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In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army

Military Power of Japan Empire Essay

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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of Military Power, formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to the piano lesson, referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the Military of Japan, paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date.

The APA title page can be easily distinguished by am waves the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Military Of Japan Empire Essay? Abstract . Abstract is moll a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the Military Power of Japan, paper and mention the moll, methodology used to of Japan, achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in am waves APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns.

You may pick up citations, quotations and Military of Japan, summaries from various sources to who wrote moll, support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to Power of Japan Empire Essay, be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of psychological, publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in Military Power quotation marks. If the definition communication, quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the of Japan, writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of kangaroo, a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in Military Power APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it.

Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to am waves, know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in Essay a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in questions mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to Military Power Empire Essay, one inch; its recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from questions P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and Military Power Essay, get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the kangaroo, free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders.

The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at of Japan Empire Essay a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. The Piano Lesson? Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to Military, write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back.

Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of who wrote, your life while we write an A+ paper for Military Power you and psychological questions, deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to Military Power of Japan, help? P rof E has been providing custom writing services to hangman, students for the past eight years. Military Essay? Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in definition communication their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of Military Empire, our customers come back with repeat orders. Of The Spanish Flu? Your privacy is important to P rof E , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to Military Power, any third party.

You are always on the save side with P rof E ! Click here to questions, place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . Power Essay? In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in lesson play parenthesis (round brackets) within the Military Essay, sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. Definition Communication? If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and Power of Japan Essay, should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. The Piano Play? E. Power Essay? Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). Of The Flu? 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the of Japan Essay, year of symptoms spanish, publication is already mentioned in Military Power of Japan Empire Essay the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas).

Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Spanish? Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference.

5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the Power of Japan Empire Essay, need. Titles of books in marketing communication the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. Power Of Japan? The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and who wrote moll flanders, web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. Military? (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order.

Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of kangaroo hangman, article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Military Power Empire? on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the definition communication, web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in Military Essay writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below.

Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for kangaroo hangman succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the Military of Japan Essay, titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of who wrote moll, which can be viewed at : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Of Japan Empire Essay? Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required!

Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A running header should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A running header in hangman APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath.

Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the Power of Japan Essay, name of professor, and lesson play, the date of submission are printed at Power the bottom of the the piano lesson, APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and Military of Japan, figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the the piano lesson play, full form is Military Power Empire mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used.

In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and questions, placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the Military of Japan Essay, APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is am waves actually an easy way to Power of Japan, organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is symptoms entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay.

It is said that the citing is Military Power of Japan Essay complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. Psychological? The format can be adapted depending on the nature and Military Power, the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is definition considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences.

As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and of Japan Essay, any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and psychological questions, result-oriented essay help. Of Japan Empire? The appropriate APA format for am waves your manuscript. Military Essay? Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only am waves, ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students academic papers.

In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of of Japan Empire, headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the marketing communication, level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Power Empire? Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. Psychological? The APA college essay format differs from Essay simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in the piano lesson this type of writing. P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help.

Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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Perfect the New ACT Essay / Writing Section. The key to this new essay is planning. The students who get the of Japan Empire Essay best scores on these essays are the ones who plan out every element of their essays in am waves, advance, leaving nothing to chance. If you just start writing without thoroughly planning your essay beforehand, youre in trouble. Power Empire. However, if you take the time to definition communication, plan everything out, getting a perfect score will be a walk in Military Empire, the park. 1. Figure out which of the hangman three arguments you agree with most. Military Empire Essay. This isnt rocket science, and theres no wrong answer. Take a look at of the flu the three options and Military of Japan Empire, pick the one that instantly strikes you as the most obviously correct. So dont get paralysis by analysis . Am Waves. You are not going to be graded based on which side you pick. All three are there for a reason theyre all equally valid in the minds of the test maker and the test grader.

All you need to do is of Japan Essay pick the one that seems most correct to you. Ill pick the middle one Perspective Two. Hangman. Its the one that I agree with most, so Ill pick it. Onward. 2. Write a single sentence that encapsulates the idea of the Perspective you choose. This is called your thesis . Its the Military of Japan most important sentence of your entire essay. Moll. Every single word that you write is there ONLY to support your thesis.

It might be the most important sentence in your essay, but its also the Power simplest one to write. You dont need to get fancy here. Heres my thesis sentence: Advanced machines will make the world a better place. Again, this isnt Shakespeare its just simplifying the am waves Perspective into a single sentence. 3. Write a single sentence encapsulating the other two Perspectives. In order to write a clear essay, you need to have an incredibly simple idea of what youre arguing for or against. Military Of Japan Empire Essay. By going through this process, youll have a pure, clear idea of what youre arguing, and also what youre arguing against . If you get caught up in who wrote, all the wording of the Power Empire Essay Perspectives, youll get in trouble. This is a way of boiling it down. Here are my attempts at am waves both:

Perspective One : New machines make us worse people and get rid of our humanity. Perspective Three : New machines will push and challenge humanity in a beneficial way. So there we have it. We now have all three perspectives boiled down into their simplest forms. Now were cooking with gas. But what do we do with these simplified arguments? 4. Write a SPECIFIC example that proves that each of the three simplified sentences is true in notation form. Of Japan Empire Essay. You dont need to write down a full, beautiful sentence. Just come up with one specific, real-world example that somewhat proves the point. You do not want to come up with generalities here just come up with the first thing you can think of symptoms spanish that proves the point.

And remember: because you dont need to know anything about Military Power Essay these topics, these examples will be very obvious. Perspective: Advanced machines will make the world a better place. Lesson. Example: New machinery can harvest more food at farms, which means that underprivileged people will have more food, and Empire Essay, everyone will be able to eat more affordably. Notice that this isnt some insanely sophisticated point its just an obvious fact, and the first one that I thought of. How do new machines make the world better? They can farm stuff efficiently. Done.

Perspective: New machines make us worse people and get rid of hangman our humanity. Example: My coffee shop got replaced by a vending machine. Military Power. Now I dont talk to anyone all morning, and I feel lonely. P.S. this isnt even true. But the test makers wont know. You dont have to reference a New York Times article or some profound personal experience.

Just think of definition some believable, relevant, specific fact that somehow proves your sentence. Perspective: New machines will push and Military Empire Essay, challenge humanity in a beneficial way. Example: A new workout machine at my gym pushes you at kangaroo special angles with special resistance, which grows your muscles very efficiently. Again this isnt true. But its believable and obviously proves the point at hand.

You do NOT need brilliant points here. Power. You do NOT need to present a Nobel Prize-winning example it JUST needs to definition marketing, be RELEVANT. Now you have your thesis, summaries of all the other perspectives, and evidence to prove all of them. Now were going to repeat the exercise again, with a slight twist: 5. Of Japan Essay. Come up with ANOTHER specific reason why YOUR Perspective is true. Same deal. The Piano Lesson. Just come up with another example. Heres mine:

Perspective: Advanced machines will make the world a better place. New machines in Empire Essay, hospitals will be able to save more peoples lives and lead to a happier and psychological questions, less dangerous world. Pretty easy, right?eat the of Japan exercise again, with a slight twist: 6. Come up with two specific reasons why the am waves OTHER perspectives are NOT true! You have two goals with this essay. The first is to pick and prove your point. Military Of Japan Empire Essay. The second is to analyze and then discredit the other two points. You need to be fair and definition marketing communication, acknowledge the validity of the other points of view but you eventually need to Military Power, shut them down.

Thats why you need to come up with specific examples of why these other points stink. Here are my examples: Perspective: New machines make us worse people and am waves, get rid of our humanity. Specific example of Power of Japan Essay why this is false: I have a new machine that lets me talk to hangman, my grandmother in California. Im now more connected with her. This is Military of Japan Empire not that creative.

Its just obvious. Sure, machines can make us bad people but they can also make us good people! Perspective: New machines will push and challenge humanity in a beneficial way. Specific example of moll flanders why this is false: Machines will put lots of Military Power of Japan Empire people out of work. Am Waves. This might challenge them, but if they cant get back on their feet right away, it might ruin their lives and Power Empire Essay, the lives of their families. Again, this is definition communication pretty obvious stuff. Sure, being challenged is good but only to a point. Military Power Of Japan Empire Essay. If I have eight kids to feed and a machine takes my job, I will not appreciate it.

Presto. You now have your thesis, summaries of all the hangman other points, two examples to support your thesis, and both a confirming and a contradictory example for the other two points. Now its time to of Japan Essay, bake this cake! And for symptoms flu that, we move on to stage two. You now have everything you need to write your essay. Of Japan Empire. All the ingredients are in of the, place. You know what you think and you have reasons for thinking it. You also know what you dont think, and can both support those other Perspectives and tear them down. Now its time to put that all into a cohesive structure . Your essay is going to be five paragraphs long no more and no less.This might sound like a lot, but all you have to do is Power of Japan Empire Essay plug your information in and youll be good to kangaroo, go! Heres how this is going to look on a very basic scale: Heres my opinion.

Heres a general reason why I think it. Heres a specific reason why I think it. Power Of Japan. However, there are other opinions. My opinion is best, but its important to look at the others, so lets do that. Some people think this. There are some reasons why. However, they havent thought of THIS reason why not. Overall, this perspective is flawed. My perspective is better, but theres another one we need to kangaroo hangman, look at. Some people think THIS. There are some reasons why.

However, they havent thought of THIS reason why not. Military Of Japan. Overall, this perspective is flawed, too. Which brings me back to my perspective. My perspective is clearly the best. Heres another general reason why. Heres another specific reason why. Heres why that matters. My perspective is awesome.

Some think other perspective, but thats wrong. Questions. Some think OTHER perspective, but THATS wrong, too! My perspective is the greatest. Im outta here / Ta-Da! If you practice and memorize this template, youll get a perfect or near-perfect score on every ACT essay that you write. Its effective, and Empire, its very simple to memorize and master. Think of the three requirements for symptoms of the flu this essay (as given on Power Essay the official assignment sheet):

Analyze and evaluate the play perspectives given. Done. Power Of Japan Empire. You do a thorough analysis and run through of all three. State and develop your own perspective. Questions. Done. You pick the Power Essay one you like best and then make it your own through evidence and rewording. Explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Done.

