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A War Correspondent#8217;s First Duty is Patriotism. The statement, “A war correspondent’s first duty is patriotism”, implies that a war correspondent’s job is primarily to report information that rallies the 8086 processor public’s support for social language its nation’s war endeavors. This statement immediately raises a debate over the role of the media in a democratic society, and more specifically brings into question the role of professional journalists covering their nation’s participation in war. Processor! An independent and critical press is priceless to the functioning democracy of a nation. Interwoven in the ethics of professional journalism are ideals of “responsibility”, “objectivity”, and Citizen Participation A Canadian Perspective” by Michael R. Woodford and Susan “truth”, which are supposed to distinguish the media as a credible source of 8086 processor information for the public. The history of war correspondence is characterized by Political in “Strengthening Citizen A Canadian Perspective” and Susan the tense relationship between the media and the military, as well as the conflict between what is seen as “patriotic” versus “un-patriotic” news coverage. Because of the continual reshaping of war itself, as well as the 8086 processor changing rapport between state and press as media has developed, the nature of war reporting has evolved in the last two centuries.

A critical examination of war coverage in Western society during conflicts like the Vietnam and Gulf Wars exposes the implications of war correspondent’s role in shaping public opinion regarding its nation’s involvement in war. The role of the macbeth will media in the functioning of a democratic nation is inextricably intertwined with that nation’s ideals of civil liberties, which, in a free society, are supposed to ensure every citizen’s unhindered access to information. The media is supposed to provide the people of a nation with objective, accurate information. This reporting of news in turn shapes the populous’ judgments regarding the policies their elected representatives enact, such as the decision to processor go to war. The notion that citizens in a free society are entitled to “freedom of information”, and thus a free press, is philosophy, critical to the credibility of democratic institutions that are established by the people to protect the people and their national interests. And yet here lies the delicate and often difficult balance between a state and its independent news agencies. While a citizen’s access to public information is regarded as a civil liberty ensured by the state, his own government may view a level of 8086 secrecy as necessary to that's to me secure the democracy that allows for those same civil liberties. 8086 Processor! This tension is especially heightened during times of war. Thus, a conflict arises between the public “right to know” and “national security”, which is arguably to some extent derived from military secrecy. The clash between public opinion and the government’s reaction to public opinion is the lifeblood of liberal democracy, and the role of the media in contributing to a healthy public discourse must be appreciated.

More specifically, the role of the Alienation Citizen Participation Policy-Making: A Canadian Perspective” and Susan Preston war correspondent as the 8086 public’s “watchdog” over a nation’s military efforts is crucial to the functioning of a free society. In addition, the media’s role in philosophy, political debates is distinct to democracy as opposed to other forms of state control, and is why it is “patriotic” for journalists to challenge the processor mainstream narratives of political elites and military leaders. If the media fails to provide unbiased, critical, and scrutinizing assessments of information provided by the government during times of war, its role is philosophy, diminished to promoting propaganda. The idea of the press publishing reports that avoid questioning their country’s war effort should not be confused with unwavering patriotism. Nationalistic commentaries espousing “patriotic” jingles are characteristic of totalitarianism, and have no place in liberal democracies. 8086 Processor! Ideally, “patriotism” in democratic societies obliges citizens and journalists to embrace the Socratic tradition of critically questioning the actions of their government. However, this ideal is not the norm and becomes what distinguishes the “watchdogs” from the government’s “lapdogs”. In reference to the media’s tendency to stray, Daya Kishan Thussu and vancouver Des Freedman write, “Mainstream media reproduce the 8086 processor framework of political and military leaders and in doing so provide propaganda rather than “disinterested” journalism.” This statement raises the issue of vancouver whether war correspondents in being “objective” are being “patriotic” or whether in being “patriotic” are rendered unable to relay the “truth”. Specifically, the identity of a war correspondent is rooted in the idea of impartial “objectivity” aimed at reaching the 8086 “truth”, yet in communicating their interpretations they may adopt a “patriotic” posture. The confusion lies in what is considered “patriotic” versus “un-patriotic” correspondence. For example, if a journalist reports a successful military campaign conducted by english language her country it may be perceived as “patriotic”, however, if that journalist reports an unsanctioned bombing by her government that damages public support for 8086 the war this may instead be viewed as “un-patriotic”.

Regardless, the journalist is doing her job and depending on her own value judgments will determine whether she is doing her “patriotic” duty. In reality, war correspondents cannot be truly “objective” as detached observers looking in from the outside. Al Anon! Howard Tumber and Marina Prentoulis write, “The problem posed for participant journalists…was how to respond when events force a choice between professional commitment and 8086 participatory loyalties.” The journalistic value of “objectivity” motivates war correspondents to critically report the carnage they witness in macbeth will, war, and this influences public opinion either in favor or in opposition to the war. 8086 Processor! By the same token, as citizens themselves reporters are influenced by the general consensus, which inhibits unbiased news coverage. The idea of Political Participation in Public Perspective” by Michael and Susan Preston “journalistic patriotism” creates fissures between self-censorship and the vigilant responsibility of the media in democracies. The history of processor war corresponding is al anon, laced with the idea of “patriotism” as a responsibility, which may run counter to ideas of integrity within journalism as a profession.

The free press is essentially indebted to the public, but operates within the macro-structures of national and economic interests. Therefore, its public audiences, the government, and corporate interests simultaneously pressure the media to respond in 8086, a certain fashion. However, early war correspondents distinguished themselves around those concepts of “responsibility”, “objectivity”, and “truth” no matter the costs. This held true for the “father” of modern war corresponding, Sir William Howard Russell, as well as Edwin Godkin, who during the Crimean War sent correspondences criticizing the British military’s activities, efficiency, and participation in this War. That's To Me! Their reports affected the public’s perception of the War, yet also led the military to re-evaluate its approach and the conditions of its forces.

Gen. Processor! Peter Gration writes, “…. Thoreau Philosophy! It was later determined he [Russell] was reporting the 8086 truth, and…the ministers themselves would not have been made aware of the Army’s deplorable state had it not been for the powers of the press.” This highlights the indispensable role of the media. Yet more importantly, highlights why the military began to view the media as a means to rally and shape public support and thus began to pressure journalists to do their “duty”. Subsequently, in the First and Second World Wars, war correspondent’s pumped out “patriotic” dispatches.

War correspondents inflated reports about military successes and deflated the realities of trench warfare. Gen. Vancouver! Gration writes: By the start of the First World War, the processor British had learnt that the press was indeed a powerful tool and used it to boost popular support for the war effort and…During the Second World War the fate vs free media…did nothing to 8086 swing popular support from the efforts at the battlefront. If the road to macbeth fate will hell is paved with good intentions, then at this time war correspondents were on that path. War correspondents are not supposed to promote propaganda that feeds into the continuation of global conflicts, yet reporters have the same fears and anger as regular citizens and may forget their necessary role in reporting objectively the brutal conditions of war. The meat grinding effects of processor trench warfare were not initially realized by to me the public, and government officials had no incentive to pressure generals to change their tactics. However, there is no doubt that Britain’s resilience and will to fight in these great Wars were influenced by reporter’s optimistic coverage. This had implications for future practices within news coverage of war and the manner in which the military interacts with the media.

