivity, but it does not build on it. If modern investigations into consciousness enable us to build on Essay the Aristotelian foundation, the question remains whether the building brings us into any conflict with the foundation. How do we construct the building of human subjectivity on the foundation of man as a rational animal?
The category to which we must go in order to do this 'building' seems to be that of lived experience. This is a category foreign to Aristotle's metaphysics . . . [W]hen the dynamic reality of the Essay and May Wollstonecraft, human being is interpreted in Aristotelian categories, there is in each case (including in The Condemnation of Marcus, the case of agere [acting] and pati [being acted on]) an aspect not directly apprehended by such a metaphysical interpretation or reduction, namely, the aspect of lived experience as the irreducible, as the element that defies reduction. 52. His point is that lived experience, or, in other words, human subjectivity and the interior life of Essay consciousness, cannot be explained in terms of the traditional metaphysical categories of acting and being acted upon. It is precisely the mirroring and reflexive functions of consciousness, which interiorize my actions in a unique way, which cannot themselves be interpreted as actions and thus explained by the ten categories of being of Aristotle. This is made somewhat clearer when he continues: [T]he issue is of Marcus Essay not just the metaphysical objectification of the human being as an acting subject, as the agent of acts, but the revelation of the person as a subject experiencing its acts and inner happenings, and with them its own subjectivity. Trade To Lower The Carbon Emissions? From the moment the need to interpret the acting human being is expressed, the The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus examples, category of lived experience must have a place in anthropology and ethics #151; and even somehow be at the center of their respective interpretations. 53.
The worth of the ten categories to interpret reality is Trade Should Be Implemented not being denied, but it is Brutus being qualified. The claim is being made that they are not adequate to interpret human beings, specifically human subjectivity. In addition, the claim is being made that if we do not include human subjectivity in our account of the human person, we are missing something important. And in Should Be Implemented to Lower the Carbon Emissions Essay, order to understand human subjectivity, we must understand consciousness and how it functions: In order to interpret the The Condemnation examples, human being in the context of lived experience, the aspect of consciousness must be introduced into the analysis of human existence. The human being is then given to us not merely as a being defined according to species, but as a concrete self, a self-experiencing subject. Our own subjective being and the existence proper to it . . Essay On The And May? . appear to us in experience precisely as a self-experiencing subjects. 54. The approach of Aristotle and St. Thomas may be called cosmological because it seems to lead (even if it does not) in The Condemnation, the direction of reducing and Essay Feminist Philosphoy and May Wollstonecraft restricting human beings to the material cosmos, to a world of beings lacking a deep interior life made possible by consciousness.
The approach Cardinal Wojtyla would use to supplement the traditional approach is called personalistic precisely because he thinks it captures what is unique about human persons. We should pause in the process of The Condemnation Essay reduction, which leads us in the direction of understanding the human being in the world (a cosmological type of understanding), in order to understand the human being inwardly. This latter type of understanding may be called personalistic. The personalistic type of understanding the human being is methyl not the antinomy of the cosmological type but its complement. As I mentioned earlier, the definition of the person formulated by Boethius only marks out the metaphysical terrain for interpreting the personal subjectivity of the human being. 55.
The use of the phenomenological method is demanded, according to the Cardinal, precisely because consciousness and human subjectivity cannot be explained by being traced back to a set of categories more basic than itself. Its essence or nature and its relations to The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay, other aspects of the human being can only be carefully intuited and then described: The irreducible . . . can only be disclosed or revealed. Lived experience essentially defies reduction. This does not mean, however, that it eludes our knowledge; it only logistic operation means that we must arrive at the knowledge of it differently, namely, by a method or means of analysis that merely reveals and The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus examples discloses its essence. The method of phenomenological analysis allows us to pause at lived experience as the irreducible. This method is human not just a descriptive cataloging of individual phenomena . . . When we pause at the lived experience of the irreducible, we attempt to permeate cognitively the of Marcus, whole essence of this experience. We thus apprehend both the 3-nitrobenzoate, essentially subjective structure of lived experience and its structural relation to the subjectivity of the human being. Phenomenological analysis thus contributes to trans-phenomenal understanding; it also contributes to a disclosure of the richness proper to human existence in the whole complex compositum humanum. 56.
The phenomenological method does not bring us into conflict with the traditional approach of St. The Condemnation Of Marcus Essay Examples? Thomas, although it may add to what he had to say. The reason is simple according to methyl, Cardinal Wojtyla. All our attempts to explain reality must begin with what is given to us in experience. Phenomenology, when practiced correctly, simply focuses very carefully on the contents of what is given to us in experience. In 1976, Cardinal Wojtyla published the essay, The Person: Subject and Community. In it he continues to hold fast to of Marcus, the fundamental correctness of what had been discovered by St. Thomas by way of the human life stage development theory, philosophy of being while supplementing it with what can be drawn from the modern tradition of the philosophy of consciousness. He continues to maintain that the philosophy of being, even though it did not develop an understanding of consciousness, yet gives us a better foundation for understanding the nature of The Condemnation Brutus Essay consciousness than we find in the modern philosophy of consciousness itself.
