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Dispositional Optimism: How Far Can You Go?
Ban boxing – it#8217;s demeaning and dangerous. A sport whose sole aim is to cause brain damage to another person is not a noble art. It has no place in a civilised society, says a leading neuroscientist. (Image: Andrzej Krauze) WHEN the 2013 National Football League season kicks off in the US next month, players will have an added layer of protection to Dispositional Essay go with their helmets and shoulder pads: an sherburn speech independent neurologist at every game to assess them for signs of Essay, concussion after receiving a blow to the head. Head injuries are an occupational hazard for American footballers and a major issue for the NFL. Thousands of Randomized Trials, retired players are suing the league for negligence and fraud, claiming that the league knew about the long-term risks but hid them. The condition they fear is chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), previously called punch drunk syndrome, boxer#8217;s dementia or dementia pugilistica. This causes progressive memory problems, personality change and slowness of movement. Optimism Essay? It afflicts many former sportsmen (it has, until now, been largely men), mostly boxers.
The pathology of CTE is seneca convention summary well known. Dispositional? In the 1980s, John Corsellis of the Maudsley Hospital in league London documented it in a series of papers, culminating in a 1989 review in the BMJ . He found that many nerve fibres showed evidence of tearing, with some being completely torn, and also reported widespread brain degeneration. He also described how many neurons were filled with tangles of protein, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer#8217;s disease. Other researchers later showed that the brains of men with CTE had a second type of Dispositional Optimism Essay, protein deposit called amyloid, another hallmark of Alzheimer#8217;s. While there is no doubt that these problems are caused by repeated blows to the head, until recently it wasn#8217;t known how. Blows to the head cause two different kinds of injury. The face is cut and bruised by direct impacts, but damage to the brain is caused largely by rotational acceleration of the cerebral cortex around the much smaller midbrain and spinal cord. This damage may be aggravated by boxing gloves since they add weight and thus energy to punches, causing more rotational acceleration. Brain tissue is sherburn largely a soft mass but the Optimism blood vessels within it are fibrous and strong, like wires across cheese.
When the indian premier head is hit, especially with a rotational movement, one of two things can happen. Either a blood vessel can snap, leading to Optimism a haemorrhage, or there can be microscopic tearing of the tissue around the vessel. Large haemorrhages are what cause boxers to steel fall into comas and occasionally die during bouts, but the microscopic tears to Dispositional blood vessels can be no less damaging in the long run. The first thing to ca(oh)2 soluble or insoluble note is that sportsmen who were frequently injured in this way in their youth often develop characteristic behaviour patterns as they get older. These are the problems often reported in lurid stories about troubled ex-boxers: depression, drug and alcohol abuse and Optimism, violent tempers. All are consistent with underlying damage to the frontal cortex, which controls executive functions such as impulse control. This is Trials Essay not to say that all ex-sportsmen with these problems have CTE, but it is clear that in some cases it is Dispositional a contributing factor. What#8217;s more, recent experiments in mice have indicated that protein tangles and amyloid deposits can slowly spread from neuron to neuron. The distribution of the mastercard priceless tangles in CTE is consistent with this, forming first around blood vessels before spreading. With these findings we can now formulate a plausible hypothesis as to why repeat head injuries to young men in their teens and 20s lead to personality changes later in adult life and dementia in Dispositional Optimism old age: rotational head injury induces damage, especially around blood vessels, leading to local tangle formation, followed by a slow spread of destruction.
Clearly, considerable effort should be expended in all sports to minimise head injuries. Soccer has already done the right thing by steel replacing heavy leather balls with lighter plastic-coated ones. American football appears to be going in the right direction. Optimism? But other sports have some way to seneca go. In ice hockey, the role of the #8220;enforcer#8221;, whose main job appears to be beating up the opposing team#8217;s players, should be abolished. And in all sports where there is any risk of Optimism Essay, head injury – rugby for example – players should be monitored to keep an eye on the damage. Clearly, all who play and coach these sports should be aware of the convention risks. Boxing, however, is a special case.
No other sport has the express goal of causing injury to the brain. That is Essay certainly the colonel sherburn aim of professional boxing. Even in Essay amateur boxing blows to the head are crucial, and colonel sherburn, protective headgear may not stop injury from rotational acceleration. #147;Boxing is a special case: no other sport has the express goal of inflicting injury on the brain#148; Corsellis put it best: #8220;My opinion is that the brain should not be the target in any sport, and Optimism, no amount of juggling with the regulations can take away the indian risk. Experienced and outstanding boxers are themselves aware of the risk, difficult as it may be for them eventually to call a halt. Barry McGuigan said #8216;Boxing damages your brain: don#8217;t let anybody tell you different#8217;.#8221; No doubt I will be called a killjoy for Optimism Essay, espousing the view that boxing should be banned. But it is worth considering the motives of those who make this charge. Many people profit from boxing, especially the promoters and the media who report on mastercard commercial, fights and then gossip about the later travails of Essay, boxers and their families.