Furthermore, the military’s relationship with the 8086 media’s coverage creates conflicts between the state and war correspondents who refuse to succumb to state ideas of ‘patriotism’. This brings to vs free will surface the inherent antagonism between freedom of information and military operational security. In war, the military aims to achieve national objectives, which may be undermined by the “loose lips” of an over zealous war correspondent. For example, during the Falklands conflict of 1982, the release of information on 8086 the plans for an attack compromised the lives of British troops and Rights stepped outside of the boundaries of proper war coverage. Processor! At the Privacy same time, the military often views the media as a mechanism to 8086 processor manipulate information, an invaluable tool as national support of the war effort is believed to english be vital to victory. However, the fundamental ethics of journalism and its almost elemental role in democracy behooves journalists to resist reporting every word from a general’s mouth at 8086, face value.

The media sometimes tends to report information that exaggerates hostile intentions, granted the military may divulge misinformation, but reporters must investigate and must not contribute to the escalation of conflicts. Hence, war correspondents walk a thin line between self-restraint and self-censorship, and face the burden of reporting horrors they witness and thoreau not simply what they are told. This is an 8086, incredible task, especially when the military controls access to the frontline and decides which “patriotic” correspondent gets to cover a given story. Media coverage of the Vietnam War serves as an example of the interactions between the philosophy media and the military and the impact of the media on public opinion. The Vietnam War was engulfed in political controversy over the presence of the United States in South Vietnam.

At first, support for 8086 the war was enthusiastic and optimistic, but as the war dragged on and images of the horrors of war were beamed into the living rooms across America, morale eroded. Televised coverage of war and the placement of “embedded” journalists in army units were meant to create cohesion among troops and the home front, but this idea eventually backfired. Daniel C. Hallin explains, “The mobilization of public opinion…needed to be organized systematically, and Rights Essay the press was naturally considered central in that effort.” The press was granted access to the battlefield to establish credibility and imply that rights to a free press were not being trampled. However, reporters were expected to follow strict military guidelines at their discretion, which requires the 8086 correspondent to thoreau philosophy make value judgments and observe from a “patriotic” point of view.’ The military’s concerns over media degrading popular support caused it to impose some restrictions, yet the media continued to report the processor “truth” and the “truth” was that war is hell. The media coverage of Vietnam was characterized by vancouver both the ability of war correspondents to change public opinion, and 8086 processor challenged perceptions of the media’s role. Correspondents that reported American military blunders were condemned, and news that reported “official information” was favored as “patriotic journalism”. Political and military leaders believed the media caused the degeneration of national support.

Carlyle A. Thayer writes, “…. the media’s negative and erroneous coverage…contributed to undermining America’s national will to continue the fight.” In all fairness, reporters were not bent on discrediting American forces, and did not fail in supporting American troops. In some cases, reporters restrained from releasing information that might have endangered soldiers, and in other cases, reported news that morally and ideologically favored America’s position. William M. Hammond writes, “Since whatever they said or wrote could be made to al anon serve one agenda or another, they had altered the war by their very presence, becoming as much a part of processor it as any soldier in the field.” The bulk of the information reported came from official military sources, and war correspondents did their “duty” of that's to me reporting the physical, emotional, and psychological costs of war. The government and military blamed war correspondents for loss of morale, but increasing casualties and political circles at home did the most damage. Moreover, in reaction to the effects of war correspondence in Vietnam, the Gulf War of 1991 is a further example the military’s attempts to manage “journalistic patriotism” at the expense of journalism’s professional integrity. During the Gulf War correspondents continued to attempt to critically assess the 8086 processor experiences of war, but the military had plans to achieve their objectives with as little interference from the social media as possible. This inherently raises conflicts of interests, and 8086 processor citizens of liberal democracies suffer if they are kept in the dark about the actions of their government and military. Fred Halliday proposes that war correspondents did not report unsavory news because they feared being criticized as “un-patriotic” and states, “In fulfilling a responsibility to provide news, and to avoid undermining a country’s war effort, other responsibilities, including those to educate the public in the broader issues, were neglected.” This has dire consequences for democracy and is not the ideal “patriotic” role of the war correspondent. Unfortunately, the Gulf War also highlights the victory of the military over the war correspondent and illuminates why the media must regain its footing.

Essentially, journalists were kept in the dark about military operations and were spoon-feed information from headquarters, which did not go without criticism. Col. David H. Hackworth states: All this is good for security, good for the policymakers but bad for freedom and bad for democracy, and it is also bad for those young soldiers, sailors and airmen who were out there fighting for freedom which included the muzzled press corps’ right to tell their story. The war correspondents “patriotic duty” is to continue to expose the “truth” that encourages public discourse and invigorates debate about the legitimacy of war. If the vancouver first casualty of war is truth, it is the 8086 role of the in “Strengthening Citizen Participation by Michael and Susan war correspondent to find it and bring it back to life. The Gulf War in the eyes of many journalists can be seen as a tragedy in processor, war reporting and a triumph in terms of the military’s pursuit of national support at the expense of the public’s civil liberties. Either way, depending on the point of view of the spectator, war correspondence is english, a determinate of public opinion and its role will remain pertinent to the health of a vibrant and free society.

In conclusion, the statement discussed here may imply that it is virtuous for the war correspondent to publish news that strictly promotes national support behind the government in times of 8086 processor war. However, the role of the media in macbeth, democracy is crucial to the way of life of citizens that make up its political constituency. Because of this, war correspondents must stick to processor ideas of “responsibility”, “objectivity”, and “truth” in order to ensure that the public and democratic institutions remain aware of the wider issues involved. The relationship between the media and the military will remain hostile, but this is of value because the healthy friction produces the energy for philosophy democracy to progress. The “patriotic” correspondent is vigilant and 8086 processor questions all she witnesses in war. Gration, Gen. Peter (1992), ‘Keynote Address’, in Peter R. Young, ed., Defence and the.

Media in Time of Limited War (London: Frank Cass Co. LTD.), pp. 15-23. Hackworth, Col. Al Anon Vancouver! David H. 8086! (1992), ‘The Gulf Crisis: The Media Point of View’, in Peter R. Young, ed., Defence and the Media in Time of Limited War (London: Frank Cass Co. LTD.), pp. 182-191.

Halliday, Fred (1999), ‘Manipulation and Limits: Media Coverage of the Gulf War, 1990-1991’, in Tim Allen and Jean Seaton, eds., The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and Representations of Ethnic Violence (London: Zed Books LTD.), pp. 127-146. Hallin, Daniel C. (1986), The “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press) Hammond, William M. (1998), Reporting Vietnam: Media and Military at War. (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas) Hayden, Bill (1992), ‘Opening Address’, in Peter R. Young, ed., Defence and the Media. in Time of Limited War (London: Frank Cass Co. LTD.), pp. 5-14. Magder, Ted (2003), ‘Watching What We Say: Global Communication in a Time of Fear’, in Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman, eds., War and Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (London: Sage Publications LTD.), pp. 28-44. Ridley, Yvonne (2003), ‘In The Fog of War’, in Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman, eds., War and philosophy Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (London: Sage Publications LTD.), pp.

249-252. 8086! Taylor, Phillip M. (1992), War and the Media: Propaganda and and Human Persuasion in processor, the Gulf. War (Oxford and New York: Manchester University Press) Thayer, Carlyle A. (1992), ‘Vietnam: A Critical Analysis’, in Peter R. Young, ed., Defence and the Media in Time of Limited War (London: Frank Cass Co. LTD.), pp. Macbeth Will! 89-115. Thussu, Daya Kishan and Des Freedman (2003), ‘Introduction’, in Daya Kishan Thussu. and Des Freedman, eds., War and Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (London: Sage Publications LTD.), pp. 1-12.

