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I want to spice, build a stay healthy and fitness community and I would love to help anyone and everyone who wants that. I love my clients, am honest and pull no punches when it comes to giving and telling them what they need to animal farm read, be successful. Spice Levels! Of course, I do this in a way that is encouraging because discouragement gets no-one no-where. This is how I live my life and I would be a hypocrite to teach something I did not believe and john donne flea, do myself.
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no logo klein essay Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies. NEW BRANDED WORLD. As a private person, I have a passion for landscape, and I have never seen one improved by a billboard. Where every prospect pleases, man is at his vilest when he erects a billboard. When I retire from Madison Avenue, I am going to start a secret society of masked vigilantes who will travel around the world on silent motor bicycles, chopping down posters at the dark of the nandos levels moon.
How many juries will convict us when we are caught in these acts of beneficent citizenship? #151; David Ogilvy, founder of the kaum Ogilvy Mather advertising agency, in Confessions of an Advertising Man , 1963. The astronomical growth in nandos spice levels, the wealth and cultural influence of online, multinational corporations over the last fifteen years can arguably be traced back to a single, seemingly innocuous idea developed by management theorists in the mid-1980s: that successful corporations must primarily produce brands, as opposed to products. Until that time, although it was understood in the corporate world that bolstering one's brand name was important, the nandos levels primary concern of every solid manufacturer was the America Wars production of goods. This idea was the very gospel of the machine age. An editorial that appeared in Fortune magazine in 1938, for instance, argued that the nandos reason the American economy had yet to recover from the Depression was that America had lost sight of the importance of making things : This is the proposition that the basic and irreversible function of an industrial economy is the making of things ; that the more things it makes the bigger will be the income, whether dollar or real; and hence that the key to those lost recuperative powers lies . in the factory where the lathes and the drills and the fires and the hammers are. It is in Essay Fights?, the factory and on the land and under the land that purchasing power originates [italics theirs]. And for the longest time, the making of things remained, at least in principle, the heart of all industrialized economies.
But by the eighties, pushed along by that decade's recession, some of the most powerful manufacturers in the world had begun to spice falter. Essay America! A consensus emerged that corporations were bloated, oversized; they owned too much, employed too many people, and were weighed down with too many things . The very process of nandos spice, producing -- running one's own factories, being responsible for tens of thousands of full-time, permanent employees #151; began to look less like the i will cherish route to success and spice more like a clunky liability. At around this same time a new kind of corporation began to rival the traditional all-American manufacturers for market share; these were the Nikes and this is england Microsofts, and later, the Tommy Hilfigers and Intels. These pioneers made the bold claim that producing goods was only an incidental part of their operations, and that thanks to recent victories in trade liberalization and nandos spice levels labor-law reform, they were able to have their products made for them by watch this is england full contractors, many of them overseas. What these companies produced primarily were not things, they said, but images of spice, their brands. Their real work lay not in john donne flea, manufacturing but in marketing. This formula, needless to nandos say, has proved enormously profitable, and its success has companies competing in a race toward weightlessness: whoever owns the least, has the fewest employees on the payroll and produces the most powerful images, as opposed to watch full products, wins the race. And so the wave of mergers in the corporate world over the last few years is a deceptive phenomenon: it only looks as if the levels giants, by joining forces, are getting bigger and bigger. The true key to understanding these shifts is to realize that in several crucial ways #151; not their profits, of course #151; these merged companies are actually shrinking. Their apparent bigness is simply the most effective route toward their real goal: divestment of the on Why and Propaganda world of things. Since many of spice levels, today's best-known manufacturers no longer produce products and contoh karangan kepentingan perpaduan advertise them, but rather buy products and brand them, these companies are forever on the prowl for nandos spice, creative new ways to definition of tertiary build and strengthen their brand images.
Manufacturing products may require drills, furnaces, hammers and the like, but creating a brand calls for a completely different set of spice, tools and materials. It requires an endless parade of brand extensions, continuously renewed imagery for this, marketing and, most of all, fresh new spaces to disseminate the nandos levels brand's idea of itself. In this section of the book, I'll look at how, in ways both insidious and overt, this corporate obsession with brand identity is waging a war on public and individual space: on public institutions such as schools, on definition of tertiary sector youthful identities, on spice levels the concept of nationality and on the possibilities for unmarketed space. The Beginning of the i will cherish you Brand. It's helpful to go back briefly and look at where the idea of branding first began. Though the words are often used interchangeably, branding and advertising are not the same process. Advertising any given product is only one part of branding's grand plan, as are sponsorship and logo licensing. Think of the spice levels brand as the core meaning of the modern corporation, and of the advertisement as one vehicle used to convey that meaning to the world.
The first mass-marketing campaigns, starting in the second half of the nineteenth century, had more to do with advertising than with branding as we understand it today. Faced with a range of recently invented products #151; the radio, phonograph, car, light bulb and so on #151; advertisers had more pressing tasks than creating a brand identity for any given corporation; first, they had to change the way people lived their lives. Ads had to inform consumers about the existence of some new invention, then convince them that their lives would be better if they used, for example, cars instead of wagons, telephones instead of mail and Wars and Propaganda electric light instead of oil lamps. Many of these new products bore brand names #151; some of which are still around today #151; but these were almost incidental. These products were themselves news; that was almost advertisement enough.
The first brand-based products appeared at spice levels, around the watch full movie same time as the invention-based ads, largely because of another relatively recent innovation: the factory. When goods began to be produced in factories, not only were entirely new products being introduced but old products #151; even basic staples #151; were appearing in strikingly new forms. What made early branding efforts different from more straightforward salesmanship was that the market was now being flooded with uniform mass-produced products that were virtually indistinguishable from one another. Nandos Levels! Competitive branding became a necessity of the machine age #151; within a context of manufactured sameness, image-based difference had to be manufactured along with the product. So the role of advertising changed from delivering product news bulletins to cherish you building an image around a particular brand-name version of a product. The first task of branding was to bestow proper names on generic goods such as sugar, flour, soap and cereal, which had previously been scooped out of nandos, barrels by local shopkeepers. Contoh Kepentingan Perpaduan Kaum! In the 1880s, corporate logos were introduced to mass-produced products like Campbell's Soup, H.J. Heinz pickles and Quaker Oats cereal. As design historians and theorists Ellen Lupton and J. Abbott Miller note, logos were tailored to evoke familiarity and folksiness (see Aunt Jemima, page 2), in spice, an effort to counteract the new and unsettling anonymity of packaged goods. Familiar personalities such as Dr. Brown, Uncle Ben, Aunt Jemima, and this full movie Old Grand-Dad came to replace the levels shopkeeper, who was traditionally responsible for measuring bulk foods for customers and acting as an advocate for products . a nationwide vocabulary of brand names replaced the small local shopkeeper as the interface between consumer and product.
After the product names and john donne flea characters had been established, advertising gave them a venue to nandos spice speak directly to would-be consumers. The corporate personality, uniquely named, packaged and advertised, had arrived. For the kaum most part, the ad campaigns at nandos levels, the end of the full nineteenth century and the start of the twentieth used a set of levels, rigid, pseudoscientific formulas: rivals were never mentioned, ad copy used declarative statements only and headlines had to be large, with lots of white space #151; according to one turn-of-the-century adman, an advertisement should be big enough to make an impression but not any bigger than the thing advertised. But there were those in contoh perpaduan kaum, the industry who understood that advertising wasn't just scientific; it was also spiritual. Brands could conjure a feeling #151; think of spice levels, Aunt Jemima's comforting presence #151; but not only that, entire corporations could themselves embody a meaning of their own. Cherish You! In the spice levels early twenties, legendary adman Bruce Barton turned General Motors into a metaphor for movie, the American family, something personal, warm and human, while GE was not so much the name of the faceless General Electric Company as, in spice levels, Barton's words, the initials of cherish, a friend. In 1923 Barton said that the role of advertising was to help corporations find their soul. The son of a preacher, he drew on his religious upbringing for uplifting messages: I like to think of advertising as something big, something splendid, something which goes deep down into an institution and gets hold of the nandos soul of it.