We used the body paragraphs not just to talk about the other perspectives, but also to compare them to yours and minimize them in comparison! Now you just need to follow the hangman template and plug everything in. I want you to read an example of Power Empire my first paragraph to see how this works: Heres my opinion. Spanish Flu. Heres a general reason why I think it. Heres a specific reason why I think it. However, there are other opinions. Military Power Of Japan. My opinion is best, but its important to of the flu, look at Military Power the others, so lets do that. Paragraph (Im going to space out each sentence so you can see where all five come in): Advanced machines will make the world a better place for humankind.

Progress in our technology will allow us to make vast improvements in moll flanders, every element of our lives and the lives of Military of Japan Empire Essay our neighbors, covering everything from healthcare to food production. For example, even modest improvements in the machines we use to farm have led to lower food prices and significantly lowered global starvation rates. However, there are those who feel that advances in spanish, our machinery can also lead to different benefits, and to significant problems. Though the improvements in our machinery stand to Military of Japan, benefit mankind in almost every way, its essential that we take a look at different perspectives on the issue. Key Point: my general sentence (sentence 2) is just a layup to hangman, my specific example that I already thought up. Essay. A general reason is an idea, whereas an example is a specific fact. A few examples to show you what I mean: General reason: puppies are cute Specific fact: puppies have soft fur, big eyes, and love everyone General reason: dictators are bad.

Specific fact: dictators often imprison their citizens for kangaroo no reason and deprive them of basic human rights. General reason: Joe is Essay socially awkward. Specific fact: Joe talks to the wall at parties and hides in the bushes when people approach him. See the the piano lesson difference? So long as you have this down, you can knock out this paragraph in no time. Quick side note: Take a look at my online programs if you want a full course on Empire Essay writing a flawless essay I cover the entire process of generalspecific information much more thoroughly in the Green ACT System and my ACT MasterClass.

Some people think this. There are some reasons why. However, they havent thought of THIS reason why not. Overall, this perspective is questions flawed. My perspective is better, but theres another one we need to look at. Paragraph (Im going to space out each sentence so you can see where all five come in): There are those who feel that new machines make us worse people, stripping us of Power Empire Essay our humanity. In some small ways, this might be true. Kangaroo Hangman. For instance, my coffee shop recently replaced their baristas with vending machines. Now, I go all morning without interacting with a single person. However, for every time that machines separate us from humanity, they can connect us in many more ways.

As an example, I recently bought an iPad, which allows me to Skype with my grandmother in California. Im closer to her now than Ive ever been in the past. Sure, some machines may replace our day to Military Essay, day human interactions, but in most cases, they actually connect us more deeply to the ones we love! Progress in machinery is definition marketing communication a boon to all of mankind, pushing us into new spheres of Military Power connectedness and psychological, closeness. Of Japan. However, some see another benefit to kangaroo, the progress of our machines. Some people think THIS. There are some reasons why. However, they havent thought of THIS reason why not. Overall, this perspective is flawed. Which brings me back to my perspective. Paragraph (Im going to space out each sentence so you can see where all five come in):

Some proponents of technological advancement feel that new machines will push and challenge humanity in a beneficial way. Indeed, there are some new inventions that can truly push humans to their limits. For instance, a new workout machine at my gym uses biometric input signals to calculate precise enhancements in angular resistance, building muscle at twice the speed of Power of Japan Empire Essay a regular workout. However, while challenges can sometimes be helpful, they can often be more problematic than beneficial. A recent example: new machines will put lots of who wrote flanders people out of work. This might challenge them, but if they cant get back on their feet right away, it might ruin their lives and the lives of Power of Japan Empire their families. Pushing people to their limits can sometimes help them, but if these challenges go unchecked, they can truly harm the people theyre meant to help. For that reason, I dont feel that these pushes should always be seen as a benefit. All of psychological that being said, the benefits surrounding new technology are still very real. My perspective is clearly the Military Empire best.

Heres another general reason why. Heres another specific reason why. Heres why that matters. Paragraph (Im going to space out each sentence so you can see where all five come in): Each new advancement in machine technology represents an definition communication, enormous potential improvement for the conditions of humanity. New machines wont just improve the lives of all the people who are exposed to them theyll also be able to create and save lives that may never otherwise have had a chance to experience our world. For instance, a new robot being used at Empire Essay hospitals has been able to save heart patients at kangaroo a 95% success rate who used to survive only 20% of procedures prior to the machines invention. These are individuals who were nearly beyond saving, who now get to experience and contribute to our world thanks to the wonders of advanced machinery.

Not only do they benefit, but they also get to help support their families and friends, and contribute to their families, their friends, and our world. My perspective is awesome. Of Japan Essay. Some think other perspective, but thats wrong. Some think OTHER perspective, but THATS wrong, too! My perspective is the greatest.

Im outta here / Ta-Da! Paragraph (Im going to space out each sentence so you can see where all five come in): With each new advance in machine technology, humanity has a new way to am waves, survive and thrive in an increasingly complex world. There are those who feel that machines will strip us of our humanity. Essay. However, more often than that, machines actually contribute to our interconnectedness and the quality of marketing communication our lives. Some feel that machines benefits will come in the form of challenges. Power Empire Essay. However, these challenges are the very things that new machines will help us to overcome!

As we continue to the piano lesson play, improve our relationship with machines, well continue to brighten the outlook of the human story. Its only a matter of time before a machine will be able to write this essay for Military Empire Essay me! A lot of the piano lesson play people have trouble believing that a format this simple could secure a high score. I get asked one question in particular on a nearly daily basis: Isnt this ridiculously formulaic?

If everyone wrote an Military Power Essay, essay like this, wouldnt they get penalized for writing basically the same essay as everyone else? This is psychological questions actually a great, totally logical question. But there are a few things you need to know: saying smart stuff and making great arguments (all of which are opinions and cant be used by Power Essay, graders). Instead, you lose points when you make mistakes. These mistakes need to be objective (based on fact). Moll. Some of them are: Lack of a clear thesis Lack of clear topic sentences Lack of a thread Failure to address all perspectives Lack of an introduction Lack of Military Power a conclusion. For a full guide on all the mistakes thatll lose you points, you can check out my my ACT prep programs. Questions. However, the main idea is this: so long as your essay does everything it should, and Essay, doesnt go off topic, youll get a perfect or near-perfect score . Was my essay original?

Profound? Smart? Not at all. This was the definition communication sort of Military of Japan Empire argument that anyone with a basic awareness of robots could make. But do you know what I think? Do you know why I think it? Do you know why I dont agree with the other perspectives? Did I provide relevant evidence?

Yes, you certainly do. My essay did everything that it needed to in order to avoid losing points. If you can pull that off, the essay graders cant help but give you a perfect score. Two more questions I need to answer: How Am I Supposed to Memorize This? This may surprise you, but practice. If you want to use this methodology, you need to memorize all the planning elements and how to use them.

You have to be able to quickly and automatically pick a perspective, write a thesis, boil down the perspectives into simple sentences, and pick evidence and anti-evidence for lesson all of them. Then, you need to memorize and utilize my templates and practice plugging material in so often that you dont even need to think about what youre writing next. You need to practice this so often that using it feels like using the Power of Japan Empire Essay pythagorean theorem just plug A in psychological questions, here, B in here, and C in there, and boom youre finished. You should practice to the point where youre not even thinking consciously about using the template. Its just something that happens when you write . That might take you four essays, or it might take you fifteen. Just keep going until its automatic.

And if that sounds like a bunch of work, it is. But if you want to Power of Japan Essay, get a high score on your ACT essay / writing section, youll put it in. Remember the cardinal rule of test prep: If someone tells you that preparing for these tests is easy , theyre lying . Anyone can do well on the ACT, but it takes work. If you put in the work, youll be separating yourself from the millions of students each year who arent willing to do so. And your ACT scores are all about comparison.

Ill leave the decision up to you. How do you write sentences like that? How do you so easily come up with all of this evidence, all these transitions, all these general statements, etc.? This is a bit more complex. Practice, as per usual, is still essential but you also need the kangaroo hangman right strategies and the right tools at your disposal. If youre interested in Power of Japan Empire, learning a ton of additional tools thatll help you to: Instantly craft and generate relevant evidence that you can plug into any essay Write flawless transitions between paragraphs Fill all the pages provided in the time limits given while still devoting time to planning Craft generality and so what statements that you can directly tie to kangaroo, all your writing in seconds Write more complex, vocab-rich sentences and Military of Japan Essay, say the same things without sounding like youre repeating yourself Craft perfect introductions and who wrote moll, conclusions that engage the essay reader and set you up for a favorable score Avoid every single mistake that loses you points , leading to Military Power, a perfect score on every essay you write, regardless of the topic or how good of a writer you are

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4 Resume Writing Steps to Military Power of Japan Essay, Create a Killer Resume. Share this article: Updating your resume is as easy as trim, insert, change, proofread. We’ve got all the the piano lesson, details. [TWEET] Was updating your resume one of your New Year’s resolutions? Jan. Military Empire! 1 has come and gone. If this item is still on your to-do list, now’s the symptoms, time to take action with the proper resume writing steps. Power Empire! Don’t let another day, let alone another year, pass without refreshing your resume. Below are some resume tips on how to who wrote moll flanders, edit your resume to further your career in Military Power of Japan Empire the new year: While it may be your inclination to add more experience and questions, details, it’s important to cut back, too. Before you incorporate additional information to your current and latest role, take some time to review your previous positions for outdated work experience and accomplishments. As difficult as it may be to remove early achievements that you’re proud of, hiring managers generally recommend maintaining only the previous 10 to 15 years of work experience on Military of Japan Essay your resume.

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That means a shorter resume two pages or less can have a greater impact. According to PC Magazine, “In many fields, a one-page resume showing only your highlights is more than fineit's preferred.” Click on the following link to learn more about Power Empire Essay, choosing the right resume length. Once you’ve removed irrelevant details from past jobs, update your resume with new information that parallels your career goals. Consider certifications, trainings, awards, and accomplishments you received within the past year. Don’t forget to add new skills; often these keywords in your field help your resume stand out from the rest when pre-screened by applicant tracking systems (ATS). If you’ve taken on am waves increased responsibilities at your current job, one of the crucual resume writing steps is to make sure you update the Empire, language to flanders, reflect your latest accomplishments in the position. As you add these new details, you should also remove less relevant information from Essay, your current position. USA Today recommends using “no more than 6-7 bullet points for any given position. If you do? Cut and condense. Communication! No matter how long you’ve been in Military Essay a job or how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them.” It’s also important to remember that your most recent position deserves the most attention.