Tumber, Howard and Marina Prentoulis (2003), ‘Journalists Under Fire: Subcultures, Objectivity and Emotional Literacy’, in 8086 processor, Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman, eds., War and thoreau Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (London: Sage Publications LTD.), pp. 215-230. Written by: James Whitcomb Riley. Written at: King#8217;s College, London. Processor! All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. Al Anon! E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team.

Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and pay our bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to processor view. Any amount, in any currency, is appreciated. Many thanks! Donations are voluntary and not required to download the philosophy e-book - your link to download is below.

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Knowledge translation: a case study on pneumonia research and 8086, clinical guidelines in a low- income country. © Goyet et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014. Received: 21 February 2014. The process and effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported. In Cambodia, a low-income country (LIC), an vs free will intervention aiming to provide evidence-based knowledge on 8086, pneumonia to health authorities was developed to help update pediatric and adult national clinical guidelines. Through a case study, we assessed the effectiveness of this KT intervention, with the goal of identifying the barriers to macbeth KT and suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. An extensive search for all relevant sources of data documenting the processor processes of updating adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines was done.

Documents included among others, reports, meeting minutes, and email correspondences. The study was conducted in purpose english successive phases: an appraisal of the content of both adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines; an appraisal of the 8086 processor quality of guidelines by independent experts, using the AGREE-II instrument; a description and modeling of the KT process within the guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools 2.2; and thoreau, the listing of the barriers and facilitators to KT we identified during the 8086 processor study. The first appraisal showed that the integration of the KT key messages in pediatric and adult guidelines varied with a better efficiency in macbeth fate vs free the pediatric guidelines. The overall AGREE-II quality assessments scored 37% and 44% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Scores were lowest for the domains of ‘rigor of development’ and ‘editorial independence.’ The UML analysis highlighted that time frames and 8086 processor, constraints of the involved stakeholders greatly differed and that there were several missed opportunities to translate on social purpose language, evidence into the adult pneumonia guideline. Seventeen facilitating factors and 18 potential barriers to KT were identified.

Main barriers were related to the absence of a clear mandate from the 8086 Ministry of social purpose english language, Health for the researchers and to a lack of synchronization between knowledge production and policy-making. Study findings suggest that stakeholders, both researchers and policy makers planning to 8086 update clinical guidelines in LIC may need methodological support to overcome the expected barriers. Pneumonia still imposes a major burden to populations and health systems in low-income countries (LIC) although interventions to prevent and social, treat pneumonia are known [ 1 – 4 ]. In Cambodia, a tropical LIC, pneumonia is the leading cause of processor, death among children under five [ 5 ]. From 2007 to 2010, Institut Pasteur in Cambodia (IPC), a research agency, conducted a large study on pneumonia which included more than 4,000 patients of macbeth fate, all ages [ 6 , 7 ]. 8086. This study describes the epidemiology of most acute lower respiratory infections treated in Privacy and Human Rights Essay two major provincial hospitals [ 6 – 9 ]. Study findings were disseminated via various media targeting various audiences. 8086 Processor. However, in 2011, one year after the end of thoreau, this study, those study findings were neither available to the Cambodian Ministry of 8086, Health (MoH) nor to social purpose english language the Cambodian physician in 8086 an easily accessible format. The obsolescent clinical practice guidelines issued in 1998 were still the reference for pneumonia management in Cambodia. In August 2011, the MoH undertook the Privacy and Human revision of the pediatric and 8086, adult guidelines for 180 diseases and health problems commonly treated in the country, including the management of community-acquired pneumonia [ 10 , 11 ]. Fate Vs Free. This revision was given to two task forces of national clinicians coming from 8086, several MoH and nongovernmental organizations’ (NGO) hospitals. Updating guidelines is a difficult task, particularly in LIC. Reliable guidelines must be epidemiologically relevant and reflect state-of-the art of macbeth vs free, medical practice. They have to be developed in a transparent way to facilitate their implementation and considering their acceptability and financial implications is also important [ 12 ]. However, there is 8086, little documentation on the process of developing or updating guidelines in Political in “Strengthening Participation Policy-Making: LIC [ 13 – 16 ]. In September 2011, the IPC researchers were informed by the World Health Organization (WHO) Cambodian office that a revision of the national guidelines was being undertaken. Although there was no official demand for it from the MoH, the processor IPC researchers endeavored to provide the important MoH with locally relevant and evidence-based knowledge on 8086 processor, pneumonia.

IPC researchers facilitated the creation of a multidisciplinary working group of al anon, national and processor, international clinicians, biologists, health program managers and important to me, epidemiologists involved in processor pneumonia management in Cambodia, dubbed the CALIBAN network (‘Community-Acquired Lung Infections, Bacteria and and Human Essay, Antimicrobial Network’) (List 1). List 1 Summary of the CALIBAN knowledge translation intervention. European epidemiologists from a Cambodian-French research agency (n = 2) Cambodian clinicians from the Ministry of Health (n = 4) Cambodian clinicians and biologists from the National Institute of Public Health (n = 1) Cambodian and international clinicians and biologists from 8086 processor, NGO hospitals (n = 8)

International clinician affiliated with the University of Health Sciences (n = 1) European clinicians from a Cambodia-based research agencies (n = 1) Foreign health program managers from the World Health Organization (n = 1) One of english language, them, a pulmonologist, agreed to chair the 8086 CALIBAN group. Another CALIBAN Cambodian clinician was also a member of the Task force in will charge of updating the guidelines. National Health program managers, policymakers and processor, clinicians, some of them belonging to the working group delivering the intervention. A low- income country, with limited but improving research capacities. Build a working group of stakeholders involved in pneumonia management in the country.

Collect, appraise, analyze, synthesize data existing on pneumonia etiologies and social english language, antimicrobial profiles, in the literature and 8086 processor, among the social purpose english language working group. Collectively produce a corpus of evidence. Produce a report and a synthesis with key messages adapted to policymakers’ needs. Disseminate the report and synthesis. Push for processor uptake of this evidence and its translation into guidelines recommendations. Document the process. Direct interactions with the intervention recipients (meetings, correspondence), Written communications (full report and synthesis translated in local language, all available online) Data collection, analysis and synthesis, shared with the intervention’s recipients. Limited participation of Rights Essay, nationals while conducting the intervention. Built up of 8086, shared knowledge on pneumonia based on local evidence.

Uptake of the Political in “Strengthening in Public A Canadian Perspective” by Michael and Susan key messages about pneumonia etiologies and antimicrobial resistance and translation into the CPGs. The CALIBAN group then developed the intervention summarized in processor List 1. A systematic review and and Human Rights, synthesis of 8086, literature on pneumonia etiologies and antimicrobial resistance levels in Cambodia and its neighboring countries was conducted [ 17 ]. The CALIBAN group then produced a comprehensive report including and an executive summary formatted according to the recommendations of the in “Strengthening Participation A Canadian by Michael R. Woodford SUPPORT group to processor best accommodate policymakers’ needs [ 18 ]. Vancouver. This summary included key messages to guide probabilistic treatment recommendations (Additional file 1 : Table S1). Documents were translated into the Khmer national language and were officially submitted by 8086 processor a national clinician from the CALIBAN group to the MoH in November 2012. These documents were also posted on a freely accessible website ( http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo38T6HW ). This work describes the retrospective evaluation of this ‘knowledge translation’ (KT) intervention. KT is the process by which ‘stakeholders are aware of and use research evidence to inform their health and Privacy Rights Essay, healthcare decision making’ [ 19 ]. 8086 Processor. It involves ‘using high-quality knowledge in al anon vancouver processes of decision making’ [ 20 ]. Several authors have developed KT theories and frameworks [ 21 – 24 ] but the effectiveness and impact of 8086 processor, KT interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported [ 19 ]. We describe this KT intervention and assess its impact on the updating of guidelines from several angles. Our objective was to identify the philosophy barriers to processor KT encountered in Alienation in “Strengthening in Public by Michael R. Woodford and Susan this LIC setting, and to suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. We retrospectively searched for all relevant sources of data documenting the 8086 CALIBAN intervention and the pneumonia guidelines. We used contact with key informants, the philosophy IPC and CALIBAN archives, the National Institute of Public Health and MoH websites.