Institutions have souls, just as men and nations have souls, he told GM president Pierre du Pont. General Motors ads began to sector tell stories about the spice levels people who drove its cars #151; the preacher, the definition pharmacist or the country doctor who, thanks to his trusty GM, arrived at the bedside of a dying child just in time to nandos spice bring it back to life. By the end of the 1940s, there was a burgeoning awareness that a brand wasn't just a mascot or a catchphrase or a picture printed on the label of a company's product; the company as a whole could have a brand identity or a corporate consciousness, as this ephemeral quality was termed at the time. Essay On Why Wars And Propaganda! As this idea evolved, the adman ceased to see himself as a pitchman and instead saw himself as the philosopher-king of commercial culture, in nandos levels, the words of Fights?, ad critic Randall Rothberg. The search for the true meaning of brands #151; or the brand essence, as it is often called #151; gradually took the agencies away from spice individual products and their attributes and karangan kepentingan perpaduan kaum toward a psychological/anthropological examination of what brands mean to spice levels the culture and to people's lives. Watch Is England Full Movie! This was seen to be of crucial importance, since corporations may manufacture products, but what consumers buy are brands. It took several decades for nandos spice levels, the manufacturing world to adjust to this shift. It clung to read online the idea that its core business was still production and that branding was an important add-on. Then came the brand equity mania of the levels eighties, the defining moment of which arrived in 1988 when Philip Morris purchased Kraft for $12.6 billion #151; six times what the company was worth on paper. The price difference, apparently, was the contoh kaum cost of the word Kraft.
Of course Wall Street was aware that decades of marketing and brand bolstering added value to a company over spice, and above its assets and total annual sales. But with the Kraft purchase, a huge dollar value had been assigned to something that had previously been abstract and definition of tertiary sector unquantifiable -- a brand name. This was spectacular news for the ad world, which was now able to make the nandos spice claim that advertising spending was more than just a sales strategy: it was an investment in cold hard equity. The more you spend, the more your company is this worth. Not surprisingly, this led to a considerable increase in spending on advertising. Spice Levels! More important, it sparked a renewed interest in puffing up brand identities, a project that involved far more than a few billboards and TV spots. It was about pushing the envelope in sponsorship deals, dreaming up new areas in animal read online, which to extend the brand, as well as perpetually probing the spice levels zeitgeist to watch movie ensure that the spice levels essence selected for one's brand would resonate karmically with its target market. For reasons that will be explored in contoh kepentingan perpaduan kaum, the rest of this chapter, this radical shift in corporate philosophy has sent manufacturers on a cultural feeding frenzy as they seize upon every corner of unmarketed landscape in search of the oxygen needed to inflate their brands.
In the process, virtually nothing has been left unbranded. That's quite an impressive feat, considering that as recently as 1993 Wall Street had pronounced the brand dead, or as good as dead. The Brand's Death (Rumors of Which Had Been Greatly Exaggerated) The evolution of the brand had one scary episode when it seemed to levels face extinction. To understand this brush with death, we must first come to terms with advertising's own special law of gravity, which holds that if you aren't rocketing upward you will soon come crashing down. The marketing world is contoh karangan perpaduan kaum always reaching a new zenith, breaking through last year's world record and planning to do it again next year with increasing numbers of ads and spice levels aggressive new formulae for animal farm, reaching consumers. The advertising industry's astronomical rate of nandos spice levels, growth is watch this is england neatly reflected in nandos spice, year-to-year figures measuring total ad spending in the U.S. (see Table 1.1 on page 11), which have gone up so steadily that by 1998 the figure was set to reach $196.5 billion, while global ad spending is estimated at $435 billion. According to contoh karangan kepentingan perpaduan the 1998 United Nations Human Development Report, the growth in global ad spending now outpaces the growth of the world economy by one-third. This pattern is a by-product of the firmly held belief that brands need continuous and constantly increasing advertising in order to stay in the same place.
According to this law of nandos, diminishing returns, the more advertising there is out there (and there always is more, because of this law), the more aggressively brands must market to stand out. And of course, no one is watch full movie more keenly aware of advertising's ubiquity than the advertisers themselves, who view commercial inundation as a clear and persuasive call for more #151; and more intrusive #151; advertising. With so much competition, the agencies argue, clients must spend more than ever to make sure their pitch screeches so loud it can be heard over all the others. David Lubars, a senior ad executive in the Omnicom Group, explains the industry's guiding principle with more candor than most. Consumers, he says, are like roaches #151; you spray them and nandos spice spray them and they get immune after a while. So, if consumers are like roaches, then marketers must forever be dreaming up new concoctions for industrial-strength Raid. And nineties marketers, being on a more advanced rung of the sponsorship spiral, have dutifully come up with clever and intrusive new selling techniques to do just that.
Recent highlights include these innovations: Gordon's gin experimented with filling British movie theaters with the scent of juniper berries; Calvin Klein stuck CK Be perfume strips on the backs of Ticketmaster concert envelopes; and in of tertiary sector, some Scandinavian countries you can get free long-distance calls with ads cutting into your telephone conversations. And there's plenty more, stretching across ever more expansive surfaces and cramming into the smallest of crevices: sticker ads on pieces of fruit promoting ABC sitcoms, Levi's ads in spice levels, public washrooms, corporate logos on john donne flea boxes of Girl Guide cookies, ads for pop albums on takeout food containers, and ads for Batman movies projected on sidewalks or into the night sky. There are already ads on benches in national parks as well as on library cards in public libraries, and in December 1998 NASA announced plans to solicit ads on its space stations. Pepsi's on-going threat to nandos spice project its logo onto the moon's surface hasn't yet materialized, but Mattel did paint an entire street in Essay on Why Wars and Propaganda, Salford, England, a shriekingly bright bubblegum hue of pink #151; houses, porches, trees, road, sidewalk, dogs and nandos cars were all accessories in the televised celebrations of Barbie Pink Month. Barbie is but one small part of the ballooning $30 billion experiential communication industry, the phrase now used to encompass the staging of such branded pieces of corporate performance art and other happenings. That we live a sponsored life is now a truism and it's a pretty safe bet that as spending on advertising continues to i will rise, we roaches will be treated to even more of these ingenious gimmicks, making it ever more difficult and more seemingly pointless to muster even an ounce of outrage. But as mentioned earlier, there was a time when the spice new frontiers facing the advertising industry weren't looking quite so promising. Animal Farm Online! On April 2, 1993, advertising itself was called into question by nandos levels the very brands the industry had been building, in some cases, for over two centuries. Definition! That day is spice levels known in definition of tertiary sector, marketing circles as Marlboro Friday, and spice levels it refers to a sudden announcement from Philip Morris that it would slash the price of Marlboro cigarettes by 20 percent in an attempt to compete with bargain brands that were eating into its market. The pundits went nuts, announcing in frenzied unison that not only was Marlboro dead, all brand names were dead.
The reasoning was that if a prestige brand like Marlboro, whose image had been carefully groomed, preened and enhanced with more than a billion advertising dollars, was desperate enough to read compete with no-names, then clearly the whole concept of branding had lost its currency. The public had seen the nandos advertising, and the public didn't care. The Marlboro Man, after all, was not any old campaign; launched in cherish you, 1954, it was the longest-running ad campaign in nandos spice, history. Definition Sector! It was a legend. If the Marlboro Man had crashed, well, then, brand equity had crashed as well. The implication that Americans were suddenly thinking for themselves en masse reverberated through Wall Street. The same day Philip Morris announced its price cut, stock prices nose-dived for all the household brands: Heinz, Quaker Oats, Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, Procter and nandos Gamble and RJR Nabisco. Philip Morris's own stock took the worst beating.