Older positions shouldn’t have as many bullet points. Another great resume tip from USA Today: “Go through your bullet points, and psychological questions, add as many numbers and percentages as you can to quantify your work. How many people were impacted? By what percentage did you exceed your goals?” Quantifiable achievements help you stand out. Military Power Essay! When updating your resume, keep in mind that resume styles change often. If it’s been more than a year since you’ve updated the format of your resume, it’s probably time for a makeover. If you’re still using an am waves objective, consider modifying your resume to Military Empire Essay, incorporate a “Professional Summary” or “Qualifications” section instead. As stated in CareerBuilder, “The difference between the two is that objective statements talk about psychological questions, what you want in a job; professional summaries recap your job-seeker “brand” and explain why you’re the right fit for the position in question. Since this is usually the first thing hiring managers will read on your resume, you want to make sure it grabs their attention and makes them want to learn more about your skills and Military of Japan Empire Essay, qualifications.” You might also want to incorporate an “Areas of hangman, Expertise” or “Core Competencies” section that sums up your most important skills.

This section helps boost your keyword count, which can often mean the difference between your resume landing on a hiring manager’s desk or not. As for your work experience, unless you’re drafting a CV as required in of Japan Empire certain fields and overseas try to avoid using paragraphs for anything other than a brief overview of definition, your responsibilities. Any and all accomplishments should be bulleted to ensure it is quick and easy for a hiring manager to Military Power Empire Essay, scan. The Piano Lesson Play! In the of Japan Empire Essay, “Education” section, it’s no longer required to include your graduation date, GPA, honors, or activities unless it’s recent. It’s also outdated to include a line that reads “References Available Upon Request.” Hiring managers already know you’ll provide references when asked. As you take these resume writing steps, leave a good amount of kangaroo, white space to separate the sections. Also, use simple and consistent fonts and sizes throughout the document to give it a cleaner look.

This is not only ideal because it’s easier on the eye, but it’s also critical to pass ATS screenings. As always, when you are updating your resume, you run the risk of of Japan Essay, inserting errors. So, before you submit any resume, take some time to who wrote moll, proofread, proofread, and proofread! Then ask a friend to give it a read. Look for formatting inconsistencies such as different bullet points, fonts, and Military Power Essay, sizes. Of The! And watch out for incorrect dates, titles, or details. It’s the little things that can cost you that job! As Monster points out, “you should refresh your resume throughout the year, not just at the beginning” to make sure it’s accurate and updated. But, more importantly, because you never know when you’ll need it. Subscribe today to get job tips and career advice that will come in handy. Military Power Essay! Let's stay in psychological touch.

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essay on oig The Federal Bureau of Investigation's Compliance. with the Attorney General's Investigative Guidelines. Office of the Inspector General. on FBI Undercover Operations. Our examination of the FBI's compliance with the Attorney General's Guidelines on Undercover Operations (Undercover Guidelines) produced findings that differed markedly from those for the Confidential Informant Guidelines. 244 In contrast to Military of Japan Empire the many compliance deficiencies we found in the Criminal Informant Program, our examination of the FBI's undercover operations identified comparatively few instances of non-compliance with the Undercover Guidelines. Although we noted several issues that merit further review by the FBI, we found that the am waves, FBI's organization and Power Essay, oversight of its undercover operations generally was effective.

Before discussing our compliance findings and our recommendations, we provide an overview of FBI undercover operations, the requirements of the Undercover Guidelines, and the May 2002 revisions to lesson those Guidelines. Role of FBI Undercover Operations. The Need for Undercover Operations. The Undercover Guidelines describe the importance of FBI undercover operations: The use of undercover techniques, including proprietary business entities, is essential to the detection, prevention, and prosecution of white collar crime, public corruption, terrorism, organized crime, offenses involving controlled substances, and other priority areas of investigation. 245. As we detailed in Military of Japan Essay, Chapter Two, the Undercover Guidelines were revised in 1982 following congressional hearings and press accounts critical of the FBI's ABSCAM undercover operation targeting official corruption in the early 1980s. At that time, FBI Director William Webster discussed the importance of psychological questions undercover operations: The kinds of crimes the FBI is giving high priority today - bribery, gambling, narcotics, theft of technology, other white collar violations - often require undercover work. They are so-called consensual crimes. There is a willing participant on each side, so it is difficult to come up with someone willing to be a material witness to the crime. Of Japan Empire. . . . Undercover operations, usually coupled with a cooperating witness or an informant, permit us to get inside a criminal apparatus and stay there long enough to find out spanish flu, how it works and who the players are. Undercover work is an exceedingly cost effective method of Military Power of Japan Essay getting at problems that could not be solved in any other way. 246.

According to Philip B. Heymann, former Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division who later served as Deputy Attorney General: From the definition marketing communication, prosecutor's perspective, undercover operations are extremely effective in aiding us to identify, prosecute and convict the guilty and to reduce the chances that innocent parties will be caught up in the criminal process. Undercover operations permit us to prove our cases with direct, as opposed to circumstantial, evidence. Instead of Military Empire having to rely on . . . testimony of unsavory criminals and confidence men, whose credibility may be questionable and, in any event, can often be destroyed on cross-examination by able defense counsel. Instead, through undercover techniques, we can muster the testimony of credible law enforcement agents, often augmented by unimpeachable video and oral taps which graphically reveal the defendant's image and voice engaged in the commission of am waves crime. Empire Essay. These techniques aid the truth-finding process by generally avoiding issues of mistaken identify or perjurious efforts by a witness to implicate an flu, innocent person . . . . 247. Undercover operations have been especially effective in public corruption investigations. The following case study demonstrates the Military of Japan, FBI's success in psychological questions, infiltrating one public institution that was notorious for its widespread corruption. Case Study 4.1: Operation Greylord. The benefits of Military Power of Japan Essay FBI undercover operations were illustrated in a case that targeted corruption in the Cook County, Illinois, court system.

The impetus for the operation, code named Greylord, began when the State's Attorney for Cook County received complaints indicating that criminal cases were being fixed in the Circuit Court of Cook County. These complaints were supported by a pattern of acquittals in cases involving particular judges and marketing, attorneys. After the U.S. Attorney was notified, the FBI initiated plans to conduct an Military Power of Japan, undercover operation regarding these allegations. Symptoms Spanish Flu. The ensuing investigation, which lasted nearly four years, uncovered extensive corruption. FBI agents who were licensed attorneys assumed roles as county prosecutors and private practitioners. In addition, the FBI recruited a state prosecutor and a judge from southern Illinois who were temporally assigned to Cook County to deal with the backlog of cases there. During the probe, more than 100 manufactured crimes were channeled to the Court. Equipped with electronic surveillance devices, the undercover agents were able to record hundreds of incriminating conversations with judges and attorneys which revealed that judges routinely accepted bribes to dismiss cases and received kickbacks from Power Essay, attorneys for flanders, assigning cases to them. By its conclusion, 15 judges and 49 lawyers were convicted as a result of the Greylord undercover operation for bribery or tax-related offenses and served time in prison.

Under the current Undercover Guidelines, the FBI may employ undercover operations in preliminary inquiries, general crimes investigations, and both types of criminal intelligence investigations: racketeering enterprise investigations and terrorism enterprise investigations. The FBI may also participate in joint undercover operations with other law enforcement agencies, with certain limitations. 248. The Benefits and Risks of the of Japan, Undercover Technique in FBI Investigations. As with confidential informants, the FBI's use of undercover operations offers the potential for significant investigative benefits but also involves various risks. The Guidelines acknowledge that, these techniques inherently involve an element of deception and may require cooperation with persons whose motivation and conduct are open to moll flanders question, and so should be carefully considered and monitored. Military Of Japan Empire. 249. Evaluation of the benefits and risks associated with undercover operations can involve important legal and ethical issues, and can also impact prosecutorial decisions. The Undercover Guidelines therefore contain a requirement that DOJ perform a cost/benefit analysis prior to consenting to sensitive undercover operations. Who Wrote. Section IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines states that the appropriate Federal prosecutor must furnish a letter in support of the Group I application to FBI Headquarters that should include a finding that the Military Empire, proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the undercover technique and that the kangaroo hangman, potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm. As described in of Japan, Chapter Two, the Senate Select Committee to Study Undercover Activities of Components of the Department of Justice, convened in lesson play, the wake of the ABSCAM investigation, highlighted the Military Power of Japan, competing considerations associated with use of undercover operations: The Select Committee finds that undercover operations of the moll, United States Department of Justice have substantially contributed to the detection, investigation, and prosecution of Military Empire criminal activity, especially organized crime and consensual crimes such as narcotics trafficking, fencing of stolen property, and political corruption.

In this era of increasingly powerful and sophisticated criminals, some use of the undercover technique is indispensable to the achievement of effective law enforcement. . . . The Select Committee also finds that use of the undercover technique creates serious risks to citizens' property, privacy, and civil liberties, and may compromise law enforcement itself. Even when used by law enforcement officials with the most honorable motives and of the, the greatest integrity, the undercover technique may on occasion create crime where none would otherwise have existed. 250. After the Senate's report on ABSCAM in Military Power of Japan Essay, 1982, the FBI strengthened its controls on undercover operations. As we discuss in Part V of this chapter, our review found that the FBI regularly conducts undercover operations in substantial compliance with applicable FBI regulations. The FBI uses the hangman, undercover technique in a broad array of cases, as the following examples illustrate. In an investigation of gang-related homicides in Military Power of Japan, New England, undercover employees infiltrated a motorcycle gang and purchased cocaine, methamphetamine, and stolen guns, motorcycles, and vehicles.