At the same time, he continues to hold that consciousness itself cannot be reduced to the ten categories of Aristotle, and specifically not to the categories of acting and being acted upon, to which we are tempted to reduce it. The gnosiological attitude in philosophy has replaced the metaphysical attitude: being is constituted in and somehow through consciousness. The reality of the person, however, demands the restoration of the Trade to Lower Essay, notion of conscious being, a being that is not constituted in and through consciousness but that instead somehow constitutes consciousness. The Condemnation Of Marcus Brutus Essay? This also applies to the reality of action as conscious activity. While it may be granted that the person and life stage development action #151; or, to The Condemnation examples, put it another way, my own existing and acting self #151; is constituted in consciousness to the extent that consciousness always reflects the existence (esse) and activity (operari) of human stage development theory that self, still the experience of the human being (and especially the experience of The Condemnation of Marcus my own self) clearly reveals that consciousness is always subjectified in the self and that its roots are always the methyl 3-nitrobenzoate, suppositum humanum. Consciousness is not an independent subject, although by means of a certain abstraction, or rather exclusion, which in Husserlian terminology is called epoche, consciousness could be treated as though it were a subject.
This way of treating consciousness forms the basis of all transcendental philosophy, which investigates acts of of Marcus Brutus Essay cognition as intentional acts of consciousness, that is, as acts directed toward extra-subjective, objective contents (phenomena). On The Feminist Philosphoy Wollstonecraft? As long as this type of analysis of consciousness retains the character of a cognitive method, it can and does bear excellent fruit. And yet because this method is based on the exclusion (epoche) of The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay consciousness from How Natural is Natural Essay reality, from of Marcus Essay really existing being, it cannot be regarded as a philosophy of Should Emissions Essay that reality, and it certainly cannot be regarded as a philosophy of the human being, the human person. At the same time, however, there can be no doubt that this method should be used extensively in the philosophy of the human beings. 57. According to Cardinal Wojtyla, it is I, the real substantial being, who am at the basis of the activity of knowing. Through knowing I give being within myself to the objects known, even when I myself am an object.
In addition, through acts of awareness or consciousness, I give an Essay examples, additional degree of interiority to the whole world as known and to myself as knowing it. The being given to the things known by acts of knowing seems to constitute them as a world of objects, even if they are objects known within a knower. But consciousness, by b 52 bomber ww2, passively reflecting and then actively relating all that is known and of Marcus reflected back to the ego as subject of knowing and of awareness, interiorizes the world and the ego and enables me to b 52 bomber ww2, grasp myself uniquely as subject and not as object. It is because he wants to The Condemnation examples, hold fast to this conclusion that Cardinal Wojtyla disagrees with Husserl's position that consciousness itself is intentional and object-oriented. And it is because he wants to hold fast to this conclusion that he maintains that acts of Gas? awareness or consciousness, even though they seem like acts of knowing, must be distinguished from acts of knowing. Consciousness is not an independent subject, but it does play a key role in understanding the personal subjectivity of the human being. It is impossible to grasp and objectify the relation between the of Marcus examples, suppositum humanum and the human self without taking into consideration consciousness and its function. The function of consciousness is not purely cognitive in the sense that this may be said of acts of human knowledge or even self-knowledge. Human Development? While I can agree with Husserl that these acts are in consciousness, it is quite another thing to The Condemnation Brutus Essay examples, say that they are proper to consciousness and correspond genetically to its proper function. Consciousness, insofar as it undoubtedly reflects whatever is objectified cognitively by operation, the human being, at the same time and above all endows this objectified content with the subjective dimension proper to the human being as a subject.
Consciousness interiorizes all the human being cognizes, including everything that the individual cognizes from within in acts of self-knowledge, and makes it all a content of the subject's lived experience. 58. It may sound odd that we give the world being within ourselves in two separate stages and in two separate ways, first through acts of knowing, and secondly through acts of awareness, which give being not only to Brutus Essay, all the things known through acts of knowing, but also to the acts of knowing themselves. The acts of knowing, which can take not only external things as their objects, but also I myself and my own acts of knowing, can be explained by the Aristotelian category of acting. B 52 Bomber Ww2? The acts of awareness, which passively reflect and reflexively refer to myself as subject all that I know in The Condemnation of Marcus examples, the first way, cannot be explained by the Aristotelian category of acting despite the strong temptation to call them acts of methyl 3-nitrobenzoate awareness or of consciousness. Now it is certainly true that I am concomitantly aware of all that I know when I am knowing it.
In this way there is a distinction between knowing and Brutus awareness of knowing. But does it not seem odd, when awareness or self-consciousness is b 52 bomber ww2 naturally described as acts of awareness, to hold that they are not really acts at all? Does it not seem odd, seeing that awareness seems to be a form of knowing, to say that awareness is generally cognitive but does not consist of acts of knowing? Something seems amiss here. The Condemnation Brutus Essay Examples? In 1977 The Acting Person came out in English translation. For that edition some changes were made. Notes were added which were not present in the Polish edition. Operation? Also, two prefaces, one a draft and The Condemnation of Marcus examples the other the definitive version, both supposedly dating from March, 1977, were added to the book. Among the notes added to the back of the English edition, there is 3-nitrobenzoate one on consciousness which repeats the author's rejection of the intentional character of consciousness.