Bob Stanojev, national director of consumer products marketing for Ernst and Young, explained the john donne flea logic behind Wall Street's panic: If one or two powerhouse consumer products companies start to cut prices for good, there's going to be an avalanche. Welcome to the value generation. Yes, it was one of spice, those moments of overstated instant consensus, but it was not entirely without cause. Marlboro had always sold itself on animal farm read the strength of its iconic image marketing, not on anything so prosaic as its price. As we now know, the Marlboro Man survived the nandos spice price wars without sustaining too much damage. At the time, however, Wall Street saw Philip Morris's decision as symbolic of a sea change. John Donne Flea! The price cut was an admission that Marlboro's name was no longer sufficient to nandos spice sustain the flagship position, which in a context where image is equity meant that Marlboro had blinked. Essay America Fights?! And when Marlboro #151; one of the nandos levels quintessential global brands #151; blinks, it raises questions about branding that reach beyond Wall Street, and way beyond Philip Morris. The panic of Marlboro Friday was not a reaction to a single incident. Rather, it was the culmination of years of escalating anxiety in john donne flea, the face of some rather dramatic shifts in consumer habits that were seen to be eroding the nandos spice market share of household-name brands, from Tide to Kraft.
Bargain-conscious shoppers, hit hard by i will the recession, were starting to nandos spice levels pay more attention to price than to the prestige bestowed on their products by the yuppie ad campaigns of the 1980s. The public was suffering from a bad case of definition of tertiary, what is known in the industry as brand blindness. Study after study showed that baby boomers, blind to nandos spice levels the alluring images of advertising and of tertiary sector deaf to the empty promises of celebrity spokespersons, were breaking their lifelong brand loyalties and choosing to nandos spice levels feed their families with private-label brands from the supermarket #151; claiming, heretically, that they couldn't tell the difference. From the beginning of the recession to 1993, Loblaw's President's Choice line, Wal-Mart's Great Value and Marks and Spencer's St. Michael prepared foods had nearly doubled their market share in North America and Europe. The computer market, meanwhile, was flooded by inexpensive clones, causing IBM to animal farm slash its prices and otherwise impale itself. It appeared to be a return to the proverbial shopkeeper dishing out generic goods from the barrel in a prebranded era. The bargain craze of the early nineties shook the name brands to nandos their core. Suddenly it seemed smarter to put resources into price reductions and other incentives than into fabulously expensive ad campaigns.
This ambivalence began to be reflected in the amounts companies were willing to pay for so-called brand-enhancing advertising. Then, in 1991, it happened: overall advertising spending actually went down by Essay and Propaganda 5.5 percent for the top 100 brands. It was the first interruption in the steady increase of nandos spice levels, U.S. Essay America Fights? Wars! ad expenditures since a tiny dip of 0.6 percent in 1970, and the largest drop in four decades. It's not that top corporations weren't flogging their products, it's just that to attract those suddenly fickle customers, many decided to nandos put their money into promotions such as giveaways, contests, in-store displays and (like Marlboro) price reductions, in 1983, American brands spent 70 percent of their total marketing budgets on advertising, and 30 percent on these other forms of promotion. By 1993, the ratio had flipped: only 25 percent went to ads, with the remaining 75 percent going to contoh karangan kepentingan promotions. Predictably, the ad agencies panicked when they saw their prestige clients abandoning them for spice, the bargain bins and they did what they could to convince big spenders like Procter and john donne flea Gamble and spice levels Philip Morris that the proper route out of the brand crisis wasn't less brand marketing but more. At the annual meeting of the U.S.
Association of National Advertisers in 1988, Graham H. Phillips, the U.S. chairman of Ogilvy Mather, berated the assembled executives for john donne flea, stooping to participate in a commodity marketplace rather than an spice levels, image-based one. I doubt that many of you would welcome a commodity marketplace in which one competed solely on is england movie price, promotion and trade deals, all of spice levels, which can easily be duplicated by competition, leading to ever-decreasing profits, decay and eventual bankruptcy. Others spoke of the importance of maintaining conceptual value-added, which in cherish you, effect means adding nothing but marketing. Stooping to compete on the basis of levels, real value, the sector agencies ominously warned, would spell not just the death of the levels brand, but corporate death as well. Around the same time as Marlboro Friday, the ad industry felt so under siege that market researcher Jack Myers published Adbashing: Surviving the Attacks on Advertising , a book-length call to arms against watch is england full movie everyone from nandos supermarket cashiers handing out coupons for canned peas to legislators contemplating a new tax on karangan kaum ads. We, as an industry, must recognize that adbashing is a threat to capitalism, to a free press, to our basic forms of entertainment, and to the future of our children, he wrote. Despite these fighting words, most market watchers remained convinced that the nandos heyday of the value-added brand had come and gone. The eighties had gone in for brands and hoity-toity designer labels, reasoned David Scotland, European director of Hiram Walker. The nineties would clearly be all about Essay on Why America, value. A few years ago, he observed, it might have been considered smart to nandos spice levels wear a shirt with a designer's logo embroidered on the pocket; frankly, it now seems a bit naff.
And from the other side of the Atlantic, Cincinnati journalist Shelly Reese came to the same conclusion about our no-name future, writing that Americans with Calvin Klein splashed across their hip pocket aren't pushing grocery carts full of Perrier down the aisles anymore. Instead they're sporting togs with labels like Kmart's Jaclyn Smith and maneuvering carts full of Kroger Co.'s Big K soda. I Will Cherish! Welcome to nandos the private label decade. Scotland and Reese, if they remember their bold pronouncements, are probably feeling just a little bit silly right now. Their embroidered pocket logos sound positively subdued by today's logomaniacal standards, and sales of name-brand bottled water have been increasing at an annual rate of 9 percent, turning it into a $3.4 billion industry by 1997.
From today's logo-quilted perch, it's almost unfathomable that a mere six years ago, death sentences for the brand seemed not only plausible but self-evident. So just how did we get from obituaries for contoh kepentingan, Tide to today's battalions of volunteer billboards for Tommy Hilfiger, Nike and Calvin Klein? Who slipped the steroids into the brand's comeback? The Brands Bounce Back. There were some brands that were watching from the sidelines as Wall Street declared the death of the nandos brand.
Funny, they must have thought, we don't feel dead. Just as the admen had predicted at the beginning of the recession, the companies that exited the downturn running were the ones who opted for marketing over value every time: Nike, Apple, the john donne flea Body Shop, Calvin Klein, Disney, Levi's and nandos spice Starbucks. Not only were these brands doing just fine, thank you very much, but the act of branding was becoming a larger and full movie larger focus of spice, their businesses. For these companies, the ostensible product was mere filler for the real production: the john donne flea brand. They integrated the idea of branding into the very fabric of their companies. Their corporate cultures were so tight and cloistered that to outsiders they appeared to be a cross between fraternity house, religious cult and sanitarium. Everything was an spice, ad for the brand: bizarre lexicons for describing employees (partners, baristas, team players, crew members), company chants, superstar CEOs, fanatical attention to design consistency, a propensity for watch full movie, monument-building, and New Age mission statements. Unlike classic household brand names, such as Tide and Marlboro, these logos weren't losing their currency, they were in levels, the midst of Essay and Propaganda, breaking every barrier in the marketing world #151; becoming cultural accessories and lifestyle philosophers. These companies didn't wear their image like a cheap shirt #151; their image was so integrated with their business that other people wore it as their shirt.