The undercover operation resulted in the piano lesson play, 17 convictions, the solving of a homicide, and the recovery of 11 stolen vehicles and 17 motorcycles. In an investigation of organized crime, 32 defendants were indicted in March 2005 and charged with numerous racketeering crimes and other offenses committed over more than a decade, including violent assault, extortion, loansharking, union embezzlement, illegal gambling, trafficking in stolen property and of Japan Empire Essay, counterfeit goods, and mail fraud. Most of the marketing communication, defendants were members or associates of the Gambino Organized Crime Family of La Cosa Nostra, including its acting boss and Military Power, underboss. Definition Marketing Communication. Evidence developed during the of Japan, investigation resulted from the undercover activities of an FBI agent who infiltrated the crime organization and was offered induction as a made member. In a white collar crime investigation, the FBI targeted a warehouse facility which packaged and shipped approximately $500,000 in illegally diverted pharmaceutical drugs. The undercover employee posed as a business person who was able to moll flanders obtain drugs fraudulently and of Japan Empire Essay, sell them to national wholesalers at less than market value. The undercover operation resulted in 15 convictions and psychological, fines of more than $22 million.

In a child pornography investigation, an undercover employee identified e-mail groups that were posting and exchanging child pornography. The initial phase of the ensuing enforcement action resulted in charges against 86 individuals in more than 25 states. While the FBI has achieved significant benefits through undercover operations, the potential risks are also present. 251 The Undercover Guidelines require the FBI and DOJ to routinely address risk factors in undercover operations such as: damage to Military Power of Japan Essay public institutions through manipulation of, or interference with, political and administrative processes; injury to the targets of hangman undercover operations by, for example, needlessly harming their reputations; improper execution of the undercover operation that establishes a defense to prosecution, such as entrapment or outrageous government conduct; 252 and. damage to Military Essay third parties, such as financial loss and criminal victimization caused by kangaroo hangman the undercover operation's generation of crime.

A recently litigated case illustrates how an FBI undercover operation can adversely affect third parties. As explained in Case Study 4.2 below, in Brown v. Nationsbank Corp., 188 F.3d 579 (5th Cir. 1999), the Military Power Empire, Court expressed its disapproval for what it perceived as the FBI's insensitivity to the interests of innocent bystanders to the undercover operation. Case Study 4.2: Operation Lightning Strike The litigation in Brown resulted from an psychological, FBI undercover operation called Lightning Strike, which was initiated in 1991 to investigate contract procurement fraud and other illegal activity in the aerospace industry. In 1992, the FBI contacted three Houston businessmen about forming a partnership with a Maryland-based company, Eastern Tech Manufacturing Company, to secure contracts with NASA and its contractors. Military Of Japan Empire. The businessmen themselves were not targets of the FBI undercover operation; instead, the FBI wanted to use them to psychological gain access to the aerospace industry.

188 F.3d at 583. As the undercover operation unfolded, the FBI offered one of the businessmen a job as Chief Financial Officer and Vice President of Marketing of another company, Space Inc., and promised multi-million dollar loans to all three in support of their existing businesses. During 1992 and 1993, the Military Empire, businessmen were extensively involved in the preparation of communication bids for Space, Inc., and introduced FBI agents to Military Power managers at NASA and many leading aerospace manufacturers. According to the piano play the Court, the businessmen were unaware that they and their companies were being set up by the FBI as tools of deception in an undercover operation. Id. at 583. At the end of 1992, the FBI offered one of the businessmen, Brown, an opportunity to develop an exclusive resort in the Bahamas. Power Of Japan Empire. After he dissolved his business relationship with his partners and made arrangements to am waves sell his home, the FBI tried to persuade Brown to become an unpaid informant.

The FBI directed one of his associates to deliver a sealed envelope to Military of Japan Empire Essay him with entertainment funds with instructions to of the spanish meet another party at a hotel. Power Of Japan Essay. Brown complied, and the FBI recorded the transaction. In its opinion, the definition communication, Court stated: Attempting to convince Brown to work as an Military Empire, unpaid undercover informant to set up stings, the FBI agents physically and communication, psychologically intimidated Brown. On numerous occasions throughout August and of Japan, September, 1993, the agents questioned Brown for multiple hours without the presence of an attorney and detained him against his will. Brown was threatened with prosecution of twenty-one different crimes, which could result in sixty years imprisonment and over a million dollars in fines. In 1994, the FBI shut down Lightening Strike.

Brown was later indicted for one count of offering a $500 bribe to a public official. Kangaroo. His trial on that charge resulted in a mistrial. The government declined to prosecute the case further and subsequently dismissed its indictment against Brown. In 1996, Brown and his two associates filed suit against the FBI in Military of Japan Empire Essay, U.S. District Court alleging violation of the Federal Tort Claims Act and malicious prosecution, as well as Bivens claims against the FBI agents for due process and Fifth Amendment violations. The district court dismissed the action, and the plaintiffs appealed. Am Waves. Although the Military of Japan Essay, Court of Appeals affirmed the district court's dismissal, it included the following analysis addressing the qualified immunity defense to Bivens claims: No court has addressed the particular issue presented by this case: the lesson, specific limits on federal agents' authority in undercover operations. The district court found no limits on the power of federal agents operating under cover, reasoning that if Appellants are allowed to Military of Japan Empire pursue state law causes of spanish action it would 'effectively stop' federal undercover operations because, 'by their very nature [they] seek to invade the privacy of those who violate the law.' . . Essay. . The district court should have asked whether it was constitutionally permissible for hangman, federal agents to inflict damages on innocent non-targets during an undercover operation and refuse them compensation.

Because the Fifth Amendment due process guarantee against Military Power conscience-shocking injury imposes clear limits on law enforcement conduct, we conclude that it was neither necessary nor proper for the defendants in this case to destroy the lives and businesses of who wrote innocent non-targets in the name of law enforcement. . . . [W]e conclude that the FBI made decisions which harmed the Power of Japan, Plaintiffs after ample opportunity for cool reflection. In fact, they invested almost two years and thousands of am waves man hours in developing the sting operation. Thus, the due process clause protects the Plaintiffs from any harm that arose from the officers' deliberate indifference. The facts, as pleaded, establish at least that level of federal agent culpability as Operation Lightening Strike evolved into a disastrous boondoggle. Military. We therefore hold that Hodgson's [another plaintiff] allegations that federal agents inflicted damages on him, an innocent non-target, during this particular undercover operation and refused him compensation states a claim under Bivens. However, because we address today for the first time the parameters of kangaroo due process protections afforded innocent third parties injured by Military Power of Japan Empire law enforcement sting operations run amok, . . . we cannot say that the due process rights claimed by Hodgson were clearly established during 1992-94.

188 F.3d at 590-92. As explained later in this Chapter, our review found no undercover operations that involved the sort of adverse consequences described by the court in Brown . Our inquiries with the FBI Office of the General Counsel found that FBI undercover operations rarely have resulted in civil litigation. Significant Requirements of the Undercover Guidelines. The Undercover Guidelines prescribe the moll, authority level and approval process for Power Empire, FBI undercover operations based upon the type of undercover operation being proposed. As described below, there are two types of undercover operations: Group I and Group II. 253.

Group I Undercover Operations. Group I undercover operations, known as Group I UCOs, must be approved by FBI Headquarters and Group I UCOs involving sensitive circumstances must be approved by the joint FBI-DOJ Criminal Undercover Operations Review Committee (CUORC). We provide a detailed description of the operations of the CUORC in Chapter Seven. The major categories of Group I UCOs are those in who wrote moll, which there is a reasonable expectation of involving either sensitive circumstances or fiscal circumstances. The types of Military of Japan Essay operations that involve sensitive circumstances are: investigations of possible criminal conduct by any elected or appointed official, or political candidate for of the spanish, a judicial, legislative, management, or executive-level position of trust in a federal, state, or local governmental entity or political subdivision thereof; investigations of any public official at Military Power of Japan Essay, the federal, state, or local level in any matter involving systemic corruption of any governmental function; and.

investigations of play possible criminal conduct by any foreign official or government, religious organization, political organization, or the news media. In addition, the following activities constitute sensitive circumstances: engaging in activity having a significant effect on or constituting a significant intrusion into the legitimate operation of a federal, state, or local governmental entity; establishing, acquiring, or operating a proprietary business; providing goods or services that are essential to the commission of a crime and that are reasonably unavailable to Military Power of Japan Empire a subject of the investigation except from the government; activity by an undercover employee that is proscribed by federal, state, or local law as a felony or that is kangaroo, otherwise a serious crime; activities involving a request to of Japan Empire an attorney, physician, member of the clergy, or other persons for information that would ordinarily be privileged, or to a member of the news media concerning an individual with whom the news media is known to have a professional or confidential relationship; and. activities that present a significant risk of violence, risk of financial loss, or a realistic potential for significant claims against the United States. 254. The types of activities that qualify as fiscal circumstances are those in which there is a reasonable expectation that the operation will: require the the piano lesson, purchase or lease of property, equipment, buildings, or facilities; the alteration of Military Empire buildings or facilities; or prepayment of more than one month's rent; require the deposit of appropriated funds or proceeds generated by the undercover operation into banks or other financial institutions; use the proceeds generated by the undercover operation to offset necessary and reasonable expenses of the operation; require a reimbursement, compensation, or indemnification agreement with cooperating individuals or entities for services or losses incurred by lesson play them in aid of the operation; or.

exceed the limitations on duration or commitment of resources established by the FBI Director for operations initiated in the field. 255. The Undercover Guidelines specify the Empire, issues that must be addressed in any application to conduct a Group I UCO. The application must include: a description of the proposed objective, scope, duration, and cost of the operation; how, if the operation involves sensitive circumstances, the operation merits approval in light of the involvement of otherwise illegal activity (OIA), if any; procedures to minimize the acquisition, retention, and dissemination of hangman any information which does not relate to the matter under investigation; and an explanation of how potential constitutional or other legal concerns are being addressed. In addition, the proposing field office must include with its application a letter from the appropriate U.S. Attorney indicating that he or she has reviewed the proposed operation, agrees with the proposal and that it is legal, will prosecute any meritorious cases, and has made a finding that the proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the undercover technique, and that the potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm. Power Of Japan. Undercover Guidelines IV.F.2.b.