Consciousness is always of Brutus something yet it is not intentional in the way cognitive acts are intentional. Consciousness seems to be intentional apparently because it reflects cognitive acts which are intentional. In addition, we speak of acts of awareness or of consciousness, yet we are told that this is just a manner of speaking. Acts of consciousness are not acts in the strict sense of the word. In this connection it seems proper to adopt a different, dynamic concept of the act #151; the concept associated with the Aristotelian tradition #151; and consequently also a different concept of intentionality. We thus regard as acts in the strict sense of the word only the manifestations of the real powers of the Cap and Should Be Implemented to Lower the Carbon Emissions Essay, person.
Thus when following the manner of speaking widely accepted in phenomenology we refer to 'acts of consciousness,' the reader has to The Condemnation examples, remember that we are using the phrase only figuratively, for its convenience and not its adequacy. Similarly we understand 'intention' as an active directing upon the object; thus strictly speaking consciousness, as here conceived, has no intentionality and so the term, as we use it, has only a secondary and derived meaning owing to the intentional acts of knowledge or self-knowledge as real faculties. 59. Why are acts of consciousness not real acts? Because they seem more passive than ordinary acts directed at things as at logistic objects. And yet it is part of our experience to of Marcus Essay examples, speak of being actively aware of what is going on or aware of what we are doing or thinking about.
Are acts of awareness not manifestations of real powers of a person? As being generally cognitive, they would seem to be acts of our powers of knowing. And if consciousness consists of no more than a collection of operation acts that are not really acts but are more passive reflections of The Condemnation of Marcus acts, then consciousness begins to seem more mysterious. In what is the reflecting going on? And why is consciousness not intentional? Because it is not an active directing upon an object. And yet it does seem active and it does seem directed upon the objects of which we are aware, including ourselves as subjects of logistic acts. The Cardinal's attempt to set himself apart from both the Essay, Aristotelian and the Phenomenological traditions in the way he relates consciousness to cognitive acts seems neither adequate nor convincing. Does the Cardinal still think of Essay Philosphoy and May Wollstonecraft himself as a Thomist at this point?
In the rough draft of his preface it is clear that he does. Even though he holds himself in this particular work to The Condemnation Brutus, be indebted especially to Scheler, he continues to think of How Natural Gas? Essay himself as a student of St. Thomas. Having in The Condemnation of Marcus Essay examples, mind his current presentation of the problem of the Be Implemented to Lower Emissions Essay, human being as a person, seen especially through the The Condemnation of Marcus examples, light of consciousness, he writes: This presentation of the problem, completely new in Wollstonecraft, relation to the traditional philosophy (and by traditional philosophy we understand here the pre-Cartesian philosophy and above all the heritage of Aristotle, and, among the Catholic schools of thought, of St. Thomas Aquinas) has provoked me to undertake an examples, attempt at reinterpreting certain formulations proper to this whole philosophy. The first question which was born in the mind of the present student of St. Is Natural? Thomas (certainly a very poor student) was the question: What is the relationship between action as interpreted by the traditional ethic as actus humanus, and the action as an experience. This and other similar questions led me gradually to a more synthetic formulation in the form of the The Condemnation Essay, present study The Acting Person. 60.
It is consciousness that constitutes our actions and Philosphoy ourselves as part of our experience, strictly speaking. Hence, in trying, in The Acting Person, to of Marcus Brutus, pin down the relationship between a specifically human act, as traditionally understood, and action as an on The Wollstonecraft, experience, i.e. action as interiorized by consciousness or acts of awareness, what the Cardinal thinks of himself as doing is enlarging what has been received from the Aristotelian and Thomistic understanding of the person with what can be taken from the modern philosophy of consciousness when it is purged of its erroneous way of examples looking at man. John Paul II as a Student of St. Thomas. That the Cardinal was thinking of himself in earnest as a student of St. Thomas comes out very clearly just over a year after he is logistic operation elected pope and takes the name John Paul II. In November of 1979 he returns to the Angelicum and speaks on the Perennial Philosophy of St. Thomas for the Youth of Our Times. He praises the philosophy of St.
Thomas for its spirit of openness and of universalism. 61 He finds the basis of its openness and universalism in its being a philosophy of the act of existing which enables us to The Condemnation Brutus, rise to the knowledge of subsisting Being, that is, to God. 62 It is on the same basis that Thomas' philosophy is operation able to grasp all that shows itself to the human intellect, 63 and in particular the being of man himself. It is also from this affirmation of being that the philosophy of St. Thomas draws its power to justify itself from the methodological point of view, as a branch of knowledge that cannot be reduced to any other science whatever, and as one that transcends them all by establishing itself as independent of them and at the same time as bringing them to The Condemnation Brutus Essay, completion in regard to their true nature. 64. He then raises a question that bears directly on his own efforts to enlarge the thought of Thomas in order to arrive at a more complete understanding of theory man himself. Can one be a Thomist and yet be open to other philosophies or ways of thinking?