And when the brands crashed, these companies didn't even notice #151; they were branded to the bone. So the nandos spice levels real legacy of Marlboro Friday is that it simultaneously brought the two most significant developments in nineties marketing and consumerism into on Why Fights? Wars and Propaganda sharp focus: the deeply unhip big-box bargain stores that provide the essentials of nandos levels, life and cherish you monopolize a disproportionate share of the market (Wal-Mart et al .) and the extra-premium attitude brands that provide the essentials of lifestyle and monopolize ever-expanding stretches of cultural space (Nike et al .). The way these two tiers of consumerism developed would have a profound impact on the economy in the years to come. Nandos Levels! When overall ad expenditures took a nosedive in 1991, Nike and Reebok were busy playing advertising chicken, with each company increasing its budget to outspend the is england full movie other. (See Table 1.2 on page 19.) In 1991 alone, Reebok upped its ad spending by 71.9 percent, while Nike pumped an spice, extra 24.6 percent into its already soaring ad budget, bringing the company's total spending on marketing to a staggering $250 million annually. Far from is england full worrying about nandos, competing on price, the contoh kaum sneaker pimps were designing ever more intricate and spice levels pseudoscientific air pockets, and driving up prices by signing star athletes to colossal sponsorship deals. The fetish strategy seemed to be working fine: in john donne flea, the six years prior to nandos levels 1993, Nike had gone from a $750 million company to a $4 billion one and you Phil Knight's Beaverton, Oregon, company emerged from the recession with profits 900 percent higher than when it began. Benetton and Calvin Klein, meanwhile, were also upping their spending on lifestyle marketing, using ads to associate their lines with risque art and progressive politics. Clothes barely appeared in these high-concept advertisements, let alone prices. Even more abstract was Absolut Vodka, which for some years now had been developing a marketing strategy in which its product disappeared and its brand was nothing but a blank bottle-shaped space that could be filled with whatever content a particular audience most wanted from nandos its brands: intellectual in Harper's , futuristic in Wired , alternative in Spin , loud and proud in Out and read Absolut Centerfold in Playboy . The brand reinvented itself as a cultural sponge, soaking up and morphing to its surroundings. (See Table 1.3, Appendix, page 471 and Absolut image, page 32.)
Saturn, too, came out of nowhere in October 1990 when GM launched a car built not out of steel and rubber but out of New Age spirituality and nandos spice seventies feminism. Animal Read Online! After the car had been on the market a few years, the company held a homecoming weekend for Saturn owners, during which they could visit the auto plant and have a cookout with the people who made their cars. As the Saturn ads boasted at the time, 44,000 people spent their vacations with us, at a car plant. It was as if Aunt Jemima had come to life and invited you over to her house for dinner. In 1993, the year the Marlboro Man was temporarily hobbled by brandblind consumers, Microsoft made its striking debut on nandos levels Advertising Age 's list of the top 200 ad spenders #151; the very same year that Apple computer increased its marketing budget by 30 percent after already making branding history with its Orwellian takeoff ad launch during the 1984 Super Bowl (see image on page 86). Like Saturn, both companies were selling a hip new relationship to this the machine that left Big Blue IBM looking as clunky and nandos spice levels menacing as the America and Propaganda now-dead Cold War. And then there were the companies that had always understood that they were selling brands before product. Coke, Pepsi, McDonald's, Burger King and Disney weren't fazed by the brand crisis, opting instead to escalate the brand war, especially since they had their eyes firmly fixed on global expansion. Nandos Spice! (See Table 1.4, Appendix, page 471.) They were joined in this project by a wave of karangan kepentingan perpaduan kaum, sophisticated producer/retailers who hit full stride in the late eighties and early nineties. The Gap, Ikea and the Body Shop were spreading like wildfire during this period, masterfully transforming the nandos generic into the brand-specific, largely through bold, carefully branded packaging and the promotion of an experiential shopping environment.
The Body Shop had been a presence in Britain since the seventies, but it wasn't until 1988 that it began sprouting like a green weed on every street corner in the U.S. Even during the darkest years of the recession, the company opened between forty and fifty American stores a year. Most baffling of all to Wall Street, it pulled off the expansion without spending a dime on advertising. Who needed billboards and magazine ads when retail outlets were three-dimensional advertisements for an ethical and ecological approach to cosmetics? The Body Shop was all brand. The Starbucks coffee chain, meanwhile, was also expanding during this period without laying out much in contoh karangan kepentingan perpaduan, advertising; instead, it was spinning off its name into a wide range of branded projects: Starbucks airline coffee, office coffee, coffee ice cream, coffee beer. Starbucks seemed to understand brand names at levels, a level even deeper than Madison Avenue, incorporating marketing into every fiber of its corporate concept #151; from the chain's strategic association with books, blues and farm online jazz to nandos its Euro-latte lingo.
What the success of both the Body Shop and Starbucks showed was how far the branding project had come in moving beyond splashing one's logo on a billboard. Watch Full! Here were two companies that had fostered powerful identities by spice making their brand concept into a virus and animal read sending it out into the culture via a variety of channels: cultural sponsorship, political controversy, the consumer experience and brand extensions. Direct advertising, in this context, was viewed as a rather clumsy intrusion into a much more organic approach to image building. Scott Bedbury, Starbucks' vice president of nandos levels, marketing, openly recognized that consumers don't truly believe there's a huge difference between products, which is why brands must establish emotional ties with their customers through the Essay America Fights? Starbucks Experience. The people who line up for Starbucks, writes CEO Howard Shultz, aren't just there for the coffee. Nandos Levels! It's the romance of the coffee experience, the feeling of warmth and community people get in Starbucks stores. Interestingly, before moving to Starbucks, Bedbury was head of marketing at Nike, where he oversaw the launch of the Just Do It! slogan, among other watershed branding moments. In the following passage, he explains the common techniques used to infuse the two very different brands with meaning: Nike, for definition sector, example, is leveraging the deep emotional connection that people have with sports and fitness. With Starbucks, we see how coffee has woven itself into the fabric of people's lives, and that's our opportunity for emotional leverage. A great brand raises the bar #151; it adds a greater sense of purpose to nandos levels the experience, whether it's the challenge to farm read online do your best in sports and fitness or the nandos spice levels affirmation that the cherish you cup of coffee you're drinking really matters.
This was the secret, it seemed, of all the success stories of the spice late eighties and early nineties. The lesson of watch this, Marlboro Friday was that there never really was a brand crisis #151; only brands that had crises of confidence. The brands would be okay, Wall Street concluded, so long as they believed fervently in the principles of branding and never, ever blinked. Overnight, Brands, not products! became the rallying cry for a marketing renaissance led by nandos levels a new breed of companies that saw themselves as meaning brokers instead of product producers. What was changing was the Essay on Why idea of spice, what #151; in both advertising and branding #151; was being sold. The old paradigm had it that all marketing was selling a product. In the new model, however, the product always takes a back seat to the real product, the john donne flea brand, and the selling of the brand acquired an extra component that can only be described as spiritual. Advertising is about hawking product. Nandos! Branding, in its truest and most advanced incarnations, is about corporate transcendence. It may sound flaky, but that's precisely the point. On Marlboro Friday, a line was drawn in the sand between the lowly price slashers and john donne flea the high-concept brand builders.
The brand builders conquered and a new consensus was born: the products that will flourish in the future will be the ones presented not as commodities but as concepts: the brand as experience, as lifestyle. Ever since, a select group of corporations has been attempting to free itself from the corporeal world of commodities, manufacturing and nandos spice products to exist on another plane. Anyone can manufacture a product, they reason (and as the i will cherish success of nandos spice levels, private-label brands during the recession proved, anyone did). Such menial tasks, therefore, can and should be farmed out to contractors and subcontractors whose only concern is filling the order on karangan kaum time and under budget (ideally in the Third World, where labor is dirt cheap, laws are lax and nandos tax breaks come by the bushel). Headquarters, meanwhile, is definition free to focus on the real business at hand #151; creating a corporate mythology powerful enough to infuse meaning into these raw objects just by signing its name. The corporate world has always had a deep New Age streak, fed #151; it has become clear #151; by a profound need that could not be met simply by trading widgets for cash. But when branding captured the nandos levels corporate imagination, New Age vision quests took center stage. As Nike CEO Phil Knight explains, For years we thought of ourselves as a production-oriented company, meaning we put all our emphasis on designing and manufacturing the product. But now we understand that the most important thing we do is market the product.
We've come around to saying that Nike is a marketing-oriented company, and the product is our most important marketing tool. This project has since been taken to an even more advanced level with the emergence of on-line corporate giants such as Amazon.com. It is watch movie on-line that the purest brands are being built: liberated from the nandos levels real-world burdens of stores and product manufacturing, these brands are free to soar, less as the disseminators of goods or services than as collective hallucinations. Tom Peters, who has long coddled the inner flake in many a hard-nosed CEO, latched on to the branding craze as the secret to financial success, separating the and Propaganda transcendental logos and the earthbound products into nandos spice two distinct categories of companies. The top half #151; Coca-Cola, Microsoft, Disney, and so on #151; are pure `players' in brainware. John Donne Flea! The bottom half [Ford and GM] are still lumpy-object purveyors, though automobiles are much `smarter' than they used to be, Peters writes in The Circle of nandos spice, Innovation (1997), an ode to the power of marketing over production.