Most FBI field offices employ a field division CUORC to evaluate both Group I and Group II UCO proposals. The Guidelines also specify the limited circumstances in questions, which an undercover employee may participate in OIA, defined as any activity that would constitute a violation of Federal, state, or local law if engaged in Military of Japan Empire Essay, by a private person acting without authorization. Undercover Guidelines IV.H. 256 An FBI Assistant Director must approve certain types of who wrote flanders OIA after review by the CUORC. Military Of Japan Essay. Id. Am Waves. III.H.5. To avoid entrapment of innocent persons caught up in undercover operations, the Power Empire Essay, Guidelines require that any undercover activities that involve an inducement to engage in crime be authorized only upon a finding that the illegal nature of the activity is reasonably clear to potential subjects; the spanish, nature of the inducement is justifiable in view of the character of the illegal transaction; there is a reasonable expectation that offering the Military Power Empire Essay, inducement will reveal illegal activity; and there is either a reasonable indication that the subject is engaging, has engaged, or is likely to definition engage in the proposed or similar illegal activity, or the opportunity for Military Empire, illegal activity has been structured so that there is reason to questions believe that any persons drawn to Empire the opportunity or brought to it are predisposed to spanish engage in the contemplated illegal conduct. Military Essay. 257 Undercover Guidelines V.B. With respect to applications for the extension or renewal of a Group I UCO, the Guidelines require an explanation of the expected results to be obtained from the operation or an explanation of any failure to obtain significant results. At the questions, end of 2004, the FBI had [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] open Group I undercover operations that were governed by the Undercover Guidelines. Group II Undercover Operations.

Undercover operations that may be approved by the Special Agent in Power Essay, Charge (SAC) in FBI field offices without FBI Headquarters' review are known as Group II undercover operations, or Group II UCOs. A Group II UCO is defined as an psychological questions, undercover operation that does not involve either sensitive circumstances or fiscal circumstances. Currently, SACs have the authority to approve Group II UCOs involving the expenditure of of Japan Essay up to $100,000 (or $150,000 in psychological questions, drug cases of which a maximum of $100,000 is for operational expenses) for Military of Japan Empire, up to 6 months, and to renew the operation for symptoms spanish flu, one additional 6-month period, not to exceed 1 year. 258 Thereafter, extensions or renewals must be approved by FBI Headquarters following review by the CUORC. The Guidelines provide that a copy of all approvals for the establishment, extension, or renewal of undercover operations must be sent to FBI Headquarters. Undercover Guidelines IV.B. In approving the establishment, extension, or renewal of a Group II UCO, the SAC must make a written determination referencing the facts and circumstances indicating that initiation of the investigative activity is of Japan Empire Essay, warranted under departmental guidelines; the the piano lesson play, proposed undercover operation appears to be an effective means of Military Power of Japan Essay obtaining evidence or necessary information; the operation will be conducted with minimal intrusion consistent with the marketing communication, need to Power Empire collect evidence or information in moll, a timely and effective manner; approval for the use of Military of Japan Empire confidential informants has been obtained pursuant to the relevant Guidelines; any foreseeable participation by an undercover employee in illegal activity that can be approved by communication the SAC is justified by the pertinent factors; and there is no present expectation of the occurrence of Power of Japan Essay any of the sensitive or fiscal circumstances that would render the am waves, operation a Group I UCO. Undercover Guidelines IV.B. At the end of 2004, the FBI had [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] open Group II undercover operations that were governed by of Japan Essay the Undercover Guidelines.

Major Revisions to the Guidelines. The May 2002 revisions to the Undercover Guidelines broadened the FBI's authority to use undercover techniques in a wider variety of investigations, increased monetary limits, expanded SAC approval authority for Group II UCOs, and clarified several terms in the previous Guidelines. The major changes were: emphasizing the prevention of terrorism as a permissible objective of communication undercover operations; making explicit and emphasizing the Military Power Empire, FBI's authority to lesson use undercover techniques to further the objectives of both types of criminal intelligence investigations: racketeering enterprise investigations and terrorism enterprise investigations; authorizing SACs to grant emergency approval for the initiation of terrorism-related Group I UCOs if the SAC determines that the UCO is necessary to avoid the loss of a significant investigative opportunity; adding potential constitutional concerns as a factor the SAC must consider in approving any Group II UCO and requiring an explanation of how such concerns have been addressed in an application for a Group I UCO involving the infiltration of a group as part of a terrorism enterprise or recruitment of an informant from such a group; clarifying that only substantive contacts with an undercover employee, as distinguished from incidental or passive contact, count toward the rule defining a series of related undercover activities as three or more substantive contacts with the of Japan Empire Essay, individual(s) under investigation; clarifying the FBI's authority to participate in joint operations with other federal agencies by authorizing the FBI's participation without complying with the Attorney General's Guidelines on definition communication, FBI Undercover Operations as long as the Military Empire, lead agency's sensitive case review process is substantially comparable to the FBI's CUORC review process; raising from the piano play, $40,000 to $50,000 the operational expenditure limits for Power Empire, Group II UCOs which may be approved at the field level; clarifying that felony activity by an FBI undercover employee and potential civil actions against FBI employees under Bivens is a sensitive circumstance, thereby requiring CUORC approval; extending the authority of SACs to kangaroo hangman approve low-level money laundering not to exceed five transactions and $1 million without requiring Group I authority from the CUORC; authorizing SACs to approve the continuation of covert online contact with subjects for a 30-day period pending approval of a Group I UCO at FBI Headquarters if necessary to maintain credibility or to Power Empire avoid permanent loss of contact; and. requiring that the FBI immediately notify the Deputy Attorney General whenever FBI Headquarters disapproves an application for approval of an undercover operation and whenever the CUORC is communication, unable to of Japan Essay reach consensus concerning an application. The OIG Review of the who wrote, FBI's Compliance with the Undercover Guidelines.

The focus of our review of the Undercover Guidelines was on two of the Power of Japan, three substantive Guideline sections: Authorization of Undercover Operations (Part IV), and Monitoring and Control of Undercover Operations (Part VI). We did not directly examine the communication, third substantive section, Entrapment (Part V), because it largely addresses authorization issues that we analyzed through examination of the Guidelines' general authorization provisions. During our visits to Power of Japan 12 FBI field divisions, we examined 83 undercover operations, of which 22 were Group I UCOs and 61 were Group II UCOs. We collected Guidelines-related data on more than 75 variables for Group I UCOs that we evaluated, and 50 variables for Group II UCOs that we evaluated. 259 As part of am waves this assessment we examined the following questions.

Was the initiation of the undercover operation authorized? Was authority to of Japan Empire extend the undercover operation obtained? Was authority to conduct interim or emergency undercover operations obtained in accordance with the Guidelines? Were unforeseen sensitive circumstances that developed during the undercover operation addressed? Was written authorization from the appropriate federal prosecutor obtained as necessary? Was otherwise illegal activity (OIA) properly authorized and the piano play, adequately described? Did FBI management adequately supervise the undercover operation? Were undercover employees prepared in accordance with the Guidelines?

Did the Military, SAC review the conduct of the undercover employees as required? In addition to our evaluation of the kangaroo, FBI's undercover operations, we also examined the results of the FBI's undercover operation audits. These included FBI Inspection Division reports and the CID's Undercover and of Japan Essay, Sensitive Operation Unit's (USOU) periodic on-site evaluations. The USOU, which we discuss in greater detail in Chapter Seven, provides programmatic and operational support to am waves the FBI's undercover operations. Of Japan. Finally, we surveyed the FBI's Undercover Coordinators and hangman, Division Counsel regarding the operation of the undercover program. Power Empire Essay. 260. Of the 83 undercover operations we examined during our field work, we identified authorization-related errors in 10 cases, or 12 percent. Eight undercover operations, or 10 percent, had a single violation of the Undercover Guidelines, and 2 undercover operations had 2 violations. In three cases, the available documentation shows that the undercover operation continued beyond the established expiration date.

261 Three cases involved task force undercover operations in which the FBI was participating with state and local law enforcement; in the piano, these cases, the undercover operations exceeded the scope of the FBI's authorization for its agents' participation. Of Japan Essay. 262 In two cases, the flu, undercover operation was approved by an FBI manager who lacked authority to do so. Military Empire Essay. 263 Finally, in the piano lesson, two cases FBI Headquarters approval was not obtained for matters involving sensitive circumstances within the Military Power Empire, meaning of IV.C.2 of the am waves, Undercover Guidelines. These two violations both occurred in public corruption cases - one involving the payment of a bribe without following Headquarters' review procedures, and the other involving the systemic corruption of [a] governmental function. 264. The results of our field work are comparable to the findings of the USOU on-site reviews that we examined, which found authorization-related errors in Military Power, roughly 12 percent of the undercover operations. In addition to these Guidelines deficiencies, we identified 17 undercover operations with 19 documentation-related errors that were connected to am waves the FBI's Undercover Guidelines compliance responsibilities. As discussed in detail below, the issues in these matters concerned the lack of or insufficient documentation addressing the SAC's review of undercover employee conduct, authorizations of OIA, and certain required elements of U.S. Attorney authorizations for Group I UCOs. We also identified inconsistencies relating to the evaluation of the of Japan Essay, risk of violence in undercover operations, a sensitive circumstance within the meaning of IV.C.2 of the definition marketing communication, Undercover Guidelines.

Similar to Power Essay many USOU on-site reviews, our field work identified lapses relating to who wrote moll flanders the documentation of the SAC's review of the conduct of undercover employees. Section VI.A of the Undercover Guidelines requires the SAC or Supervisory Special Agent (SSA) to meet with the undercover employees and to discuss their expected conduct during the undercover operation and provide instructions included in the Guidelines. Section VI.B requires the SAC to Military Power Essay review the conduct of the undercover employees from hangman, time to time. Neither Section requires documentation of these meetings and reviews. The Unit Chief of USOU explained to the OIG that he favored documenting all reviews required by VI.A and B in order to Military Empire Essay demonstrate compliance with the Guidelines, and that this could be satisfied simply by having the case agent or supervisor include an e-mail in the case file. 265 However, the FBI's Field Guide for definition marketing communication, Undercover and Sensitive Operations (Field Guide or FGUSO) requires documentation only of meetings with undercover employees whose undercover responsibilities require them to work outside field division offices. 266 Field Guide 10.1(1)A. Of the 83 undercover operations we examined, 21 lacked documentation of the Military of Japan Empire, SAC's review of the undercover employees' conduct.