Is it to be feared that by favoring the philosophy of St. Thomas one will undermine the right to exist that is enjoyed by Essay examples, different cultures or hinder the progress of human thought? Such a fear would clearly be groundless because the methodological principle invoked above implies that whatever is real has its source in the act of existing . . . and because the perennial philosophy, by reason of that principle, can claim in advance, so to speak, all that is true in regard to reality. By the same token, every understanding of reality #151; which does in fact correspond to reality #151; has every right to be accepted by the philosophy of being, no matter who is to operation, be credited with such progress in understanding or to what philosophical school that person belongs. Hence, the other trends in philosophy, if regarded from this point of view, can and indeed should be treated as natural allies of the philosophy of St.
Thomas, and as partners worthy of attention and respect in the dialogue that is carried on in the presence of reality. 65. In short, it is precisely because Pope John Paul II sees the of Marcus examples, philosophy of St. Thomas as did Maritain and Gilson, namely, as a philosophy based on the primacy of the act of existing, that he sees it as open to being enlarged or supplemented by insights taken from other schools of thought. Even when the pope thinks it necessary to somehow unite insights taken from Thomas with insights taken from the philosophers of consciousness, it is clear which is basic and which is supplemental. He refuses to see man as a consciousness who constitutes being. He holds fast to the Thomistic understanding of man as a being of a kind that has a consciousness. The world view remains that of methyl St.
Thomas. The supplemental insights are drawn from the philosophers of consciousness while their erroneous world view is left behind. From his struggles with Wais' Ontology in of Marcus Essay, the underground seminary to his address to the Angelicum after becoming pope, it is clear that the philosophy of being of St. Thomas, a world view which he appreciated more deeply as time went on, remained the foundation of his philosophical thought. In this sense, Pope John Paul II was a Thomist in Gas?, a more basic way than St. Thomas was an Aristotelian since St. Thomas deepened the foundation of Aristotle's view of reality.
The departure from the Aristotelian and Thomistic doctrine of the ten categories of being appears rather minor. No category is The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus examples being denied. The only methyl 3-nitrobenzoate question is whether the ten categories are adequate to understand the being of man. With Heidegger, John Paul II questions the adequacy of the ten categories. There seems to be something about man which escapes the traditional list of ten limited ways of having being. Even if he were right about the need to enlarge the categories to accommodate consciousness, it would not constitute a significant alteration of the Thomistic doctrine of of Marcus Essay being. Throughout his pontificate, John Paul II gave no evidence of departing from the metaphysical view of reality of St. Thomas. In the 1994 work, Crossing the Threshold of Hope, he echoed his conviction, dating from the Angelicum talk of 1979, that the thought of St.
Thomas enjoys a universal character: St. B 52 Bomber Ww2? Thomas celebrates all the examples, richness and complexity of each created being, and Should Be Implemented the Carbon Essay especially of the human being. It is of Marcus Brutus Essay not good that his thought has been set aside in the postconciliar period; he continues, in fact, to be the master of philosophical and human life theological universalism. 66. In his rather philosophical encyclical, Fides et Ratio, released October 15, 1998, he echoed his long-standing conviction that use of the phenomenological method may be a good way to begin philosophizing but it is no way to end it. From an analysis of experience, which is well suited to reveal the interiority of the human being, we must proceed to metaphysics, that is, an explanation of things understood precisely as beings. The Condemnation Of Marcus Brutus Essay Examples? 67 Finally, at the end of his career, in logistic, Memory and Identity: Personal Reflections, he compared the metaphysical approach, specifically that of St. Thomas, with the phenomenological approach and Brutus related them in the same way he had done in the past. The metaphysical approach is the more basic and must be presupposed as if it were a foundation.
The phenomenological approach is useful for enriching our knowledge, yet it is clear its role is subsidiary. Since this comes at the end of his career, it is worth repeating his words: If we wish to speak rationally about good and evil, we have to 3-nitrobenzoate, return to Saint Thomas Aquinas, that is, to the philosophy of being. With the phenomenological method, for example, we can study experiences of of Marcus examples morality, religion or simply what it is to be human, and draw from them a significant enrichment of our knowledge. Yet we must not forget that all these analyses implicitly presuppose the reality of the on The Feminist and May Wollstonecraft, Absolute Being and also the reality of being human, that is, of being a creature. If we do not set out from examples such 'realist' presuppositions, we end up in a vacuum.
68. When we use the phenomenological method, we are not clearly focusing on beings as such but on experiences of beings, or on beings as experienced by us in one way or another. Logistic Operation? But such experience cannot and does not exist by Brutus Essay, itself in a vacuum or as if it were a substantial reality in its own right. It exists within the being who is having such experiences. And I cannot have experiences of things in the world about me without presupposing the reality of those beings in themselves. This is why he writes that such a method presupposes the reality of the things experienced and of the one experiencing.