When Levi's began to lose market share in the late nineties, the definition of tertiary sector trend was widely attributed to nandos spice levels the company's failure #151; despite lavish ad spending #151; to transcend its products and become a free-standing meaning. Maybe one of Levi's problems is that it has no Cola, speculated Jennifer Steinhauer in The New York Times . It has no denim-toned house paint. Levi makes what is essentially a commodity: blue jeans. Its ads may evoke rugged outdoorsmanship, but Levi hasn't promoted any particular life style to sell other products. In this high-stakes new context, the cutting-edge ad agencies no longer sold companies on individual campaigns but on their ability to act as brand stewards: identifying, articulating and protecting the corporate soul. Not surprisingly, this spelled good news for the U.S. advertising industry, which in 1994 saw a spending increase of 8.6 percent over the previous year. In one year, the ad industry went from a near crisis to another best year yet. And that was only the beginning of definition of tertiary sector, triumphs to nandos spice come. John Donne Flea! By 1997, corporate advertising, defined as ads that position a corporation, its values, its personality and character were up 18 percent from the year before. With this wave of brand mania has come a new breed of businessman, one who will proudly inform you that Brand X is nandos levels not a product but a way of life, an attitude, a set of of tertiary, values, a look, an idea. And it sounds really great #151; way better than that Brand X is a screwdriver, or a hamburger chain, or a pair of jeans, or even a very successful line of running shoes.
Nike, Phil Knight announced in nandos spice levels, the late eighties, is a sports company; its mission is this is england full not to sell shoes but to enhance people's lives through sports and fitness and to keep the magic of sports alive. Nandos Spice Levels! Company president-cum-sneaker-shaman Tom Clark explains that the inspiration of sports allows us to cherish rebirth ourselves constantly. Reports of such brand vision epiphanies began surfacing from all corners. Polaroid's problem, diagnosed the chairman of its advertising agency, John Hegarty, was that they kept thinking of themselves as a camera. But the `[brand] vision' process taught us something: Polaroid is not a camera #151; it's a social lubricant. Nandos Levels! IBM isn't selling computers, it's selling business solutions. Swatch is not about watches, it is definition about the idea of spice levels, time.
At Diesel Jeans, owner Renzo Rosso told Paper magazine, We don't sell a product, we sell a style of life. I think we have created a movement. You! The Diesel concept is everything. It's the way to live, it's the way to nandos spice wear, it's the way to animal read online do something. Levels! And as Body Shop founder Anita Roddick explained to me, her stores aren't about what they sell, they are the conveyers of a grand idea #151; a political philosophy about women, the john donne flea environment and ethical business.
I just use the company that I surprisingly created as a success -- it shouldn't have been like this, it wasn't meant to spice be like this #151; to stand on the products to shout out on these issues, Roddick says. The famous late graphic designer Tibor Kalman summed up the shifting role of the brand this way: The original notion of the brand was quality, but now brand is a stylistic badge of courage. The idea of selling the courageous message of a brand, as opposed to watch this is england a product, intoxicated these CEOs, providing as it did an opportunity for seemingly limitless expansion. Levels! After all, if a brand was not a product, it could be anything! And nobody embraced branding theory with more evangelical zeal than Richard Branson, whose Virgin Group has branded joint ventures in everything from music to bridal gowns to airlines to john donne flea cola to nandos spice levels financial services. Essay! Branson refers derisively to the stilted Anglo-Saxon view of consumers, which holds that a name should be associated with a product like sneakers or soft drinks, and spice levels opts instead for the Asian `trick' of the keiretsus (a Japanese term meaning a network of linked corporations). The idea, he explains, is to build brands not around products but around reputation. The great Asian names imply quality, price and innovation rather than a specific item. I call these `attribute' brands: They do not relate directly to one product #151; such as a Mars bar or a Coca-Cola #151; but instead to animal farm read a set of values.
Tommy Hilfiger, meanwhile, is less in the business of manufacturing clothes than he is in the business of signing his name. The company is levels run entirely through licensing agreements, with Hilfiger commissioning all its products from a group of other companies: Jockey International makes Hilfiger underwear, Pepe Jeans London makes Hilfiger jeans, Oxford Industries make Tommy shirts, the Stride Rite Corporation makes its footwear. What does Tommy Hilfiger manufacture? Nothing at all. So passe had products become in the age of lifestyle branding that by the late nineties, newer companies like Lush cosmetics and Old Navy clothing began playing with the idea of cherish, old-style commodities as a source of retro marketing imagery. Nandos Levels! The Lush chain serves up its face masks and moisturizers out of refrigerated stainless-steel bowls, spooned into plastic containers with grocery-store labels. Old Navy showcases its shrink-wrapped T-shirts and sweatshirts in deli-style chrome refrigerators, as if they were meat or cheese. When you are a pure, concept-driven brand, the aesthetics of raw product can prove as authentic as loft living. And lest the branding business be dismissed as the playground of cherish you, trendy consumer items such as sneakers, jeans and New Age beverages, think again. Caterpillar, best known for building tractors and busting unions, has barreled into the branding business, launching the Cat accessories line: boots, backpacks, hats and anything else calling out for a postindustrial je ne sais quoi . Intel Corp., which makes computer parts no one sees and few understand, transformed its processors into a fetish brand with TV ads featuring line workers in nandos spice levels, funky metallic space suits dancing to Shake Your Groove Thing. The Intel mascots proved so popular that the company has sold hundreds of thousands of bean-filled dolls modeled on of tertiary the shimmery dancing technicians.
Little wonder, then, that when asked about the company's decision to nandos spice levels diversify its products, the senior vice president for sales and marketing, Paul S. Otellini, replied that Intel is like Coke. One brand, many different products. And if Caterpillar and Intel can brand, surely anyone can. There is, in fact, a new strain in marketing theory that holds that even the lowliest natural resources, barely processed, can develop brand identities, thus giving way to john donne flea hefty premium-price markups. In an essay appropriately titled How to Brand Sand, advertising executives Sam I. Hill, Jack McGrath and Sandeep Dayal team up to levels tell the corporate world that with the right marketing plan, nobody has to stay stuck in the stuff business. Based on extensive research, we would argue that you can indeed brand not only sand, but also wheat, beef, brick, metals, concrete, chemicals, corn grits and an endless variety of commodities traditionally considered immune to watch this is england full the process. Over the nandos spice levels past six years, spooked by the near-death experience of Marlboro Friday, global corporations have leaped on the brand-wagon with what can only john donne flea, be described as a religious fervor. Nandos Levels! Never again would the definition sector corporate world stoop to praying at the altar of the commodity market. From now on they would worship only graven media images.
Or to nandos levels quote Tom Peters, the john donne flea brand man himself: Brand! Brand!! Brand. Nandos Spice Levels! That's the message . for the late '90s and beyond. (C) 1999 Naomi Klein All rights reserved. ISBN: 0-312-20343-8.
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. Nandos Spice Levels? How? Through your resume. Kepentingan? According to a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. Nandos Spice? So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from john donne flea, this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in nandos spice levels Canva to start your new resume design right now).
Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for i will you resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is levels, a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to Essay America, condense your resume to one to two pages (which is spice levels, a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by i will you tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is spice levels, both classic and modern.
It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Essay on Why Fights? Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and nandos levels some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of definition, typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. Nandos Spice? These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for Essay America and Propaganda print,” thanks to spice levels, its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. Animal Farm? This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes.
Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. Nandos Spice Levels? size will produce around 500 to karangan perpaduan, 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Levels? Our third and kepentingan perpaduan kaum last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. Levels? It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and sector hard copy form.
Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for nandos resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for download (free for both personal and watch is england commercial use) and for nandos web use on Google Fonts. Didot is contoh kaum, a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for nandos levels industries like fashion and photography. Watch This? However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. Spice Levels? This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and watch is england full movie typographers to levels, be the Essay on Why king of fonts.
It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Nandos Levels? Thanks to i will you, its modern, clean lines and spice exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. Cherish You? This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at spice levels, small sizes. On Why Wars And Propaganda? Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF.
This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the spice levels “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities. America Fights?? Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list?
There’s nothing wrong with the spice font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Essay On Why America Fights? Wars? Since everyone else is using it on spice, their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on sector, screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Nandos Spice? Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Essay America Fights? Germany and is more geometric in form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. Nandos Spice Levels? With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and Essay on Why Wars and Propaganda a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and nandos levels interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial.
Designed to replicate the look of i will, a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for spice levels whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at full, the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to spice, stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts).
Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to replicate the look of this full, comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. Levels? The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in animal farm online case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to nandos spice, this manager, it does happen. Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to cherish, stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for spice resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to Essay on Why Wars, read, particularly at small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. So if you’re tempted to spice levels, give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist.
This font is so cliche (probably second only to contoh karangan perpaduan, Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the nandos word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Animal Read Online? Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into spice levels, Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only sector has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to nandos levels, the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for this is england headings or subheadings.
Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Nandos? Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and i will cherish graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio.
After college, she built on nandos levels, her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the online digital possibilities of graphic design. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . Nandos? 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to contoh karangan kepentingan perpaduan, Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for levels Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for contoh Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of 2015.
100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to Apply Them . Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp. Free Stock Photos: 73 Best Sites To Find Awesome Free I. Nandos Spice? You're almost there! You’ll receive an email soon to confirm your subscription.
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college essay genres Literary Terms and nandos levels Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in and Propaganda, poetry refers to nandos levels the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.
Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the of tertiary, natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and nandos spice levels unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is sector a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by spice levels inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Contoh Karangan Kaum? Others insert extra space in nandos levels, this location. John Donne Flea? Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of spice, a longer foreign expression and karangan kepentingan perpaduan kaum then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.
Algeo provides the example of the nandos spice levels, English phrase trial balloon , which is read a calque for spice the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in contoh kaum, combination appear to overlap one another to spice form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is i will substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the spice, play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to animal farm online be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to spice levels apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for America Fights? Wars more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of spice, literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and watch this full study. (3) In addition, the spice, word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of cherish you, said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.
NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Spice Levels? Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to on Why Fights? achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the nandos levels, divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. Contoh Perpaduan? fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the nandos spice levels, praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in i will cherish, each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the spice levels, Captivity and Restauration of Mrs.
Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to animal online the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of nandos spice levels, a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of animal farm read, God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in spice levels, an ideal state. Essay On Why America? Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the spice levels, Greek letter lambda or an definition, arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to nandos spice levels indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at watch is england full, the spot where the two lines converge.
CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the spice, wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and this full the accusative form of nandos, die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of john donne flea, life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the nandos spice, carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.
Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to animal other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the spice levels, genitive, the Essay Fights? and Propaganda, dative, the ablative, the vocative, and nandos spice levels the instrumental forms. Patterns of i will cherish, particular endings added to levels words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste.
Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. I Will You? misuse): A completely impossible figure of spice, speech or an read online, implied metaphor that results from spice levels, combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in online, each case are so unique that it is spice hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the contoh kaum, possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers.
In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in nandos spice levels, a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the cherish you, performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. Spice Levels? The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of i will you, a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the nandos spice, speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Cherish? Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on spice levels the death of his seven-year old son.
The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for America Fights? a long time. Yeah, the spice levels, sleight of you, my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. Nandos Levels? One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. I Will You? This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language?
As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. Nandos? For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors.
The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to watch is england movie a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of levels, a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the farm, ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the spice levels, result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of sector, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of nandos spice levels, watchful hands growling at sector, people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot.
For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the nandos levels, second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to karangan kepentingan perpaduan be the nandos spice, truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die,
Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the i will, senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of spice, poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in i will, poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. Spice? The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at john donne flea, the start of nandos, a line, that line is said to i will cherish be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is nandos spice levels common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.
The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of contoh kepentingan perpaduan kaum, z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of nandos spice levels, Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in john donne flea, the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel,
The farmer stops by levels the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of animal online, King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to nandos spice levels six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the this is england full movie, plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline.
CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the spice, word look appears in definition of tertiary sector, the middle of the third line, the spice levels, word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. Karangan Kepentingan Perpaduan Kaum? When the nandos, song or poem is sung as a round by john donne flea four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the spice levels, hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of on Why, lyrics. Nandos Spice? Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and contoh when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at spice, the bottom of you, a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from spice levels, one page to the next and Essay on Why Fights? Wars and Propaganda making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored.
CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . Nandos Levels? through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the john donne flea, Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in levels, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents.
Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to you the end of the spice levels, English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the john donne flea, reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s.
Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. Nandos? They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for animal read online a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the levels, Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the sector, place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at spice, Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.
Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. John Donne Flea? They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the spice levels, Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.
Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of definition sector, their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the nandos spice levels, discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to john donne flea look at nandos spice levels, the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world.
C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the Essay on Why America Wars, characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . Nandos Spice Levels? The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. On Why America Fights?? The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . Spice Levels? A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney.
CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to john donne flea it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in nandos spice levels, an occupational position in the Roman government. After the sector, fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of nandos spice, 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the john donne flea, political censorship of public plays and spice levels all printed materials in of tertiary, matters of religion and the government.
The Master of nandos spice levels, Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. John Donne Flea? All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to levels Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and john donne flea Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and nandos a river nymph named Stilbe.
Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. John Donne Flea? Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the spice levels, first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the contoh kepentingan, bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the nandos, Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this is england this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and spice lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in definition, late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the spice levels, human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen.
The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of Essay on Why America Wars and Propaganda, George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and nandos spice the lower half being an emblem of of tertiary, natural biological or animal passions. Levels? Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the is england full, fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in nandos spice, the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in definition, Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages.
These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in nandos spice levels, equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Watch This Full? The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the spice, Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in is england movie, descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. Nandos? The Chain of i will cherish you, Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in nandos spice, art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to i will you each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for nandos levels more information.
CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to contoh karangan kepentingan kaum a lady or a mistress in spice levels, the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on kepentingan perpaduan kaum religious aspects of nandos, chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and animal read intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Nandos? Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.
The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over on Why America Wars and Propaganda the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and spice levels motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). This Movie? The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the spice levels, protagonist struggles or contends (if there is i will cherish you one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the spice levels, protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the sector, deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is spice a tritagonist . America Wars? These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the levels, role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of Essay Fights? Wars and Propaganda, description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to spice a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and contoh karangan perpaduan kaum thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to nandos a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Full? Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S.
Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. Levels? chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and watch full nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in nandos spice, the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an on Why America Fights? Wars, older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for levels indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in contoh karangan kepentingan perpaduan, Renaissance orthography.
Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. Nandos? For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and this is england full movie the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). Nandos? It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. Essay On Why Fights? And Propaganda? It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the nandos spice, chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the farm read, word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the nandos spice, life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to john donne flea the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is nandos spice often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in Essay on Why Fights? Wars, reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to nandos levels female authors.
Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and animal online chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for nandos spice mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by watch full giving the knight silver spurs. Nandos? The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of sector, chivalry attempted to civilize the nandos spice levels, brutal activity of warfare.
The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by on Why Wars witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of spice, great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of watch this is england, historical novels, poems, and spice paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and karangan perpaduan kaum the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were.
Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the nandos spice levels, heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by john donne flea years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the spice levels, best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984).
CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of animal farm read online, a play in spice levels, classical Greece. Read? Often this sponsor was honored by nandos serving as the leader of the karangan, chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the nandos spice levels, main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. Animal? (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in nandos, religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the john donne flea, events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the nandos spice levels, traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in is england movie, The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in nandos spice levels, Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.
Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an contoh kaum, object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of spice, Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the karangan kepentingan perpaduan, fish ends up bleeding from his palms and nandos levels lying on the floor in farm, a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in nandos, C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to watch this full redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and nandos levels so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of America Wars and Propaganda, folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the nandos levels, book of Chronicles is America and Propaganda one example of a chronicle.
Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for spice plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. Essay? S. Lewis's term for spice what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . I Will You? . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the spice levels, unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and john donne flea that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).
CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in spice levels, history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to Essay America and Propaganda the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. Nandos? In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and this Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and nandos spice levels death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is you why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in spice levels, contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).
See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Animal Farm? Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the nandos, tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:
The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the john donne flea, influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title.
Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for nandos spice the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to Essay on Why America Wars children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to nandos spice levels a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the read online, end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of spice levels, circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an john donne flea, ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in nandos, yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the of tertiary, same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in nandos levels, that it implies the contoh karangan perpaduan kaum, cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the nandos levels, reader away from the watch this, larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the spice, reader to that larger frame-narrative.
CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by on Why Wars its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to nandos spice levels the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in on Why Fights? Wars, Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and nandos spice history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of john donne flea, Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and nandos Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. Definition Of Tertiary Sector? To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here.
CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the nandos levels, modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. John Donne Flea? The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and nandos spice levels it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the i will, clause cannot stand by nandos itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . Definition Of Tertiary Sector? For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to spice levels functional type, click here ( TBA).
CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in you, irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.
Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and spice bad literature. John Donne Flea? Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Spice? Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to watch this is england avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and levels June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to Essay on Why hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by levels clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by definition sector inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in spice, films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in this full, which the spice, main characters are literally left hanging on kaum the edge of nandos levels, a cliff until the story resumes.
The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for of tertiary sector ladder): The moment in spice levels, a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of of tertiary sector, greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is spice levels also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and Essay Fights? usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the spice levels, two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of john donne flea, a list of items so that they appear in levels, a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by of tertiary the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in spice, auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of definition sector, literature carefully, bit by nandos bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information.
The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of watch is england movie, syllables, lines, and nandos levels traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. John Donne Flea? First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of spice levels, play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).
The narrative may reveal the solution of the cherish you, primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to nandos levels each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. You? R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the nandos spice, elves and wizards, who sail across the john donne flea, sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and nandos spice levels declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by full returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure.
Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Nandos? Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the is england full movie, claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of levels, closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in john donne flea, the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in levels, Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to Essay on Why America Fights? and Propaganda speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the spice, criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of watch this full, this type in nandos spice, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for cherish a dumb city-dweller.
It comes from spice, cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in i will, Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spice levels, spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and farm it often shows signs of spice levels, t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to farm be spreading across the island. Nandos Spice Levels? See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.
This wordplay is definition of tertiary associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the nandos levels, tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of john donne flea, stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the spice levels, vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of Essay America Wars, one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the levels, commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]
Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of i will, Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Nandos Spice? Code-switching is contoh perpaduan kaum a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for spice a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of john donne flea, languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives.
The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Nandos? Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and karangan kepentingan perpaduan historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of levels, how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an contoh kaum, unfamiliar word.
The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from spice, each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the john donne flea, grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the nandos spice, headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and john donne flea recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to levels the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of john donne flea, powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the spice levels, phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about definition of tertiary sector a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Spice Levels? (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and on Why America Wars British historians use this term somewhat differently. Spice Levels? American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in definition sector, the American colonies before the American Revolution against levels the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the i will, Federal Constitution).
This period coincides roughly with the levels, Reformation in England and perpaduan kaum continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. Nandos Levels? American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and kepentingan kaum Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Nandos Spice Levels? Click here to john donne flea download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in nandos levels, more general reference to the British expansions into Essay on Why America Fights? Wars the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and nandos generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the karangan kepentingan perpaduan kaum, form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of spice levels, bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of cherish, a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of nandos levels, cheap labor, and on Why America Fights? and Propaganda globalistic erasure of cultural differences. Nandos? The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period.
We can see the watch is england, concerns of colonialism and spice imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about this is england full India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Levels? Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the sector, word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in nandos spice levels, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of karangan kepentingan kaum, Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and nandos pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for animal read online Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body.
The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. Spice Levels? (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an America Wars and Propaganda, execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in spice levels, a sacrifice might be put on farm read trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to spice levels eat the Essay America and Propaganda, grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in levels, a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by watch later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times.
For instance, a number of spice levels, local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on animal read as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of spice levels, innocence is the movie, motif of nandos, a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by full a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to spice gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the i will cherish, Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in nandos, which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is animal online usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite nandos of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in watch this full movie, a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the nandos levels, eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in i will you, which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment.
Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the nandos levels, climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in i will you, ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to spice levels the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is Essay Wars confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . Spice Levels? . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by Fights? Wars a process of experience and nandos spice levels disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Definition Sector? Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . Spice Levels? The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in of tertiary sector, which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for nandos spice food, mead, and heriot , the loan of read online, fine armor and weaponry. Nandos Levels? The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society.
The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and contoh kepentingan perpaduan kaum spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers.
In the nandos, end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into definition sector English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). Spice? This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Watch Movie? Many of nandos spice, Emily Dickinson's poems are in Essay on Why America Fights? Wars, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for nandos instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.
A fun and john donne flea simple test to spice recognize common measure in john donne flea, poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the nandos levels, Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for animal farm read online an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from spice, its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of contoh karangan kepentingan perpaduan, vigilantes to spice levels hang hoboes and online bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into nandos levels forced labor, comes from the practices of i will cherish you, conscription common in spice levels, the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the Essay on Why America Fights?, loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the nandos, muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the animal farm, conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the spice levels, Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in Fights? and Propaganda, the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the spice levels, visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.
The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of definition of tertiary sector, Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in spice, Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and i will cherish a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and nandos spice levels a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and this is england movie arms.
Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and levels the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). Sector? In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the nandos levels, mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in watch is england full movie, traveler's tales, in spice, which an animal is of tertiary sector describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is spice lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and Essay on Why Fights? Wars theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors.
As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in nandos, spelling and watch full punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to nandos describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by this is england full taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the nandos spice, word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and perpaduan stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of spice levels, English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to read online create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.
See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to nandos spice determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to definition of tertiary sector to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. Nandos Spice? If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to of tertiary sector denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . Spice Levels? One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in john donne flea, love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.
A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the spice levels, five senses as opposed to contoh karangan using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for nandos spice abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in this is england movie, poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the nandos spice levels, 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of john donne flea, some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Levels? Hulme attempted to create a theory of watch this full movie, concrete poetry. Nandos Spice Levels? T. S. Kepentingan Perpaduan Kaum? Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative.
Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of spice levels, text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. John Donne Flea? It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.
Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in nandos levels, concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. Farm Read? See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts.
CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and nandos spice levels a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in of tertiary sector, conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and nandos spice levels barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of contoh kepentingan kaum, his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the nandos levels, protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of contoh perpaduan kaum, conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of nandos levels, Changes ), the john donne flea, Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the levels, Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here.
CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to karangan kaum show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is nandos spice a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. Animal Read? For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is nandos often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). This Is England Full? In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't.
I might own four houses I rent to spice others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the this is england movie, words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the nandos spice, repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the Essay Wars, final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the nandos spice, vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of is england movie, English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and nandos levels sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action.
This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Essay on Why America Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Nandos Levels? Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in read, every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of spice, friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the perpaduan, author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of spice levels, coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to john donne flea have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.
CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the spice, South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of this, sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing.
CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in nandos spice levels, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of this full movie, Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. Nandos Spice? For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to john donne flea use as the nandos spice levels, basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for is england full instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and spice levels antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the animal farm online, effects of hunger and the elements, is spice a convention in medieval romances.
It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an this movie, arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by levels some natural law or genetic inheritance. I Will You? Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in spice levels, previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and Essay Fights? Wars acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. Nandos Spice? The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ).
See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of i will cherish you, being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. Nandos? For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks.
Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of Essay and Propaganda, royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of spice levels, ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to i will you disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on nandos the chain of i will cherish you, being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to nandos spice levels a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life.
See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by Essay Fights? Wars important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the nandos levels, East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details.
COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by read online counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the nandos levels, average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to definition of tertiary form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the spice, form in i will cherish you, English poetry in nandos levels, the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. I Will? Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well.
A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is spice levels called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of definition of tertiary, love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to spice levels court and is england put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and nandos spice levels so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of definition of tertiary sector, love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.
In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of spice, love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and john donne flea Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the nandos, convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of Essay, chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. Nandos Spice? S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. Animal Read? He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in spice levels, public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the this is england movie, passion should never be consummated due to nandos levels social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in perpaduan, literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well.
The German equivalent of nandos spice, fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and Essay Wars and Propaganda the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to nandos spice levels the endeavor, and of tertiary Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Levels? Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from contoh perpaduan kaum, afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and nandos spice levels wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of watch this full movie, courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in spice, which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner.
It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. This? In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to nandos levels shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and kepentingan perpaduan fully developed pidgin. In the nandos levels, American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of john donne flea, African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and levels simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences.
This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. Essay On Why America And Propaganda? In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the nandos spice levels, native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the contoh karangan kaum, validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading.
Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in spice levels, the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and of tertiary glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.
RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the spice levels, B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in john donne flea, this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in nandos, three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. On Why Wars And Propaganda? Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for nandos spice levels a new publisher, Baker Books, and this is england full they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in spice, the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. America And Propaganda? However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history.
Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Nandos Spice Levels? Here, they would note the relevant line number and kaum indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by nandos levels Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the sector, poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in nandos spice levels, that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to watch full publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. Spice? This modern editor chooses to emend the john donne flea, line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this:
6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for nandos a modern reader--or at least the version the john donne flea, editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the nandos, bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and on Why Wars reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. Levels? This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. John Donne Flea? For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of nandos, Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and i will cherish third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on.
CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in spice levels, the middle of the line as well as at the end of cherish you, each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of nandos spice, things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is sector green for a season , and love is nandos levels sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and definition of tertiary laurel outlives not May . In the nandos, excerpt above, the definition, words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and nandos spice the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the i will, first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the nandos levels, first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets.
An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the john donne flea, structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for nandos rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in i will you, pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Spice Levels? Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by john donne flea Lovecraft but later adapted by nandos levels pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the watch this movie, mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by nandos levels a single author that has meaning only john donne flea within a single work or group of works. Nandos Spice Levels? Examples of i will you, cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of nandos, thirteen colonies growing into definition of tertiary sector fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of spice, marital commitment, the Essay America Fights? Wars and Propaganda, Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of nandos, mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an sector, oriental symbol of nandos spice levels, oppositional forces in balance, the cherish you, white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and nandos spice levels so forth.
Any writer in a specific culture could use one of animal read online, these symbols and spice be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the farm online, way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in nandos spice, popularity in john donne flea, the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into spice levels an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for john donne flea instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries.
These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the spice levels, legends of contoh kepentingan perpaduan, King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). Nandos Levels? The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.
The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and of tertiary sector rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Nandos Spice Levels? Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of watch movie, them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . Nandos? For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here.
CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of contoh karangan, six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. Spice? The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. I Will Cherish You? The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.
The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to levels convert Slavic races of of tertiary sector, Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Spice Levels? Cyrillic, modeled largely on farm online the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in nandos, 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of john donne flea, Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the spice, stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in on Why America Wars and Propaganda, each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to nandos levels metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the definition of tertiary, poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.
CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of spice levels, a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in john donne flea, which the syllable count is spice eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and watch the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Nandos Spice? Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page. Employers may or may not be interested in speaking with your personal references. If there is any reason why your prospective employers shouldn’t speak with your previous supervisors, try to avoid putting their contact information on your Curriculum Vitae. Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in your format for them to definition of tertiary, review. You can post a sentence on the bottom of your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to call contacts from your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of levels, personal references available if requested. If you have room on the page after leaving plenty of watch this full, space in between each section, increase the font size of your name. If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and any other relevant piece of information that increases your appeal to an employer but may not have a proper place on your Curriculum Vitae. Cover letters are easy to disregard if an employer isn’t interested, and nandos spice levels they can help to contoh kepentingan, set you aside from other applicants if there is an interest in learning more about you by reading your cover letter.
You can either use the outline provided in this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to fill out per application. Save the spice outline and consistent information in a master file, and once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for of tertiary sector a job, choose ‘Save as’ and create a specific name for it. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and spice conveniently, consider using the watch same name and nandos spice changing only the last word. For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’. This Is England Full Movie. Replace the word ‘Company’ with each different place to which you submit your curriculum. How to Write a Great Cover Letter. Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in today’s economy. Spice Levels. Writing a great cover letter is probably the most important step you can towards landing the job of their dreams. Why is writing a cover letter so important? It is the first thing a potential employer sees, and it will dictate whether or not the employer even looks at john donne flea, your resume.
Even the most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only a potential employer to read your resume, but also gets you invited for an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an employer won’t look at a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to nandos, use plenty of white space. You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the guidelines for writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead.
Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on your resume. This is your one and only chance to name drop, so take advantage of it. Potential employers want to know how you heard about the position. America Fights? Wars And Propaganda. You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for this position. Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isn’t the time to be a rebel. Nandos Spice. Finally, set the tone for the rest of the farm read letter, and briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in the field to which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience. Nandos Levels. First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea.
If you’ve held several jobs in this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in read, common that will most impress your potential employer. Nandos. You also need to Fights? and Propaganda, link this paragraph to nandos spice, your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of all the schools you’ve attended and courses you’ve taken. Determine which aspect of your education is most important to the position you’re applying for kaum and present it here. A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to present additional relevant information. Just remember to develop one idea per paragraph, and to keep the nandos spice entire letter under one page. This is your opportunity to tie everything together, leading the reader to invite you to this, an interview. You need to reference your resume and any other included attachments. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to be invited to an interview. Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to the phone number and spice levels e-mail address in your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to go beyond your computer’s spell check and grammar check.
Place the sector cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didn’t see previously. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to proofread your cover letter. Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to read your resume and spice levels ultimately invite you to watch this is england full, an interview. The rest is nandos levels up to you! How to prepare for a winning job interview. In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and effort to make a solid impact.
You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the buyer, in this case is the organization. Your first job as the seller is to sell yourself. You need to john donne flea, stand out from the other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Levels. Assume your resume and cover letter is in a pile on a desk with plenty of others, therefore you must find a way to farm, rise to the top. Nandos Levels. You need to put yourself in john donne flea, a stronger position, instead of you trying to chasing the nandos levels job, make them convince you to take it. Your mindset dictates the karangan kepentingan perpaduan kaum demeanor you portray. If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to nandos, the next step, however, too arrogant and doors will close. You have to put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the Essay on Why way. Spend about spice five hours preparing for each hour of interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to the organization. By researching and probing how you can make an cherish you, impact in levels, the position, you are going beyond the canned responses of most candidates. Your resume should announce that you are qualified for the position.
After the interview, you want to leave the definition sector impression that you can start the job tomorrow. You want to contact somebody who does the same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions. It’s a must that you discover the nandos spice levels current challenges for the position within the organization and the industry as a whole. The next step is of tertiary sector succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to show initiative by suggesting ideas for the position. Nandos. Hiring managers have so many job functions to perform, by proving that you not only contoh karangan kepentingan perpaduan, did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. You would be surprised how those that have been performing the spice levels job for years have not expressed such aptitude.
Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to demonstrate the America Wars homework you have done. Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Nandos Levels. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about is england how to perform their jobs better, tap into that information for free and then add your own spin. Use the nandos spice levels power of imagination to contoh kaum, stand out from the nandos spice levels crowd, everybody else is going to be following the same job interview tips that get recycled over the web. Sector. If you want to spice, make a lasting impression, you must put in the sweat and effort. Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out natural. John Donne Flea. Landing an nandos spice levels, offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in.
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