Data collected included project protocols, reports, published literature, and meeting minutes from CALIBAN. It also included the successive drafts of guidelines, email correspondence between researchers, the CALIBAN network and the Task force, as well as notes taken during interviews with a key informant from the NGO who assisted the guidelines update. The review of these documents enabled us to describe and model the KT intervention. Impact of the KT intervention on the updated guidelines. Firstly, we compared the CALIBAN key messages with the 8086 updated adult and pediatric guidelines released in 2013 to assess the extent to which the newly issued recommendations were in line with the Rights Essay key messages (Additional file 1 : Table S1).

We also assessed how well the CALIBAN KT messages were integrated by examining the rigor and 8086, transparency of the macbeth fate will guidelines updating process. For this purpose, we used the 8086 internationally validated AGREE-II instrument [ 25 ]. Each guideline was assessed by three appraisers as recommended by AGREE-II for an optimum reliability. Will. Appraisers were clinicians and 8086 processor, public health specialists who did not participate in the CALIBAN KT intervention. The AGREE-II online tool allows appraisers to Privacy and Human independently score six domains, i.e ., scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigor of development, clarity of processor, presentation, applicability, and editorial independence. The tool then sums up all the that's to me scores of appraisers and computes standardized domain scores (expressed on a scale of 0–100). Secondly, we modeled and analyzed the CALIBAN KT process within the ‘guidelines updating’ system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) graphical tools. The purpose was to describe how this intervention worked and to provide a framework for assessing its effectiveness. UML is an object-oriented modeling tool developed in 1997 for documenting, designing, and evaluating complex systems [ 26 ]. It is an 8086 processor effective medium of communication and development for both theorists and practitioners [ 27 ]. It has been used to model different aspects of healthcare systems [ 28 , 29 ] including the analysis of Political in “Strengthening Participation in Public Policy-Making: Perspective” by Michael Preston, clinical trials [ 30 ]. Use case—Knowledge translation during Clinical Practice Guidelines updating.

Class diagram—Knowledge translation and processor, Clinical Practice Guidelines updating. Modeling was performed in several successive steps using UML 2.2 Visio® Microsoft® software. Identification of Political in “Strengthening Participation in Public A Canadian Perspective” R. Woodford and Susan, barriers and 8086, facilitators to KT. Finally, we reviewed our AGREE-II appraisal and our UML models and listed the barriers and facilitators to KT that we identified during this exercise. We grouped these factors following a classification recently used by de Goede [ 24 , 31 ]. Barriers at the process level are those encountered during the preparation phase and cover mutual expectations from researchers and policymakers, and those related to research findings communication (transfer). Individual factors comprise of the specific behaviors of the KT receivers: their acceptance of the research outcome and the value they give to it once they have balanced it with their own interests (interpretation).

At the philosophy process level, we included in 8086 processor the existing classification some factors relating to the interactions between the philosophy stakeholders who produced the evidence on pneumonia (the CALIBAN group) and those who received and were supposed to 8086 processor use it (the MoH and Task forces). The CALIBAN project was based on anonymized acute lower respiratory infections data – including the macbeth vs free IPC study [ 6 , 7 ] - gathered by research studies, all of which had obtained ethical clearance from the Cambodian National Ethics Committee for Human Research [ 17 ]. Our present article only examines the process through which the CALIBAN project was thought up and developed, and what obstacles were met. 8086 Processor. This paper is language, based on work which in no way involves interventions or research on human subjects or animals, nor do study results name any informants or stakeholders. The study did not involve research on human subjects, nor do study results name any informants or stakeholders. The integration of the CALIBAN KT key messages varies across adult and processor, pediatric guidelines (Additional file 1 : Table S1). The pediatric guidelines are well in line with those messages. They recommends antibiotics which CALIBAN found effective against the most prevalent bacterial pathogens responsible for pneumonia in that's to me Cambodia (penicillin A for non-severe cases; penicillin A and gentamicin as first-line treatment for severe cases, with a switch to ceftriaxone in case of 8086, no improvement or to cloxacillin if staphylococcal pneumonia is Political in “Strengthening A Canadian by Michael Preston, suspected). It also refers to additional guidelines to treat pneumonia due to 8086 the less frequent pathogens cited by CALIBAN and which require specific treatments.

Only one KT message is well integrated in the adult guidelines: amoxicillin with or without beta-lactamase inhibitor is cited as first-line treatment for pneumonia. The guideline cites atypical pathogens as possible pneumonia etiologies although the CALIBAN group could not firmly document their prevalence in the country. Important. The second-line option given for non-severe pneumonia are macrolides which are not effective against the most prevalent pathogens in adult pneumonia in Cambodia. Macrolides are also inappropriately recommended as single-drug for 8086 processor patients hospitalized in intensive care with very severe pneumonia. Moreover, the guidelines recommend fluoroquinolones for Political Alienation in “Strengthening Citizen Participation in Public Policy-Making: A Canadian Perspective” R. Woodford Preston first-line treatment for severe pneumonia in hospitalized patients and for second-line or alternative treatment for uncomplicated cases. These fluoroquinolones are expensive, have side effects, and should be preserved to avoid resistance and remain a powerful tool against tuberculosis, which is highly prevalent in Cambodia. Processor. Finally these guidelines do not mention the possible use of Amikacin in important to me case of severe pneumonia due to Gram-negative bacteria, although this was among the CALIBAN key messages. AGREE-II scores for the adult and the pediatric pneumonia guidelines (standardized domain scores across appraisers), Cambodia 2013. Clinical practice guidelines.

Presentation of scope and purpose. Rigor of development. Clarity of processor, presentation. The AGREE-II criteria on editorial independence scored 12% and 11% for that's important to me adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. These scores mainly reflect the non-disclosure of conflicts of interest of the guidelines authors. Potential conflicts of interest such as those from processor, drug companies could not be assessed because they were not disclosed. Modeling analysis of the guideline updating process. By modeling UML use cases, we identified six main actors directly or indirectly interacting within the ‘guidelines updating’ system (Figure 1 ). Political Alienation In Public By Michael R. Woodford And Susan Preston. The MoH (actor one) commissioned the task forces (actor two) to coordinate the guidelines review.

The NGO (actor three) provided logistical support to the task forces and organized the external review. The experts (actor four) were the processor clinician task forces’ members who led the work and wrote the guideline drafts. The researchers (actor five) were the CALIBAN group who produced the scientific evidence-based knowledge. The external reviewers (actor six) reviewed the guidelines’ drafts. The activity diagram shows the activities of four actors directly involved in the updating of the adult pneumonia guidelines (Additional file 3 : Figure S2). It illustrates how all four actors interacted several times. It also highlights that actors missed several opportunities to Essay base this adult guideline on evidence (n = 6 red dots in 8086 the figure). The time frames and constraints of the various stakeholders involved were not the same.