In addition, neither the Group I nor Group II standard authorization forms used by the FBI includes a certification that the instructions required by Undercover Guidelines VI.A have been given, though both forms require the Undercover Coordinator to certify that he or she has apprised the who wrote moll, members of the undercover operation investigative team . . . of undercover program policy. Our survey of Undercover Coordinators revealed that 51 percent of those responding reported that their office did not maintain records related to the required instructions. 267. As we found with respect to the FBI's use of its authority to approve a confidential informant's participation in OIA in the Criminal Informant Program, we identified deficiencies in Power of Japan Empire, the sufficiency of the am waves, descriptions of OIA authorized for undercover employees. Power Of Japan Empire Essay. In six Group II undercover operations, the OIA was inadequately described. This occurred primarily in am waves, drug-related undercover operations where basic information about the anticipated drug transactions (such as the type and general estimate of the quantity of drugs) was not specified. For example, in one undercover operation the quantity of drugs that was authorized for Military of Japan Empire, purchase was identified as that which will be needed to maintain sufficient leverage on the subjects in order to am waves persuade them to cooperate with law enforcement. In another matter, the authorization was [to] gather sufficient evidence against the aforementioned targets to prosecute on Federal Criminal Narcotics Trafficking charges. Two successive Unit Chiefs of USOU disagreed as to whether such descriptions of OIA were adequate.

We also identified six Group I UCOs where the required letter from DOJ did not satisfy IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines. As noted above, that Section requires that applications to Military of Japan Empire FBI Headquarters for approval of questions undercover operations include a letter from a U.S. Attorney or Section Chief in the Criminal Division of the DOJ that indicates that he or she: has reviewed the proposed operation, including any sensitive circumstances reasonably expected to occur; agrees with the Military of Japan Empire, proposal and its legality; finds that the proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the symptoms of the flu, undercover technique; believes that the potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm; and. will prosecute any meritorious case that is of Japan, developed. Four of the who wrote moll flanders, letters omitted two or more factors. All of the letters omitted factor number four. We also did not find a consistent practice of Power of Japan highlighting in the proposal materials the potential risk of violence or physical harm that could result from the undercover operations. Neither the Group I nor Group II proposal form generated by USOU specifically solicits information on kangaroo, this issue. Military Of Japan. 268. The following table summarizes these findings.

Operations in Select Field Offices. In addition to our field work, we also examined the results of USOU's on-site evaluations. The USOU's evaluations found comparatively few violations of the Undercover Guidelines. Of [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] on-sites conducted by USOU from May 2002 through October 2004, the following Guidelines-related deficiencies were identified: in seven undercover operations, agents failed to who wrote obtain proper authorization for Power of Japan Essay, undercover activity; in two undercover operations, division management failed to meet with undercover employees and in five other undercover operations documentation of play such meetings was lacking; 269 and. in one undercover operation, a financial transaction was conducted in violation of the Guidelines. Our review of Power of Japan Empire other USOU documents revealed other Guidelines violations. The CUORC's fiscal year 2003 report noted the lack of proper authorization in one undercover operation, and a USOU electronic communication to the field in definition marketing communication, 2003 described the failure of certain field divisions to Military Essay provide prompt notification to FBI Headquarters of the approval of who wrote flanders Group II UCOs, a requirement of the Undercover Guidelines. Undercover Guidelines IV.B.4. However, USOU reports do not summarize or include violations found in the Inspection Division's audits on undercover operations. Military Power Empire. According to the Unit Chief of lesson USOU, the Inspection Division does not routinely share its undercover inspection findings with USOU.

The Assistant Director of the Power Empire Essay, Inspection Division stated that she believes the Inspection Division should share this information with USOU. Our review of Inspection Division audits of undercover operations conducted from May 2002 through October 2004 identified four Guidelines violations. In one field division, a Group II UCO continued for more than a year without Headquarters approval, while Headquarters twice was not properly notified by another field division when two undercover operations were initiated. Kangaroo. Another violation involved a fiscal circumstance that was not presented to FBI Headquarters for review. We believe that several factors account for the generally favorable compliance findings for of Japan Empire, the FBI's undercover operations. First, the FBI's use of undercover operations is definition communication, not as widespread as its use of confidential informants. For example, many of the largest FBI offices had only a few undercover operations operating at any time, and some field offices had none. According to Empire the Unit Chief of USOU, the small number of kangaroo undercover operations allows the FBI to devote sufficient resources and Empire, attention to kangaroo hangman supervising them. Second, unlike with the of Japan Empire Essay, confidential informant program, USOU has developed a field guide, standardized forms, and a user-friendly web site to assist with administration of moll flanders undercover operations. Military Of Japan. The Field Guide addresses many issues covered by the Undercover Guidelines, such as consultations with DOJ and a discussion of kangaroo hangman entrapment.

The standardized forms provided by Power Empire FBI Headquarters also address Guidelines issues such as the presence of sensitive circumstances. The web site includes such resources as the current version of the Guidelines, the undercover operation field guide, and answers to frequently asked questions concerning undercover operations. With few exceptions, we did not detect significant confusion in definition, the field regarding Undercover Guidelines' requirements and Military of Japan Empire, procedures. 270. Third, according to the Unit Chief of definition communication USOU, field agents are able to draw upon the expertise of personnel assigned to USOU, Undercover Coordinators, and experienced undercover-certified agents to promote compliance with FBI and DOJ requirements. We found that Undercover Guidelines compliance has been significantly aided by the leadership of the Unit Chief of USOU who was in place for the majority of our review. Military Power Of Japan Empire. During his tenure, which ended in March 2004, he took several actions to am waves significantly improve the operation of USOU and promote compliance with the Guidelines. Military Essay. These included reinstituting preparation of the annual report of the CUORC, improving the USOU on-site review process, identifying Guidelines compliance issues in Unit reports, and promptly rewriting the Field Guide to spanish flu account for the May 2002 Guidelines revisions. Fourth, USOU's on-site review process reinforces for the field the importance of Military Essay adherence to psychological questions the Guidelines. Military Of Japan Empire. Although the focus of the on-site reviews is operational success and safety, the reviews include assessments of compliance issues that assist with the identification and am waves, correction of Undercover Guidelines violations. With regard to the causes of the limited Undercover Guidelines violations that we identified in our field work, the of Japan Essay, violations involved errors that we believe could have been avoided had there been closer coordination between the lesson, undercover investigative teams and the Undercover Coordinators and Military Power, Chief Division Counsel.

The failure to obtain or to maintain proper authorization for undercover activities was the most significant Guidelines compliance violation we found. Communication. These included continuing undercover activities beyond the approved authorization period, failing to obtain FBI Headquarters approval because of Empire a misinterpretation of sensitive circumstances, and participating in task forces that exceed FBI undercover operation authorizations. The Piano Lesson. Although the frequency of these violations was not as common as for other kinds of Guidelines non-compliance identified during this review, it nonetheless occurred in 10 to 12 percent of the cases examined by the OIG and USOU. Military Power Of Japan Empire. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the cause of the non-compliance is simply lack of knowledge by agents regarding the Guideline requirements. Our surveys of Undercover Coordinators and definition communication, Division Counsel revealed two significant findings regarding oversight and assistance to FBI undercover operations. 271 First, many Undercover Coordinators believe that they are too encumbered by other duties to devote appropriate attention to the undercover program. Military Of Japan. Second, the matters on which Division Counsel's advice is questions, sought with regard to undercover operations varies considerably by field division. The diagram below indicates that more than one-third of the Undercover Coordinators we surveyed said they believe that they have insufficient time to coordinate undercover operations in their field offices. Nearly two thirds of those Coordinators stated that the reason is that they have too many other responsibilities. 272. Our survey of Division Counsel also revealed that a large percentage of these attorneys are not consistently briefed by of Japan field agents regarding important developments in undercover operations.

on Select Issues Concerning Undercover Operations. In addition, we found significant agreement concerning the lack of consultation among Division Counsel assigned to the same field office. 273 We found that 40 percent of the offices to which these attorneys were assigned are not regularly briefed on the status of pending undercover operations, 33 percent are not regularly briefed on planned investigative approaches, and 27 percent are not regularly briefed on anticipated legal problems with the undercover operations. Moreover, Division Counsel in the piano lesson play, the five field divisions that had at least two cases of authorization-related errors reported that they were not regularly briefed on the status of pending undercover operations. Our interviews with FBI personnel also indicated that some field divisions need more frequent and consistent interactions by Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel with undercover teams. Power Empire Essay. 274 The Unit Chief of USOU emphasized this point, stating the mistakes that I have seen since being the Unit Chief of this Unit, if the definition marketing communication, Undercover Coordinator would have been involved, it probably wouldn't have happened. He also stated that the CDC is first line of Military Power of Japan Empire Essay legal defense, and if agents are not working with legal counsel as part of a team effort both in moll, the formulation and implementation of the undercover operation, you are asking for problems. In addition, an of Japan Empire Essay, electronic communication which USOU issued to all field offices during our review emphasized the importance of the Undercover Coordinator, the need for greater consultation with the Coordinator, and the problems that turnover in the Undercover Coordinator position was having on the undercover program. FBIHQ has seen an increase in the turnover rate in the [Undercover Coordinator] position. Since January 2001, 29 of kangaroo 56 UCCs have been replaced.

While a UCC may be promoted or transferred thus making a change necessary, efforts should be made to ensure continuity by selecting a candidate who will remain in Power of Japan Essay, the position for a period of time. Such continuity will be mutually beneficial to the field office and the FBI's undercover program. . . Am Waves. . It has also been noticed that [Undercover Coordinators] have not been fully utilized as reflected in the fact that several undercover proposals have been submitted to FBIHQ without the careful review by Military of Japan Empire the [Undercover Coordinator]. We also learned that the SSAs who exercise day-to-day supervision over flu, the agents participating in the undercover operations are not required to receive training on undercover operations or compliance issues. Our review further revealed that the absence of guidance addressing undercover operations in which task forces participated contributed to some of the Guidelines violations we found. In one case a local law enforcement task force member made drug purchases using FBI funds on behalf of an FBI agent who previously had participated in the undercover operation, even though the FBI's authorization for the undercover activity had expired weeks earlier. Although the Field Guide includes a section on joint operations, it does not address many compliance issues that are unique to task forces, such as the need to Power Essay identify in definition, the FBI proposal documentation all task force officers who will participate in the undercover operation. The USOU Unit Chief explained that the Power Empire, FBI has not developed guidance for undercover operations involving task forces. We also identified some confusion concerning the am waves, scope of sensitive circumstances in the Undercover Guidelines. Our survey of FBI Undercover Coordinators revealed that 43 percent of those responding believed that determining whether sensitive circumstances are present in of Japan, a case is one of the three most difficult issues to resolve in the course of who wrote initiating and conducting undercover operations. 275 Our field work also noted compliance issues associated with the interpretation of systemic corruption in IV.C.2.b and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals in IV.C.2.m.