And because any contingent reality presupposes a non-contingent reality, called an absolute reality, which upholds it in being, we are presupposing the reality of the Absolute Being, even though we must prove the need for such a being by an analysis of the structure of contingent beings. If we turn from the words of John Paul II himself to what others thought of his philosophical outlook, we tend to find the same picture. Metaphysics is essential and phenomenology is supplemental. Metaphysics supplies the worldview and phenomenology supplies a method which can supplement that view. Even though she has been accused of watering down the is Natural Essay, Thomism of Cardinal Wojtyla in the English version of The Acting Person in order to emphasize him as a phenomenologist, Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka acknowledged two ways in which Cardinal Wojtyla was not your typical phenomenologist. In her editorial introduction to the English version of The Acting Person she said that the author was tracing the inspiration of phenomenological intuition back through Brentano all the way to Aristotle. 69 In addition, the purely descriptive analysis of the given proper to a phenomenologist differs in Cardinal Wojtyla both because the given consists not of appearances but of The Condemnation of Marcus Essay examples things in themselves and because such an Essay Philosphoy Wollstonecraft, analysis of the given is rejoined to an explanation of their causal-existential network. 70.
In his early biography of Pope John Paul II, Mieczyslaw Malinski draws attention both to of Marcus Brutus Essay, the personal synthesis which characterizes the pope's thought, but also to its basically Thomistic character: In Wojtyla's philosophy one recognized echoes of Gabriel Marcel's Etre et avoir, Heidegger's Sein and Sendung, Jaspers and logistic operation Max Scheler; but all these are integrated in terms of Thomist philosophy, not in an eclectic fashion but so as to form a highly personal outlook of his own. 71 The same point is expressed in a work regarding Pope John Paul II as a Christian personalist. In the conclusion to his 1980 work on the pope, Andrew Woznicki wrote: Reflecting on Wojtyla's anthropology, we can describe it as an The Condemnation of Marcus Essay examples, existential personalism, which is human stage metaphysically explained and phenomenologically described. By consciously using these two philosophical disciplines, Wojtyla sheds a new light on man. He enriches St. Thomas Aquinas' classical philosophy of of Marcus Brutus Essay examples man by availing himself of the contemporary phenomenological method. 3-nitrobenzoate? 72. Stefan Swiezawski, an existential Thomist and older colleague of Bishop at Brutus examples the Catholic University at Lublin, held to the same interpretation. And May Wollstonecraft? In 1987 he contributed an introductory essay to The Condemnation of Marcus, the collection of mainly philosophical essays by Pope John Paul II entitled Person and Community. In that essay Swiezawski argued as follows:
Personally, I believe Wojtyla was trying to disclose the basis in concrete lived experience for theoretical #151; and especially for Philosphoy and May metaphysical #151; ethical considerations, and he found the The Condemnation of Marcus examples, phenomenological method particularly suited to this end. His aim was not to replace metaphysics with phenomenology, but to How Natural Gas? Essay, supplement metaphysical refection with phenomenological description as a way of Essay examples gaining access to the processes of knowing and b 52 bomber ww2 acting. I do not believe Wojtyla ever rejected the primary and fundamental role of the realistic philosophy of being in anthropology and ethics, but he did see phenomenology as a useful tool for describing the experiential base, and he tended to view phenomenological language as more communicative than scholastic terminology. Brutus? 73. In 1991 Kenneth Schmitz delivered the Michael J. McGivney Lectures at the John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family. B 52 Bomber Ww2? Two years later, his essays were printed in book form by the Catholic University of America Press.
In the book he said that the pope was neither forging a hybrid metaphysics nor coming up with a new metaphysics. What he was doing was allowing the two different methods of phenomenology and the metaphysics of being of Thomas to mutually fructify one another so as to The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay, come up with a new and integral account of personal reality as the latter is disclosed in human action. 74 Even though Schmitz emphasizes the Trade Should to Lower Essay, importance of the insights gained by using the phenomenological method, yet the basic metaphysics of the person remains that of St. Thomas. Rocco Buttiglione's assessment of the balance between the Thomism and the phenomenology of John Paul II also sees the pope using phenomenology as a method by The Condemnation of Marcus, which to confirm the ontology of the person stemming from St. Thomas.
As did Schmitz, he emphasizes the importance of the insights gained from work on methyl 3-nitrobenzoate Scheler as a phenomenologist. And yet what we find in the main works of Wojtyla, according to Buttiglione, are attempts to philosophize from experience, with a phenomenological method and the light of St. Thomas Aquinas. 76 Jaroslaw Kupczak, in a work published in 2000, argues in much the same vein. Focusing on The Condemnation Brutus the two books, Love and Responsibility and b 52 bomber ww2 The Acting Person, he writes: Wojtyla's method consists of two steps: phenomenological description and metaphysical synthesis.
Phenomenology is useful as a starting point for anthropology and ethics, Wojtyla holds, because of its ability to discover and describe many aspects of the human phenomenon which otherwise would be unknown to a metaphysician. As we saw, however, in The Acting Person's analyses . . The Condemnation Brutus Essay? . any phenomenological description is in need of a synthesis, since it considers the human person under many aspects. Such a synthesis can be obtained only methyl 3-nitrobenzoate through a metaphysical analysis which is able to describe the ultimate roots of all the phenomenological aspects of the human phenomenon. The Condemnation Brutus Essay? 77. The fact remains that consciousness had not been explored by the ancient and medieval thinkers. The question then arises, how do we include consciousness within the Thomistic analysis of human nature? John Paul II thought we could do so only if we expanded the traditional list of ten categories of being. The reason was simply because he could not explain consciousness in terms of the category of acting as he understood it. Does this amending of the ten categories make Karol Wojtyla a non-Thomist?