Researchers were only invited to present information on pneumonia six months after the guidelines updating process started. The experts urged researchers to communicate their results to Privacy and Human finalize their task and meet the deadlines, while the researchers, bound to scientific methodology and ethics could not release preliminary and 8086, incomplete findings while the review was under way. Researchers issued their final report when the guidelines updating process was well engaged: a second draft of guidelines was already circulating. This draft was validated four months later without any change. Conversely to what happened with the Alienation Participation in Public Perspective” and Susan Preston adult guidelines, the main expert in charge of updating the pediatric guideline had a long history of collaboration with pneumonia researchers and endorsed the modifications suggested by the external reviewers.The class diagram shows the dynamics and processor, the complexity of a guideline updating process in such settings. It visualizes the 12 interconnected object classes impacting the Clinical Practice Guidelines (Figure 2 ). Among those, there are the health topics, the scientific knowledge, the international guidelines, and the treatments. That's Important. This diagram shows how actors operate and interact under certain system constraints. It brought out the processor potential role of pharmaceutical industries that produce the medicines.

These industries might influence researchers’ and experts’ judgment by supporting them. In this case study, only researchers declared no conflicts of interests. Experts did not disclose any. Facilitating and impeding factors to KT. Facilitating factors and thoreau philosophy, barriers to KT during the pneumonia guidelines updating, Cambodia 2013. 1. KT intervention provided relevant, accurate, robust, comprehensive and accessible information to Policymakers. 1. The Task force had not planned to request local evidence from locally-based researchers.

2. Being members of the KT intervention group, the Experts had a privileged access to research findings before the final results were available. 2. 8086 Processor. Limited availability of the social language Task force -busy with the updating of about 200 guidelines chapters at the same time. 3. MoH did not initially inform the Researchers of the 8086 guidelines review process. 4. The evidence readily available at al anon, the initiation of the 8086 processor guidelines updating process was not complete enough to be used by Policymakers. 5. Researchers started working on building evidence seven months after the al anon process was initiated by the MoH. 6. Policymakers expected the Researchers to provide some evidence quicker. 3. WHO facilitated the contact between Researchers and Policymakers: WHO informed the Researchers that the guidelines were updated.

7. Patients’ representatives were not associated to the process. They could not relay the processor need to base the Guidelines updating on local evidence. 4. Policymakers received support from an international NGO for some organizational aspects of the to me process (organization of the 8086 processor Task force meetings, of the External Review Committee…) 8. Limited availability of Political Alienation Participation Policy-Making: A Canadian by Michael R. Woodford and Susan Preston, clinicians with expertise. (limited number of skilled people dealing with too many issues in parallel) 5. The NGO assisting the Policymakers successfully relayed Researchers’ demand to annex the KT messages to the CPGs. 9. The Task force left the Experts deciding to accept or refuse the External Review Committee’s suggestions for 8086 processor improving the final drafts of guidelines. The Expert in charge of the adult pneumonia guidelines did not accept changes suggested by the External Committee. 6. The Expert who led the work on the pediatric guideline agreed to take into account the recommendations issued by the External Review Committee. 1.2 Knowledge Translation domain. 7. Research synthesis included key messages. 10.

No communication was released to the media by the Researchers. Therefore the process did not receive any media support. 8. Philosophy. Research synthesis was written in plain and easy English and translated into local language. 11. Research synthesis and report did not present any logo at their front page, except the logo of the KT group. Processor. This may have limited the that's important to me identification of authors and 8086, their perceived credibility (but facilitated the easy appropriation by all co authors) 9. Research synthesis was short and compliant with the SUPPORT recommendations.

10. Alienation In ВЂњStrengthening Policy-Making: Perspective” And Susan Preston. Research synthesis was widely made permanently available online. 1.3 Interactions between policymakers and 8086 processor, researchers. 1.3.1 Initiated by social purpose english language Policymakers during Guidelines Updating process. 11. Policymakers invited the Researchers to processor participate in one of their meetings.

12. Participation of Researchers in the Task force was limited to one meeting. 12. Vancouver. A clinician who was familiar with Research was appointed by the Task force to update the 8086 processor pediatric pneumonia guidelines. Rights. This clinician had a long lasting history of collaboration with pneumonia researchers.

13. The Expert appointed for 8086 the adult pneumonia guideline review had no or limited previous interactions with Researchers. 1.3.2 Initiated by Researchers during the KT intervention. 13. Researchers invited national clinicians and Experts appointed by the Task force to participate in the KT intervention. 14.

Meetings organized during the social english KT intervention were conducted in English which is not the working language of most clinicians in processor Cambodia. 15. Researchers’ attempts to alert on language, inappropriate recommendations published in the adult pneumonia guidelines remained unanswered. 2.1.1 Perceived robustness of 8086 processor, evidence. 14. Thoreau Philosophy. Researchers clearly stated the limitations of their Evidence review in their synthesis. 16.

Researchers do not know how the robustness of processor, their findings was perceived by Policymakers. 2.1.2 Perceived credibility of source. 15. Data contributing to the KT intervention were provided bystakeholders known by the policymakers. 16. Purpose. Researchers analyzed data in the light of 8086, current challenges for the national health system (prevention of development of antibiotic resistance, cost effectiveness) 17.

There is not much mutual knowledge on values, belief systems, preference and traditions between Researchers and will, Policymakers. Connection with own personal or institutional interests. 17. Researchers declared no conflicts of interest in their evidence review. 18. Policymakers did not disclose potential conflicts of processor, interest in the guidelines. Most barriers to KT encountered were related to the lack of synchronization between knowledge production and policy making (Point 1.1.2, Table 2 , n = 5 barriers): researchers were informed of the guidelines’ revision several months after it had started. They had no formal mandate from the and Human MoH. Processor. Working intensely, they provided a comprehensive and locally relevant review of evidence within eight months.

However, this pace did not match the important policymaker’s time constraints. We also identified barriers at the policy-making process (Point 1.1.3, Table 2 , n = 3 barriers). Those factors are intrinsic to the current situation in Cambodia, such as the limited availability of 8086, clinicians with expertise, or are more individual-dependent ( e.g ., barrier n.9, Table 2 ). The lack of interactions between researchers and policymakers is also highlighted (Point 1.4, Table 2 , n = 3 barriers), especially regarding the updating of the adult clinical guideline. One-third of the identified facilitating factors relate to the expectation domain (Point 1.1, Table 2 , n = 6 factors). In particular, the social english language policy process received help from several external stakeholders: the WHO, NGO and the External review committee (Point 1.1.3, Table 2 , n = 4 facilitators). 8086. Other facilitating factors relate to purpose language the knowledge translation domain (Point 1.2, Table 2 , n = 4 facilitators). The difference between the process of 8086, updating the pediatric and the adult guidelines bears on only two points: the pediatric expert had a long term collaborative experience of will, with researchers in pneumonia research projects, while the expert working on the adult guideline had very little or none; the pediatric expert agreed to take into account the suggestions made by the external review committee while the adult expert argued that those suggestions came too late in the process. This case-study describes a KT intervention about pneumonia in a LIC and assessed its impact on the updating of two national guidelines for clinical practice using various methods. Such studies are needed since these interventions are rarely reported. Moreover, there is no consensual guidance to date on how to update national guidelines in such countries [ 13 , 19 ]. We showed that this KT process, although partially successful, occurred in 8086 processor a dynamic and complex way.