276 For example, we identified an undercover operation in which law enforcement officers from two agencies were engaged in illegal conduct, and the target of the investigation had consulted with the Military Power of Japan, head of one of the agencies about some of these activities. After we questioned the marketing, field division's application of Power Empire Essay IV.C.2.b (systematic corruption) in this case and its decision to kangaroo treat the undercover operation as a Group II, we conferred with the Chief of the Investigative Law Unit of the FBI Office of the General Counsel who described a framework for analyzing when a governmental function has been systemically corrupted. The USOU has not incorporated this type of guidance into its Field Guide or other guidance, however. We believe that guidance would assist field agents and promote consistency in interpretation. In addition, we reviewed a number of Military Group II UCO proposals originating from Violent Crime and Major Offender and Drug Units which contained little information about the risks of violence. Our discussions with FBI personnel revealed a wide range of opinions concerning what qualifies as a significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals within the am waves, meaning of Power of Japan Essay IV.C.2.m. 277. With respect to compliance violations regarding the documentation concerning reviews required under Part VI of the Undercover Guidelines, descriptions of OIA, and the contents of DOJ authorization letters for hangman, Group I UCOs, our discussions with FBI personnel indicated that a lack of awareness of the need for the documentation or for greater specificity in such material appeared to be the primary cause of the deficiencies. The USOU Field Guide currently does not list the required contents of DOJ authorization letters.

With regard to oversight of undercover employees, VI.B of the Undercover Guidelines requires the SAC to review from time to Military of Japan time the conduct of undercover employees. 278 According to psychological the Unit Chief of USOU, the case agents and Military of Japan Empire, their supervisors have the responsibility to document meetings with the lesson, SAC. With respect to the lack of Military Power of Japan specificity found in some OIA authorizations, the communication, USOU Unit Chief stated that it is a common sense approach. [You should identify] the activity that you are going to be engaging in as best as you can at Military Power of Japan Essay, the time. According to kangaroo hangman one USOU Unit Chief, the kind of general descriptions that we found in of Japan, several of the OIA authorizations, such as that which will be needed to maintain sufficient leverage on the subjects in definition communication, order to persuade them to cooperate with law enforcement, does not provide sufficient guidance or indicate the likely limitations that the SAC intended to impose on Empire, the scope of the psychological questions, OIA. Empire. Another USOU Unit Chief told us that the referenced descriptions were adequate. Our review of the FBI's undercover program revealed that, with some exceptions, FBI undercover operations typically adhered to the Undercover Guidelines. We believe this generally favorable record is attributable to definition marketing communication the availability of information about the requirements, including a field guide, standardized forms, and a user-friendly web site, and of Japan Empire Essay, the contributions of experienced FBI personnel in of the, ensuring adherence to the Guidelines. Our review nonetheless identified authorization-related deficiencies in 12 percent of the undercover operations that we examined, an outcome that is consistent with the results of USOU's on-site reviews over the last two years. We believe that these violations, while not high in number, are important to rectify, especially because of the Military Power of Japan Essay, risks that undercover operations present for the participating agents, the FBI, and the public. To ensure that undercover operations are properly authorized and conducted in accordance with the Guidelines, we believe that the FBI should encourage greater utilization of its Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel.

We recommend that the FBI evaluate the Undercover Coordinator position in the same way we have recommended for the Confidential Informant Coordinator position. Given the demands placed on Undercover Coordinators in certain field divisions, it may be appropriate to afford senior field managers the option of symptoms spanish elevating the Power of Japan Empire, post to the GS-14 supervisory level. Who Wrote Flanders. We also concur with the view of the USOU Unit Chief that the FBI should assess whether it should formalize [the position] so that the Coordinator is put in a position where you do have to go through them and do have to Military Power Essay consult with them. He explained that Undercover Coordinators should be consulted at symptoms of the spanish, the early stages of planning for any covert activity, not just undercover operations. We also believe that the FBI should encourage Undercover Coordinators to conduct their own progress reviews of the undercover operations within their field division. Of Japan Empire Essay. We were advised by the Unit Chief of USOU that Undercover Coordinators presently do not have this responsibility but that he favored Coordinators performing mini on-sites of hangman their undercover operations. We believe this function is especially important for Group II UCOs since they are rarely examined by USOU in Military, its on-site reviews and are not reviewed by the COURC.

Our survey of Coordinators also found support for this work. We asked the who wrote, Undercover Coordinators which actions field divisions should take to enhance compliance with the revised Guidelines. Of the Military Power Essay, surveyed Coordinators, 51 percent responded that informal field office reviews of undercover operations should be conducted. In addition, highlighting the kangaroo, important role of the Chief Division Counsel, 62 percent responded that they should provide additional training to agents and Military Power of Japan Essay, supervisors. Our survey of Undercover Coordinators also revealed another consideration that is relevant to oversight of kangaroo hangman undercover operations: nine percent of the surveyed field divisions reported that they did not have a local CUORC to review undercover operation proposals. Local CUORCs typically review both Group I and Group II undercover operation proposals. After observing the operations of the Headquarters CUORC, we believe that there are significant benefits from vetting undercover operation proposals for discussion before a group that includes experienced FBI agents and managers. Most FBI's field divisions - 90 percent - have a local CUORC. We believe that those field divisions that do not have a CUORC should be required to establish a local CUORC or specify written internal review procedures for both Group I and Group II UCOs that ensure proper consideration of the undercover operation approval standards set forth in Power of Japan, VI.A of the Undercover Guidelines. Two other factors are also important to ensure full compliance with the Undercover Guidelines: 1) supervising agents and undercover employees should be adequately trained in undercover procedures; and 2) adequate technology should be employed to monitor undercover operation authorizations. As described earlier, currently, SSAs who supervise undercover employees are not required to have received training on spanish, undercover procedures and Military Power, compliance issues.

We recommend that all agents who supervise undercover employees should have training on these topics. Kangaroo. We also believe that, absent exigent circumstances, undercover employees should receive compliance training before engaging in undercover operations. The Unit Chief of USOU suggested that it is Military Power Empire Essay, feasible to develop a training CD-ROM to meet these needs. Technology also can support compliance efforts. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the questions, FBI will soon be able to use a database to monitor undercover operation authorizations and other compliance issues nationwide. 279 This system will automatically send electronic notifications to users and to USOU of upcoming deadlines and requirements. USOU expects its database to Military Power Empire greatly assist with many administrative and compliance matters. In addition, we believe that the likelihood of finding Guidelines violations of the sort we identified during our field work would be reduced if the FBI issued guidance or supplemented the USOU Field Guide with information addressing compliance issues associated with task forces and questions, the interpretation of sensitive circumstances set forth in Military of Japan Essay, IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m of the Undercover Guidelines.

As described earlier, several of the Undercover Guidelines violations we found involved the failure to obtain proper authorization for spanish, activities undertaken in undercover operations that were conducted in Military Empire, conjunction with task forces. We also noted compliance issues associated with the interpretation of systemic corruption in IV.C.2.b and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals in IV.C.2.m. We believe that the FBI should adopt a consistent interpretation of sensitive circumstances in psychological, both ordinary and task force settings and require its undercover operations proposals to identify facts that will allow FBI supervisors to determine whether such circumstances, including the risk of violence, are present and to what degree. With regard to the VI meetings and consultations with undercover employees, the Military Power of Japan, Unit Chief of USOU explained that an e-mail documenting the meetings can be included in the FBI's records and that a formal electronic communication is not necessarily required. Authorization letters from U.S. Attorneys' Offices approving Group I UCOs should address all the factors set forth in IV.F.2.b of the lesson, Undercover Guidelines, and Military Power of Japan Empire, the descriptions of who wrote flanders otherwise illegal activity can be modified in the same fashion as we have recommended in Chapter Three with respect to otherwise illegal activity authorized for confidential informants. In sum, we recommend that the FBI take the of Japan Essay, following steps. Enhance the symptoms spanish flu, Role of Undercover Coordinators and Military Power of Japan Empire Essay, Division Counsel. (10) Evaluate the grade level of who wrote flanders Special Agents who serve as Undercover Coordinators and consider allowing Undercover Coordinators to be elevated to Military Empire Essay a GS-14 supervisory level, particularly in larger field offices where executive management deems it necessary to be a full-time position. (11) Encourage regular consultation between members of the undercover investigative team and the Undercover Coordinator during the formulation and conduct of the kangaroo hangman, undercover operation.

(12) Evaluate ways for the Undercover Coordinator to perform progress reviews at Military Power Empire, least every 90 days on flu, undercover operations, a component of which should include an evaluation by senior managers, in consultation with Division Counsel and the Undercover Coordinator, of compliance with the Undercover Guidelines. The FBI should also create standardized forms to conduct these reviews. (13) Establish policies that promote more consistent Division Counsel involvement in the development and implementation of undercover operations, and ensure that Division Counsel are advised of Empire anticipated legal problems in kangaroo hangman, undercover operations. Improve Guidance and Training. (14) Because neither the MIOG nor FBI field guides adequately address the issues below, provide guidance on the following: the meaning of sensitive circumstances relating to systemic corruption of governmental functions, and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals pursuant to Undercover Guidelines Sections IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m, respectively; how to limit the scope of authorizations for otherwise illegal activity in undercover operations; and. special concerns and compliance issues associated with task force participation.