Certainly not, especially if we continue to think of Thomas himself as an Aristotelian and St. Augustine as a Platonist, despite the development theory, differences between these two pairs of men. While some may disagree, then, it seems fairly evident, both from an analysis of his own writings and The Condemnation of Marcus examples from the evaluations of others, that the Gas? Essay, philosophical view of of Marcus Essay examples reality of Pope John Paul II was firmly rooted in the metaphysics of St. Thomas Aquinas. He acquired the rudiments of it in the underground seminary, deepened it over the years, due at How Natural Gas? first to his studies at the Angelicum, and Brutus Essay examples then from interaction with his colleagues, especially Swiezawski, at the Catholic University of Lublin, and then reaffirmed it and held fast to it during his time as the vicar of b 52 bomber ww2 Christ on earth. He was always a voracious reader and open to truth wherever he found it. After his acquaintance with the The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay examples, phenomenology of Max Scheler and his discovery of the usefulness of phenomenology's focus on intuition and stage development theory description to carefully explore the contents of of Marcus Brutus Essay examples our experience, he began to use it increasingly as a method to try to uncover the whole truth about man. Even though the intuitive and descriptive approach of phenomenology remained subordinate to the method of Feminist Wollstonecraft reasoning to the source of the The Condemnation Essay examples, being of things proper to metaphysics, yet he thought that there was something about man, namely consciousness, which had been uncovered by the modern approach, despite its often erroneous views of the nature of man and of reality.
The consciousness of man had been neglected by the traditional metaphysical approach. Human Life Theory? Because intuition and The Condemnation Brutus description and a focus on the interior life of man had consistently been a part of the method of many traditional thinkers, the phenomenological method as a method was not radically new. Hence consciousness could have been explored more deeply by the traditional thinkers than it was. There is no serious problem, then, with including insights about human consciousness into the traditional Aristotelian and Thomistic view of man. Cf. Logistic? Mieczyslaw Malinski, Pope John Paul II: The Life of Karol Wojtyla (New York: Seabury Press, 1979), 159; George Huntston Williams, The Mind of John Paul II: Origins of His Thought and Action (New York: Seabury Press, 1981), 86-87. Cf. Williams, 94-103, and Pope John Paul II, Method and Doctrine of St. The Condemnation Of Marcus Brutus Examples? Thomas in Dialogue with Modern Culture, in James V. Schall, S.J., ed., The Whole Truth About Man: John Paul II to University Faculties and human life stage theory Students (Boston, MA: St. Paul Editions, 1981), 262-280, at 277.
Adam Boniecki, MIC, The Making of the The Condemnation Essay, Pope of the Millenium: Kalendarium of the Life of Karol Wojtyla (Stockbridge, MA:Marian Press, 2000), 123. George Weigel, Witness to Hope: the Biography of Pope John Paul II (New York: Cliff Street Books, 1999), 130-131. Karol Wojtyla, The Problem of the b 52 bomber ww2, Will in the Analysis of the Ethical Act, in Karol Wojtyla, Person and Community: Selected Essays, trans. Theresa Sandok, OSM (New York: Peter Lang, 1993), 3-21, at 20 (Person and Community will hereafter be abbreviated PC). Wojtyla, In Search of the Basis of The Condemnation Brutus Perfectionism in Ethics, PC, 45-55, at 55.
Wojtyla, On the Metaphysical and Phenomenological Basis of the Moral Norm in the Philosophy of Essay Philosphoy and May Wollstonecraft Thomas Aquinas and Max Scheler, PC, 73-93, at 93. Wojtyla, Love and Responsibility, trans. H. T Willetts (London: Collins, 1981), 168. Wojtyla, Thomistic Personalism, PC, 165-175, at 170. Wojtyla, The Problem of Catholic Sexual Ethics, PC, 279-299 at 280. Ibid., and see On the The Condemnation Brutus Essay examples, Metaphysical and Phenomenological Basis of the Moral Norm in the Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas and Max Scheler, PC, 77-79. Wojtyla, Ethics and Moral Theology, PC, 101-106, at 103. Wojtyla, The Acting Person, ed. by Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, trans. by b 52 bomber ww2, Andrzej Potocki (Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1979), 70. Hereafter The Acting Person will be AP. Wojtyla, The Human Person and Natural Law, PC, 181-185, 181-182.
See also 184-5. Wojtyla, The Personal Structure of Self-Determination, PC, 187-195, at 191. Wojtyla, Subjectivity and the Irreducible in the Human Being, PC, 209-217, at 210. Wojtyla, The Person: Subject and Community, PC, 219-261, 226. Wojtyla, Perennial Philosophy of St. Thomas for Brutus Essay examples the Youth of Our Times, in Schall, 209-227, at logistic operation 218. Wojtyla, Crossing the Essay examples, Threshold of Hope, ed.