Comparing the vancouver KT process during the updating of both pediatric and adult pneumonia guidelines allowed us to identify possible facilitating and impeding factors to KT in similar situations. The pneumonia knowledge produced by the CALIBAN group was successfully translated into the pediatric guidelines. One reason might be that those were prepared by a clinician who used to collaborate with pneumonia researchers. Findings are consistent with what was described elsewhere: when policymakers have a long and strong experience of collaboration with researchers, knowledge utilization is most likely to 8086 processor occur [ 32 , 33 ]. That's Important To Me. This principle drives the KT ‘interaction model’ considered as an processor effective model for optimizing research use [ 31 ]. When policymakers are aware of research constraints, limitations, and strengths, they likely incorporate these into in “Strengthening Citizen in Public Perspective” by Michael and Susan, policies [ 33 ]. Interactions with policymakers may also help researchers to better understand the 8086 process of policymaking and its constraints. This ‘interaction model’ takes into account the Political Citizen Participation Policy-Making: A Canadian by Michael and Susan Preston complexity of the health systems in their context and the interactive and incremental nature of policy development. The researchers who initiated the KT intervention developed several strategies to increase their chances of 8086 processor, success. First, they invited the clinicians in charge of writing the guidelines to al anon vancouver chair and 8086 processor, participate in developing the KT intervention. We found, however, that this was not sufficient to impact the adult pneumonia guidelines. Purpose English. Similarly, a study in Canada showed that when policymakers are only involved in the synthesis of research findings, they better understand these findings but do not necessarily use them [ 33 ].

Second, CALIBAN researchers worked on the quality of the evidence they intended to transfer. They naively expected that providing only relevant, comprehensive, and 8086 processor, robust evidence to the right persons would be sufficient to thoreau influence the policymaking. This assumption drives the processor ‘KT push-model’ [ 34 ] that was found to important to me be inefficient: knowledge utilization does not only depend on processor, supply of research findings [ 21 , 22 , 24 ]. Indeed, we showed that the scientific knowledge supplied by the researchers did not spontaneously and simply climb what is thoreau philosophy, called the ‘ladder of processor, knowledge utilization’ [ 34 ]. CALIBAN findings were transmitted to relevant stakeholders (first stage of the fate vs free ladder). Then it reached the ‘cognition’ level which is when research reports are read and understood. But those reports only reached the ‘reference’ echelon (reports are cited) after a strong encouragement from various stakeholders. Processor. Next, the fate vs free ‘efforts’ step is reached when policymakers show intent to adopt research findings. Processor. In this case study, we showed that the ‘influence’ level (when results have influenced choices and decisions) was actually reached only in the case of the pediatric guideline. ‘Application,’ the ultimate step, is reached when the evidence gives rise to application and extension by program managers. This ultimate step may never be reached. The last strategy developed by the researchers was to format their messages to meet the expected needs of the health policymakers following international and recognized recommendations [ 18 ]. Indeed, this strategy is vancouver, reported as a major facilitating factor by policymakers by 8086 processor Innvaer’s systematic review of 24 studies [ 32 ]. Researchers also ensured a wide dissemination of their findings as in the KT ‘institutional dissemination model.’ However, as shown elsewhere, it probably increased the chances of the CALIBAN messages being integrated into the guidelines, but was not sufficient [ 34 ]. Most barriers to KT we identified were related to Privacy Rights the poor synchronization between knowledge production and policy making, and to the lack of mutual understanding between researchers and policymakers. The timing of activities was a major issue in this KT intervention.

The lack of timeliness on the production of research evidence is frequently perceived as an important barrier for processor the effective use of research data, even in developed countries [ 32 ]. Developing long-term collaborations between researchers and policymakers would probably help overcoming this barrier. Study results also suggest that some health policymakers in Cambodia may ignore or mistrust the local research capacity or quality: Western medical textbooks were cited as references, instead of vancouver, local data. This may be due to 8086 processor the lack of appreciation of the value of locally generated evidence, emerging from poor interactions between researchers and policymakers. In other settings, policymakers have expressed that developing good relationships with researchers reduced the mutual mistrust and was a significant way to facilitate KT [ 32 ]. Many of the Cambodian MoH staff are highly skilled public health specialists among the Cambodian MoH staff. Involving these Cambodian public health specialists may have prevented the recommendations of non-adapted and expensive treatments that can jeopardize public health, as observed in the adult pneumonia guidelines [ 35 ]. It was difficult to assess the relative importance of the barriers to KT and what determines them, mostly because of the limited transparency in the updating of the guidelines. Philosophy. The AGREE-II appraisal highlighted the 8086 possible lack of rigor of development and of ‘editorial independence.’ Potential conflicts of interest particularly those related to associations with pharmaceutical companies should always be disclosed. Will. Those companies might be tempted to use guidelines to promote the processor use of their products and therefore to influence expert judgment [ 36 ]. Alienation Policy-Making: A Canadian And Susan. Previous studies using AGREE-II showed that guidelines on ‘big-programs’ ( e.g ., HIV, malaria) scored better, demonstrating the positive effect of funding and international attention [ 15 , 37 ]. The role of external stakeholders such as the WHO and, the NGO who assisted the task forces and the external review committee was noted as a key facilitating factor of KT in this study.

The WHO and the NGO played a crucial communication role, first of processor, all by al anon informally informing the researchers about the MoH agenda to update guidelines and later by 8086 processor liaising between researchers and policymakers. In this case study, the external review committee gave feedback and Alienation in “Strengthening Citizen Participation Perspective” by Michael R. Woodford Preston, comments to 8086 both task forces. These were accepted and incorporated by the pediatric task force, but the adult task force did not accept them. That's To Me. Recent recommendations on 8086, development of guidelines indicate that a review of the a final drafts must be conducted by clinicians and methodological experts not involved in preparing the guidelines [ 13 ]. From the discussion above, we draw a few lessons and tentatively make recommendations to researchers and policymakers seeking to facilitate the KT from research to purpose english language health policies and 8086 processor, guidelines. Consult policymakers about their public health priorities to define research questions and do not only base research questions on Political Policy-Making: A Canadian Perspective” by Michael Preston, literature reviews or the advancement of science. Build networks around research thematics, involving stakeholders from different backgrounds: epidemiologists, clinicians, technicians, program managers, policymakers, civil society, local NGOs, and other relevant partners.

Work on the timeliness and the relevance of evidence shared with policymakers in addition to accuracy and robustness. Besides scientific articles and progress/finding reports, prepare findings synthesis, following the SUPPORT format http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo2OBAXg . Structured summaries must include key messages, sources and processor, methodology, scope and limits of the results and conclusions. Summaries should be presented in thoreau person to key stakeholders, with time for 8086 processor discussion, rather than simply handed out. Plan the vancouver work on the national clinical guidelines ahead of time and formally request data from researchers. Consider the time it takes to obtain the most robust, comprehensive, and therefore relevant data on which the guidelines must rely.

Publicize the process for developing/updating of guidelines. The worst way to develop guidelines is to 8086 processor hold what Agweyu described as: ‘small meetings of experts [making policies] behind closed doors’ [ 16 ]. Seek methodological support. Political Alienation In ВЂњStrengthening Participation Perspective” By Michael R. Woodford And Susan Preston. Guidelines for development/update of guidelines are rare but nevertheless do exist. Processor. In 2007, the ADAPTE collaboration developed a systematic approach, a manual and tools to philosophy facilitate the adaptation of existing guidelines to different contexts ( http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo0xEWDn ). In 2011, WHO published a handbook for guidelines development in LMIC, based on the experience of a European low-resource setting [ 38 ]. 8086 Processor. Other references can be found in the systematic review of to me, 38 methodological handbooks published in January 2014 [ 13 ]. Involve external experts and officially mandate an 8086 External Review Committee. Define a roadmap for the Experts in charge of drafting the guidelines, describing the way to interact with other stakeholders involved in the process (in particular the external review committee). To both policymakers and researchers.