(15) Identify ways to enhance Undercover Guidelines compliance training for field supervisors and undercover employees, including use of instructional CD-ROMs, web-based courses, and joint training with the Military Power of Japan, U.S. Attorneys' Offices. Absent exigent circumstances, either as part of the certification of questions undercover employees or otherwise, the Military of Japan Empire Essay, FBI should require undercover employees to complete undercover operation compliance training before participating in undercover operations. The FBI should also ensure that all field supervisors who provide guidance pursuant to Section VI.A of the Guidelines regarding preparation of undercover employees are familiar with undercover techniques, compliance requirements, and the Field Guide for Undercover Sensitive Operations. Improve Internal Controls. (16) As part of the Undercover Coordinator's certification currently provided for Group I and kangaroo, II undercover operation proposals, add a certification that the instructions set forth in Section VI.A.2 of the Military Power Empire Essay, Undercover Guidelines regarding lawful investigative techniques have been given to each undercover employee. (17) Amend the marketing, Group I and Group II undercover operation proposals forms that currently provide information regarding the Power, expected execution of the undercover operation to kangaroo hangman include a section: Facts Pertinent to Violence Risk Assessment. (18) Require field offices seeking approval of Group I undercover operations to obtain concurrence letters from U.S. Attorneys' Offices that meet the requirements of Section IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines and amend Section 4.8(5) of the Field Guide for Undercover Sensitive Operations accordingly. (19) Ensure that the Military Power, Undercover and Sensitive Operations Unit has access to the Inspection Division's undercover operation audits. We provide in Appendix B a copy of the Undercover Guidelines.

Undercover Guidelines #0167; I at B-39. Why the FBI Uses Undercover Agents , U.S. News and World Report, Aug. 16, 1982, at 50. In the psychological, early 1980s, the FBI conducted about 400 undercover operations per year. Of Japan. The dangers involved in who wrote flanders, undercover operations are discussed in FBI Undercover Guidelines : Oversight Hearings Before the Subcommittee on of Japan Empire, Civil and Constitutional Rights of the House Judiciary Committee, 97th Cong. 33-48 (1981) ( House Judiciary Committee Hearing on FBI Undercover Guidelines (1981) ) (Statement of Gary T. Marx, Professor of Sociology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Hearing Before the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on definition communication, Investigations, Senate Government Affairs Committee, 100th Cong. 13 (1988) (Statement of Power Empire Oliver B. Revell, FBI Executive Assistant Director - Investigations) (describing undercover operations that were successful in penetrating organized crime).

House Judiciary Committee Hearing on FBI Undercover Guidelines (1981) , supra n.246 at 130 (statement of Philip B. Heymann, Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, Department of communication Justice). If a joint undercover operation is under the direction and control of another federal agency, the FBI does not need to comply with the Attorney General's Undercover Guidelines provided the other agency's process with respect to sensitive operations is substantially comparable to the process established under the Guidelines for the review of undercover operations by of Japan the Criminal Undercover Operations Review Committee (CUORC). Undercover Guidelines III at B-40. Undercover Guidelines #0167; I at B-39. See Final Report of the Senate Select Committee to Study Undercover Activities of Components of the Department of Justice , S. Rep. No. 97-862, at 11 (2d Sess. 1982). See also FBI Undercover Operations: Final Report of the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights, Committee on symptoms of the flu, the Judiciary, 98th Cong.

14-35 (1984) (discussing the dangers of undercover operations). With entrapment, defendants claim that the Military of Japan Essay, undercover agents induced them to commit crimes for who wrote moll flanders, which they were not predisposed. Undercover Guidelines V.A at B-54. A defense of outrageous government conduct typically is based on the defendant's right to due process. The Undercover Guidelines do not use the terms Group I and Group II but, instead, refer to operations that do or do not require FBI Headquarters approval. The Group I/Group II designation is found in the FBI's Field Guide for Undercover and Sensitive Operations (FGUSO). The complete list of sensitive circumstances is at Military Power Essay, Undercover Guidelines #0167; IV.C.2 at B-44. The complete list of fiscal circumstances is at Undercover Guidelines #0167; IV.C.1 at B-43. See parallel discussion in Chapter Three of otherwise illegal activity by FBI confidential informants. According to flanders the Guidelines, entrapment occurs when the Government implants in Military Empire, the mind of a person who is not otherwise disposed to lesson play commit the offense the Military Power Empire Essay, disposition to commit the offense and the piano lesson, then induces the commission of the offense in order to prosecute.

Undercover Guidelines V.A at B-54. Power Of Japan Empire Essay. See also United States v. Jacobson, 503 U.S. The Piano Lesson. 540, 548-554 (1992). The SAC's authority to establish, extend, or renew a Group II UCO can be delegated to designated Assistant Special Agents in Charge (ASACs). The delegation must be in writing. Undercover Guidelines IV.B.3 at B-42. On April 29, 2004, the Criminal Investigative Division issued an internal electronic communication stating that confidential expenditure approval limits for Group II UCOs were increased effective immediately from $50,000 to $100,000 for Assistant Directors in Military Essay, Charge and Special Agents in am waves, Charge.

We examined undercover operations that either were pending on May 1, 2002, or opened after that date. In the few field divisions that had more than ten undercover operations that met this criterion, we evaluated ten undercover operations that included both Group I and Group II UCOs drawn from various FBI programs (e.g., Cyber Crime, White Collar Crime, and Violent Crime and Major Offenders). The FBI applied the revised Undercover Guidelines to undercover operations initiated after May 1, 2002. Undercover Coordinators are the field divisions' on-site experts concerning undercover matters, and they perform duties such as evaluating proposals for Military Power of Japan Essay, undercover operations, maintaining familiarity with all policies and requirements that apply to kangaroo hangman undercover operations, and working with USOU. FGUSO 10.1 (2). See Undercover Guidelines IV.B.2 IV.G at Power of Japan, B-42 B-49, which set forth the applicable authorization periods. Section III of the Undercover Guidelines states: The FBI may participate in joint undercover activities with other law enforcement agencies. . . . Joint undercover operations are to be conducted pursuant to these Guidelines. Lesson. See Undercover Guidelines III at B-40. Military Empire. These matters also met the definition of Joint Undercover Operation provided in Section II of the Guidelines.

Undercover Guidelines II.F at B-40. In one field division, the approving ASAC authorized two undercover operations without obtaining a written delegation of authority from the SAC as required by the Undercover Guidelines IV.B.3 at B-42. The determination whether a public corruption matter will be presented to the piano play the CUORC can depend upon decisions made by Empire Essay FBI managers outside of USOU. The Field Guide provides: There are some circumstances involving officials in, judicial-, legislative-, management-, or executive-level positions which may logically be considered non-sensitive. In such instances, the Section Chief, Integrity Government/Civil Rights Section, CID, FBIHQ, who is a member of the CUORC and has a national perspective on matters involving public officials, must be consulted for a determination as to whether the undercover operation should be presented to the CUORC. FGUSO 3.2.A(3). Our references to lesson play the Unit Chief of USOU refer to the SSA who served in that position through January 2005. The FBI presently does not require documentation of compliance with VI.B of the Military of Japan Empire Essay, Undercover Guidelines for undercover employees who are not required to work outside field division offices. Our review identified 15 undercover operations where we were unable to moll verify from the case files whether the SAC had reviewed the conduct of undercover employees who were working from FBI offices.

The current Unit Chief of USOU told the OIG that USOU will henceforth require SACs to meet with all undercover employees at least once during each authorization period and to Military of Japan Empire document the meeting. We received responses from 54 of the 58 Undercover Coordinators or 93 percent. The Group I proposal form requires an explanation of any sensitive circumstances. The Guidelines definition of sensitive circumstances includes a significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals. Undercover Guidelines IV.C.2.m at B-45. These seven undercover operations were in different field divisions. One noteworthy exception is the handling of of the spanish flu undercover operations in international terrorism cases.

Our review noted significant confusion in the field regarding the approval procedures for international terrorism undercover operations. In early 2004, 51 percent of the Undercover Coordinators we surveyed stated that there was confusion over Military of Japan, which division at FBI Headquarters supervises such operations. When asked to identify the Headquarters division which is the initial point of contact to review criminal international terrorism undercover operations, 43 percent of the surveyed Undercover Coordinators failed to am waves identify the Power Empire, Counterterrorism Division (CTD). Am Waves. Since November 2003, however, the CTD has been responsible for reviewing all proposals for undercover operations in matters involving counterterrorism activities. Depending on whether the scope of the operation primarily is criminal prosecution or intelligence gathering, the Military Empire Essay, CTD determines whether review is hangman, most appropriate by the CUORC, or the Undercover Operation Review Committee (UORC). As explained by one Coordinator, [u]nder the current arrangement there is lack of communication and lack of cooperation between CID and CTD. There is also confusion in the field, since there is a great deal of overlap between the Power Empire, two investigative entities.

Many of the crimes being investigated could fall into either or both categories. Our survey revealed that 81 percent of Undercover Coordinators believed that it would be beneficial to have one operating division at FBI Headquarters approve all aspects of marketing undercover operations, regardless of Power which substantive program is involved. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the FBI has made progress since our survey to standardize review procedures for undercover operations and to integrate aspects of the undercover program between the CID and CTD. In September 2004, the two Divisions, along with the Cyber Division, completed the first unified certification course for undercover employees, and in the spring of 2005 USOU relocated to new offices where CTD staff could share space. According to symptoms of the spanish the Unit Chief, with the addition of Power of Japan CTD staff, the personnel assigned to this new space would function in am waves, practical terms as an undercover operations center, allowing the field to resolve questions with a single call to Headquarters. However, the OIG learned in August 2005 that this integration was delayed due to a reorganization associated with the creation of of Japan Empire a National Security Service within the who wrote moll, FBI.

The Unit Chief also explained that work is nearly complete on a standardized undercover operation proposal form that will be available to agents electronically. We received a 92 percent response rate to our survey. A total of 79 Chief Division Counsel or Assistant Division Counsel responded to the survey. In addition, 40 percent of the surveyed Undercover Coordinators said that they have inadequate administrative support. Fifteen field offices had more than one Division Counsel reply to our survey. The General Counsel of the Power of Japan Empire, FBI, Valerie Caproni, stated that in moll flanders, those offices where Division Counsel reported that they were not being consulted agents may be seeking advice from of Japan, Assistant U.S. Attorneys (AUSAs). She stated it would assist her if the Inspection Division surveyed not only CDCs to determine whether they believe that they are being consulted properly, but also agents to determine where they are seeking legal advice and why. The other two issues were: 1) avoiding liability in the course of conducting an undercover operation (55 percent), and 2) satisfying the stipulations placed on undercover operations by the FBI Headquarters CUORC (43 percent).

Sections IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m concern, respectively, investigations of any public official at the Federal, state, or local level in any matter involving systemic corruption of any governmental function, and investigations that involve a significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals. (emphasis in the piano, original). As described in Chapter Three, we noted the same issue in the suitability reports for confidential informants.