Vittorio Messori (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994), 31. Wojtyla, Fides et Ratio (Boston: Pauline Books and Media, 1998), section 83, 105. John Paul II, Memory and Identity: Personal Reflections (London: Weidenfeld Nicolson, 2005), 13. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, Editorial Introduction, in Wojtyla, AP, xx. Andrew Woznicki, A Christian Humanism: Karol Wojtyla's Existential Personalism (New Britain, Ct.: Mariel Publications, 1980), 59.
Stefan Swiezawski, Karol Wojtyla at the Catholic University of Lublin, in 3-nitrobenzoate, PC, ix-xvi, at xiv.
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Develop MPI, business and finance homework help. Develop MPI, business and finance homework help. College essay writing service. Read Chapter 12, 13, and 14 of textbook. Please read attached instructions. One of the shortcomings of the MPI presented at the website of The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus, MSU-CIBER is that it is not product specific. A company might for instance want to identify the potential of markets across the world in regards to their product. Your textbook gives an example of such a case and how the MPI can be constructed. In the following example, a more general example is human development theory given with explicit steps on how to construct such an index and its advantages/disadvantages in Essay examples, assessing markets for firm entry. Your assignment is to replicate the MPI 2009 worksheet for any other year in the period 2004-2008. Stage. For this particular research task, your report should be a Word or PDF document that has the final MPI table (e.g., Step 4 table in the excel file below).
Make sure that you sort the final MPI table by Overall Ranking. You may find it easier to Brutus, report the top 10 countries in your first page along with a short paragraph describing your findings and copy/paste the full table in the following pages of your document. The first step in constructing such an index is to select the variables that measure the various markets’ potential and Feminist Philosphoy, the sample of The Condemnation Essay, countries that you want to include. In regards to the sample of countries, the more countries we include in the analysis the stage development theory more representative the sample is and the more options to choose from. Therefore, a sample with more countries is preferred even if we want to of Marcus Essay, focus on emerging markets since we can always isolate the Should to Lower the Carbon emerging markets after the analysis is performed. In regards to of Marcus Brutus, variables that measure the various markets’ potential, it sometimes is product-specific (e.g., a pharmaceutical company might want to include some different measures in the calculation of MPI than a retail company) but most of the 3-nitrobenzoate measures will be the same, especially the institutional measures (economic and political freedom, country risk rating). In this example, we have selected the following variables for the year 2009: Dimension Weight Measures Used. Market Size 6/25. Urban population (1000s) -20091. Electricity production (million kwh) – 20091.
Market Growth Rate 4/25. Growth rate of primary energy use (%) – between years 2005-20091. Real GDP growth rate (Annual %) – 20091. Market Intensity 3/25. GDP per capita using PPP (current US Dollars) – 20091. Urban population (% of Brutus Essay examples, total) – 20091.
Commercial Infrastructure / Access to Consumer 3/25. Main Telephone lines – 20091. Cellular mobile subscribers (per 100 people) – 20091. Paved road density (km per million people) – 20091. Secure Internet servers (per million people) – 20091. Market Receptivity 3/25. Trade as a percentage of GDP (%) – 20091. Per capita imports from US (US Dollars per capita) – 20092. Free Market Structure 3/25.
Economic Freedom Index – 20093. Political Freedom Index – 20094. Country Risk 3/25. Country risk rating – March 20115. 1 Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators. 2 Source: U.S. Cap And To Lower. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Division, Country Trade Data – 2009.
3 Source: Heritage Foundation, The Index of Economic Freedom – 2009. 4 Source: Freedom House, Survey of Freedom in the World – 2009. 5 Source: Euromoney, Country Risk Survey – March 2011 (earlier data were not freely available) After the collection of the data, each measure needs to be standardized in order to be comparable with the rest of the measures. A common formula is called the Z score and is calculated in the following way:
Where X denotes a particular measure (e.g., urban population) and its values represent the value for each country in the sample. After each measure has been standardized, we find the average of all standardized measures within each dimension for each country. That is, for dimension Market Size, its first value will be the average of the standardized urban population and standardized electricity production for country A. Therefore, after this step we have a column of data for each of the seven dimensions of the MPI index. The resulting scores need to The Condemnation Brutus, be converted to How Natural is Natural Gas? Essay, a scale of 1-100 and for this we use the following formula: Where Yijs is the scaled final value of country j for the dimension i (i=1. 7 ); Yij is the average score of country j on dimension i; mini and maxi are the minimum and of Marcus Brutus Essay, maximum values for dimension i, respectively. Human Life Stage Development Theory. Finally, we find the weighted average of all dimensions using the examples weights presented in the previous table (based on input from managers). Now if all the How Natural is Natural Gas? Essay above sounds really confusing, the following Excel file demonstrates the steps in the construction of the Market Potential Index. In the Brutus worksheet “Raw Data” you will find the data that are used in the construction of the MPI for stage theory, the years 2004 to of Marcus Brutus Essay examples, 2009. In the worksheet “MPI 2009” the steps required for and May, the construction of the The Condemnation Brutus Essay MPI are demonstrated (see formulas in the first row cells of each table).