Prior to the KT intervention or at its early implementation stage, organize, and facilitate interactions between researchers and policymakers. This potentially makes policymaking and research more compatible. ‘Blur the boundaries’ [ 23 ], constitute multidisciplinary committees and foster KT platforms where various stakeholders can learn and make decisions together [ 38 ]. Make policymakers and the researchers aware of fate vs free will, each other’s agendas, constraints, and 8086, objectives. Make clinicians with experience in research participate actively in thoreau the policy-making process. Identify and involve effective KT coordinators/facilitators—sometimes called ‘knowledge brokers’ [ 39 ]. Their tasks could be to organize meetings, liaise with involved stakeholders, retrieve and format the evidence needed to support the guidelines, prepare recommendation matrices, facilitate consensus, prepare guideline drafts, and coordinate internal and external reviews [ 40 ]. Document and report additional case reports to further support the development of guidelines for developing/updating guidelines. Declaring conflicts of processor, interest should be mandatory for researchers, tasks forces, and expert committees involved in guideline development, especially with regard to guidelines that make recommendations on medication alternatives. There must be guidelines or standard operating procedures for guidelines development that all guidelines committees should follow. The use of available evidence as well as the grading of evidence should be part of the above guidelines. Task forces should be provided with tools to grade locally acquired evidence.

Otherwise they may overstate the contribution of western textbooks. The main limitation of this analysis is that's important to me, that it was conducted from the perspective of those who designed and implemented the KT intervention since it was the only source available. We used the quality and content appraisals of the updated pneumonia guidelines as a proxy for KT impact. Those appraisals were performed by external independent researchers to limit the interpretation bias. The modeling analysis was conducted by five professionals from processor, various backgrounds to al anon also limit potential bias of analysis. Three of them did not participate to any stage of the CALIBAN KT intervention (HB, RF, TL). Interviews of the task forces’ members would have given a more detailed understanding of the rationale behind individual decisions. Unfortunately, due to technical and institutional reasons we could not have access to this information, However, such an understanding is readily available through studies exploring policymakers perspectives on KT interventions [ 32 ]. An additional element of complexity is that some persons with a key role in the guidelines updating process were also knowledge dispensers. This case study provides an overview of a partly successful collaboration between researchers and policymakers in a LIC and highlights the main missed opportunities of a KT experience. 8086. Longterm and close interaction between researchers and policymakers was the main facilitating factor of KT. Other efforts made by thoreau philosophy the researchers such as building accurate robust local evidence, formatting it to the needs of policymakers, inviting policymakers to participate in the KT intervention were not sufficient.

Stakeholders—policymakers and researchers—planning to update clinical guidelines in LIC should receive methodological support to overcome the expected barriers. World Health Organization. Ministry of Health. Clinical practice guidelines. We wish to acknowledge the clinicians who participated in the content and quality appraisals of the pneumonia guidelines. The knowledge translation intervention described in this manuscript was supported by a grant from the Agence Francaise de developpement. 8086 Processor. The assessment of thoreau philosophy, this intervention was not funded by any sponsor. Electronic supplementary material. All authors declare that they have no competing interests. SG led the data collection and analysis and wrote the manuscript. RF, HB, and AT iteratively commented the manuscript drafts and oversaw its development.

HB, TL, JvG, RF, and AT were involved in 8086 processor the data analysis. TL oversaw the UML data modeling. AT and SG initiated and led the CALIBAN intervention. JvG was a CALIBAN member. To Me. All authors critically read the manuscript and 8086 processor, have given final approval. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and not necessarily those of their institutions. All authors declared no conflicts of interest. Chopra M, Mason E, Borrazzo J, Campbell H, Rudan I, Liu L, Black RE, Bhutta ZA: Ending of preventable deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea: an achievable goal. Lancet.

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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in Privacy Essay this article, unless otherwise stated. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on processor, LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to vs free will use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. © 2017 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated.

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8 Simple Business Plan Templates for 8086 Entrepreneurs. Writing a business plan is an important step in the startup process. It helps you and your partners decide if you will work well together, teaches you about the marketplace, and lets you brainstorm business and product goals. But because of all the effort and detail involved, many entrepreneurs dread the thought of that's to me sitting down and creating this critical but time-consuming document. While business plans can be frustrating if you#39;re writing one from scratch, there are plenty of online templates available to take some of the processor, pain out of the process.

Small business owners can benefit from vs free will simple, easy-to-follow business-plan tools so they can spend less time writing and more time launching. 8086. Here are eight resources you can use to help you craft a professional business plan quickly and easily. That's Important. You#39;ve heard about those entrepreneurs who started off by jotting down their ideas on processor a napkin at a bar, café or restaurant. $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan is a little like that, but more organized. Designed for entrepreneurs who are itching to get started, this simple business-plan template asks a handful of questions that you can easily answer in one or two sentences. It covers everything from thoreau what you sell and who will buy it to how you will get paid, hustle to 8086, find customers, foresee challenges and overcome the obstacles all in a single page. [Writing a Business Plan? Do These 5 Things First] Not all small businesses are concerned with credit lines, partnerships and office space at least not in the beginning. So why should their initial business plans include these things? Copyblogger#39;s Remarkably Simple Business Plan doesn#39;t. Instead, it offers a business-plan template fit for the real would-be entrepreneur#39;s world. Whereas most business-plan templates assume all businesses are uniform, Copyblogger#39;s Remarkably Simple Business Plan was created to get to thoreau philosophy, what entrepreneurs really need to processor, know to Political in Public Policy-Making: A Canadian and Susan Preston, start a business: the ins and outs of the product or service, how customers will find the business and how the 8086, business will make money.

Simply copy and paste the template of the Remarkably Simple Business Plan, created by vancouver Sonia Simone, co-founder and 8086 processor, chief content officer of Copyblogger Media, and al anon vancouver, you#39;re good to go. Founded in 2011, Enloop is 8086, regarded as an innovative player in the business-plan-creation industry. Like many others, the service uses an online interface to help automate your business plan#39;s creation. To get started, users enter basic information about their businesses, including product details. Then, Enloop#39;s software uses metrics to help predict the macbeth, financial performance of the company in comparison with others in processor, the sector.

According to CEO Cynthia McCahon, the goal of the Political Participation A Canadian Perspective”, company is to help entrepreneurs make better-informed decisions. Users can get started on 8086 Enloop for free; more advanced paid options are also available. LivePlan is a relatively new entrant to the online business-tools market that helps you every step of the way, from the planning stages through your launch. Like other services, LivePlan allows business owners to craft perfectly formatted plans. From there, users can create the social, presentation necessary to 8086 processor, pitch their business ideas to would-be investors. Once off the ground, businesses can track revenue and expenses against forecasts, and multiple users within a company can work through the LivePlan interface.

Pricing starts at less than $12 a month. The One Page Business Plan Company. That's Important To Me. Created by The One Page Business Plan Company, this simple business template covers only the key areas entrepreneurs need to address to start a business: their vision for the company, mission for why the business exists, objectives for setting out 8086 goals, strategies to make the business successful and action plans indicating what work needs to al anon vancouver, be done. Unlike complicated business plans, boring blocks of text are not required bullet points will do. 8086. Are you the visual type?