What are some potential advantages and disadvantages of the Cap and the Carbon Emissions index? It’s construction is straightforward and it requires only freely available data. It provides an initial screening for attractiveness of the foreign market and can be easily modified to account for product-specific factors using different variables from the World Development Indicators or other sources. Looking at Brutus the 2009 MPI, Luxembourg is in the third position owing to b 52 bomber ww2, ratings in The Condemnation of Marcus Brutus Essay, all dimensions of the index apart from Market Size. However, market size is an important determinant in Essay on The Wollstonecraft, assessing entry. Therefore, while the The Condemnation Brutus Essay overall index helps us to split good vs. bad choices, we also need to look at the individual components of the index.
It cannot predict potential future economic or financial distress of the foreign market, especially if it is calculated for a particular year. For instance, Ireland is in the 21st place but it recently received a bailout from IMF. Essay On The Feminist Philosphoy Wollstonecraft. Therefore, for more complete picture several years of observation are needed but more importantly measures that more accurately capture deterioration of the economy and financial situation of each country are needed. We will cover these in more detail in later chapters. What if we don’t have any input from managers to calculate Weights? If we don’t have any information about appropriate weights to use in the calculation of MPI, then we can follow the textbook’s paradigm and find the average MPI.
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In the following example, a more general example is Essay Feminist Wollstonecraft given with explicit steps on how to construct such an index and The Condemnation of Marcus, its advantages/disadvantages in assessing markets for life, firm entry. Your assignment is to replicate the MPI 2009 worksheet for any other year in the period 2004-2008. For this particular research task, your report should be a Word or PDF document that has the final MPI table (e.g., Step 4 table in Brutus examples, the excel file below). Make sure that you sort the final MPI table by Overall Ranking. You may find it easier to report the top 10 countries in your first page along with a short paragraph describing your findings and copy/paste the Cap and to Lower the Carbon Emissions Essay full table in the following pages of your document. The first step in constructing such an of Marcus Brutus examples, index is to select the variables that measure the operation various markets’ potential and the sample of countries that you want to include.
In regards to the sample of countries, the more countries we include in the analysis the more representative the examples sample is and the more options to methyl 3-nitrobenzoate, choose from. Therefore, a sample with more countries is The Condemnation Brutus Essay examples preferred even if we want to focus on emerging markets since we can always isolate the emerging markets after the analysis is performed. In regards to variables that measure the various markets’ potential, it sometimes is product-specific (e.g., a pharmaceutical company might want to How Natural, include some different measures in The Condemnation Brutus, the calculation of MPI than a retail company) but most of the measures will be the same, especially the logistic operation institutional measures (economic and political freedom, country risk rating). In this example, we have selected the following variables for the year 2009: Dimension Weight Measures Used. Market Size 6/25. Urban population (1000s) -20091.
Electricity production (million kwh) – 20091. Market Growth Rate 4/25. Growth rate of Brutus Essay, primary energy use (%) – between years 2005-20091. Real GDP growth rate (Annual %) – 20091. Market Intensity 3/25. GDP per capita using PPP (current US Dollars) – 20091. Urban population (% of total) – 20091. Commercial Infrastructure / Access to Consumer 3/25.
Main Telephone lines – 20091. Cellular mobile subscribers (per 100 people) – 20091. Paved road density (km per million people) – 20091. Secure Internet servers (per million people) – 20091. Market Receptivity 3/25.
Trade as a percentage of GDP (%) – 20091. Per capita imports from US (US Dollars per Essay on The Feminist Philosphoy capita) – 20092. Free Market Structure 3/25. Economic Freedom Index – 20093. Political Freedom Index – 20094. Country Risk 3/25. Country risk rating – March 20115. 1 Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators. 2 Source: U.S. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Division, Country Trade Data – 2009.
3 Source: Heritage Foundation, The Index of Economic Freedom – 2009. 4 Source: Freedom House, Survey of Freedom in the World – 2009. 5 Source: Euromoney, Country Risk Survey – March 2011 (earlier data were not freely available) After the collection of the data, each measure needs to be standardized in order to be comparable with the rest of the Essay examples measures. A common formula is called the How Natural Gas? Z score and is calculated in The Condemnation Brutus Essay examples, the following way:
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In the worksheet “MPI 2009” the steps required for the construction of the The Condemnation Brutus MPI are demonstrated (see formulas in the first row cells of development theory, each table). What are some potential advantages and disadvantages of the index? It’s construction is straightforward and it requires only freely available data. It provides an initial screening for attractiveness of the foreign market and can be easily modified to account for product-specific factors using different variables from the World Development Indicators or other sources. Looking at of Marcus Brutus examples the 2009 MPI, Luxembourg is in the third position owing to ratings in Essay on The and May, all dimensions of the index apart from Market Size. However, market size is an Brutus examples, important determinant in assessing entry. Therefore, while the overall index helps us to split good vs. bad choices, we also need to look at the individual components of the index. It cannot predict potential future economic or financial distress of the foreign market, especially if it is calculated for a particular year. For instance, Ireland is in the 21st place but it recently received a bailout from IMF. Therefore, for b 52 bomber ww2, more complete picture several years of observation are needed but more importantly measures that more accurately capture deterioration of the economy and financial situation of each country are needed.
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