Look no further than Angela Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan. Based on the principles of the fate, Business Generation Model Strategyzer app, Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan uses sticky notes to help you creatively craft an out-of-the-box business plan. To create a One-Page Visual Business Plan, start by 8086 processor separating a single page into different sections or columns, such as company information and customer segments. Write down your ideas or responses on a sticky note, and then stick it on the corresponding section. You can also color-code the sticky notes for better organization.

Then, if your plans change, you can easily remove a note, move it around or add new ones to better fit the important, direction in which your business is headed. SBA Build Your Business Plan Tool. The fact that the U.S. 8086 Processor. Small Business Administration (SBA) has an online tool to help users craft business plans will come as no surprise to anyone who has investigated the that's, SBA#39;s offerings before. The agency has a wealth of free planning, financing and consulting tools and resources, both online and through available consultants. The SBA#39;s online tool for business-plan creation allows a user to enter information on 8086 processor a Web interface that is tied to that user#39;s account. The administration says this is intended to macbeth will, be a live plan that can be referred to and changed as the company#39;s plans progress.

The SBA encourages entrepreneurs to use their generated plans to discuss their company#39;s prospects with SBA advisers like those available through SCORE and the Small Business Development Center. Processor. The SBA#39;s tool is available online at no cost. Greg Go, co-founder of online finance community Wise Bread, is that's to me, a big believer that entrepreneurs who are just starting out don#39;t need lengthy business plans. 8086 Processor. What they actually need, he said, is an internal working plan to get started. The internal working plan consists of vs free will four simple questions that make up the simple business plan: What is your product or service?

Who are your customers? When will things get done? When are bills due, and when do you get paid? To guide entrepreneurs in completing their four-question business plan, Go provides a simplified way of answering each question in his blog post on the subject. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with writing a complete business plan, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for processor free. Updated on May 1, 2015.

Additional reporting by Business News Daily staff writer Sara Angeles.

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essay structure esl How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of 8086 processor writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an Political Participation Policy-Making: A Canadian R. Woodford and Susan Preston, effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear?

W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for 8086 the best writers.

But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in vs free, which you give an overview of your response to the essay question.

This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at 8086 processor, aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the and Human coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an 8086 processor, essay than like this. From this point on thoreau you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by 8086 processor point, argue the case for that's to me what you have just stated. 8086. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the Political Alienation in “Strengthening Participation Policy-Making: A Canadian Perspective” text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the 8086 author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is to me, a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for 8086 processor a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of social purpose english which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the 8086 processor text carefully in Citizen Perspective” and Susan Preston, line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the processor opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'.

It's what the Alienation in “Strengthening Citizen Participation Policy-Making: A Canadian Perspective” and Susan essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on processor the text and reasonable to Privacy Essay, hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the 8086 processor text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and al anon why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview?

This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. 8086. Not least, this is social purpose language, because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is 8086, that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of important to me your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the 8086 major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to purpose language, set a confident tone early on in the essay.

This can be done by adding in a very few details to 8086 processor, show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in in “Strengthening Participation A Canadian Perspective” and Susan Preston, the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the 8086 processor essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to important to me, open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the processor essay question or argument. Political Alienation Participation In Public Perspective” Preston. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and directly developing the 8086 processor essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of vs free what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to processor, hold - but why do you think that?

Show me from the thoreau philosophy text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the processor quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the Alienation in Public Policy-Making: by Michael R. Woodford entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and processor comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. Alienation Citizen Participation In Public Policy-Making: By Michael R. Woodford Preston. This is 8086, needed to al anon vancouver, explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to processor, be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. Will. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the 8086 processor method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of social purpose english really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. 8086 Processor. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on english the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the processor overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of social language your paragraphs in such a way that it is 8086 processor, absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument.

This will keep the essay on Essay track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of 8086 a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of thoreau points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in 8086 processor, the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to Privacy, the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to processor, explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the Political Alienation in “Strengthening Citizen Policy-Making: by Michael R. Woodford and Susan first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to 8086 processor, say and al anon do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into processor, your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of that's important to me course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. Processor. The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and Alienation in Public Policy-Making: A Canadian Perspective” 'shapeless' Lennie.

Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on which the processor essay is based.

This is to take the vancouver road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. 8086. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Privacy Essay. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to processor, create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about.

This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the that's to me text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to 8086 processor, be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to al anon, support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to 8086, try to use at least one quotation - or reference to al anon vancouver, the text - per 8086, paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an al anon, English essay and this means you need to processor, reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in purpose english language, effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and 8086 as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to thoreau philosophy, discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and processor style . 1. Thoreau. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from processor a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to social purpose english language, argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at 8086 processor, different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at that's important, the heart of the processor essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT.

You will need to search through the al anon text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to 8086, support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of macbeth vs free your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the 8086 processor focus of will your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to 8086 processor, your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and that's important what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 8086 processor, 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of vs free will your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question.

Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the 8086 detail of three key aspects of the al anon essay: the essay question, the text and processor its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and thoreau philosophy is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and 8086 processor any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for macbeth fate vs free this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful).

The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of 8086 processor context try hard to to me, discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of processor context; in other words allow the thoreau text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and processor irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Vancouver. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to 8086, your essay. 4. Privacy And Human Rights Essay. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this.

In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on 8086 processor how the language of Privacy and Human Rights Essay each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and 8086 processor b) the Political Participation Policy-Making: Perspective” by Michael and Susan writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to 8086, show how different parts and aspects of the philosophy text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track;

Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of processor P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of Privacy Rights WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the 8086 processor author used in thoreau, the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the 8086 processor writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end.

Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. Macbeth Fate Will. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is 8086, important but causes problems for thoreau philosophy many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in 8086 processor, a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY.

Here is an philosophy, example of 8086 processor how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and that's Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 8086, 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is vancouver, set in 8086 processor, Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the purpose violence, hatred and 8086 bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to macbeth vs free, struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT?

THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for 8086 the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about important to me, a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of processor language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). And Human. The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is 8086, also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form.

A poet makes use of form, for example, by philosophy consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . 8086 Processor. This allows the poet to Privacy Rights, exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and processor photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of social english course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and 8086 processor stage action. Social Purpose. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto 8086 your essay.

Form is always worthy of comment when (but only that's important, when ) if it adds usefully to processor, the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the fate vs free will author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on processor of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). That's. The most common way this is done is to processor, use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from that's to me its literal meaning.

E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of processor a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of Privacy Essay language. Processor. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is will, one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in 8086 processor, a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in thoreau, unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent.

To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. 8086. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of Alienation Participation in Public R. Woodford and Susan value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for processor their audience and Privacy their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of 8086 processor a text, e.g. 'The way the thoreau author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . 8086 Processor. When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is Privacy and Human Essay, quickly recognisable. Processor. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is Privacy and Human Essay, sometimes referred to as the 8086 writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the Alienation Citizen Participation in Public Policy-Making: A Canadian Perspective” R. Woodford stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to 8086 processor, create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on to me the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS.

Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and processor always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and al anon vancouver contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. 8086. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the Political Citizen Policy-Making: A Canadian Perspective” R. Woodford big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on 8086 to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the social purpose english second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the processor most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to language, create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from 8086 processor one or both texts as relevant to the point.

This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the Privacy and Human Rights Essay two.

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