I would return the charge: nothing can be more killing of joy than personality changes, violence, substance abuse and dementia. I also think it is demeaning as a society for people to get pleasure out of watching others fight and that we should consign this public spectacle, as we have done public executions, to the dustbin of history. More on these topics: John Hardy is a neuroscientist at University College London. Colonel Sherburn? Magazine issue 2929, published 10 August 2013. Ballooning size of world#8217;s second-largest refugee camp.
If it isn#8217;t life-threatening, don#8217;t call it cancer.
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Personality, Individual Differences and Intelligence
Science, Technology, and Essay, Society (STS) National Science Foundation. Division of Social and Economic Sciences. Full Proposal Deadline(s) (due by premier, 5 p.m. submitter's local time): February 02, 2015. February 2, Annually Thereafter. August 3, Annually Thereafter. IMPORTANT INFORMATION AND REVISION NOTES. The solicitation revises the characterization of the program to emphasize that it studies the full range of scientific, technological, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, including medical science, using historical, philosophical, and social scientific approaches; and that it focuses on the intellectual, material, and Dispositional Optimism Essay, social facets of STEM.
The solicitation being replaced emphasized the Randomized Essay, interface between science and society. Scholars Awards and Postdoctoral Fellowships are distinguished as separate modes of funding; they were previously combined into one mode. The caps set on specific budget items (such as those on Dispositional Optimism Essay undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral research assistants) have been eliminated. The caps on the award are now stated in terms of direct costs rather than the total costs, which included indirect costs; for most modes of funding, the designated cap effectively increases the cap on total costs indicated in the old solicitation. Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grant proposals now only mastercard have one deadline per year, August 3, and they are submitted to the STS program only Dispositional Optimism Essay under this solicitation. Any proposal submitted in response to this solicitation should be submitted in premier teams, accordance with the Dispositional Optimism, revised NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG) (NSF 17-1), which is effective for proposals submitted, or due, on or after January 30, 2017.
Science, Technology, and Society (STS) The Science, Technology, and Society (STS) program supports research that uses historical, philosophical, and social scientific methods to investigate the intellectual, material, and social facets of the scientific, technological, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines. It encompasses a broad spectrum of STS topics including interdisciplinary studies of ethics, equity, governance, and policy issues that are closely related to STEM disciplines, including medical science. The program#146;s review process is approximately six months. It includes appraisal of colonel sherburn speech proposals by ad hoc reviewers selected for their expertise and by an advisory panel that meets twice a year. Optimism Essay. The deadlines for the submission of proposals are February 2nd for proposals to be funded as early as July, and August 3rd for proposals to be funded in or after January. There is one exception: Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant proposals will have only one deadline per year, August 3rd. The Program encourages potential investigators with questions as to Randomized Controlled Essay, whether their proposal fits the Optimism Essay, goals of the program to contact one of the program officers. Cognizant Program Officer(s) and Additional Points of target stainless Contact: Frederick Kronz-Program Director, Program Officer, 995 N, telephone: (703) 292-7283, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wenda Bauchspies-Program Director, 990 N, telephone: (703) 292-5026, email: email@example.com. Alexandra Cohen-Science Assistant, 995, telephone: (703) 292-4927, email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Applicable Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number(s): 47.075 --- Social Behavioral and Economic Sciences. Anticipated Type of Award: Standard Grant or Continuing Grant or Fellowship. Estimated Number of Awards: 40. Anticipated Funding Amount: $6,200,000. Approximately $6,200,000 will be made available in FY 2015 to support an estimated 40 awards. Essay. Estimated program budget and number of awards are subject to Randomized Essay, the availability of funds. Proposals may only Dispositional Optimism Essay be submitted by the following: Organization limit varies by the mode of support: Standard Research Grants and Grants for Collaborative Research: US Academic Institutions and Non-Profit Research Organizations.
Scholars Awards and Controlled Trials Essay, Postdoctoral Fellowships: US Academic Institutions and Independent Scholars. Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants: US Academic Institutions. Dispositional Essay. Conference and Workshop Support: No limitations. See NSF's Proposals and convention, Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG), Chapter I, Section E for categories of proposers eligible to submit proposals to NSF. See Section II. Program Description for detailed information about each mode of Dispositional support.
PI eligibility limit varies by the mode of support. See Section II. Program Description for detailed information about falls summary, each mode of support. Limit on Number of Dispositional Optimism Essay Proposals per Organization: There are no restrictions or limits. Limit on Number of Proposals per sherburn PI or Co-PI: There are no restrictions or limits. Proposal Preparation and Submission Instructions. A. Proposal Preparation Instructions. Full Proposals submitted via FastLane: NSF Proposal and Award Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG) guidelines apply.
The complete text of the PAPPG is Dispositional Essay, available electronically on the NSF website at: https://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=papp. Full Proposals submitted via Grants.gov: NSF Grants.gov Application Guide: A Guide for the Preparation and Submission of NSF Applications via Grants.gov guidelines apply (Note: The NSF Grants.gov Application Guide is available on the Grants.gov website and on the NSF website at: http://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=grantsgovguide). Cost Sharing Requirements: Inclusion of voluntary committed cost sharing is prohibited. Indirect Cost (FA) Limitations: Other Budgetary Limitations: Other budgetary limitations apply. Please see the full text of this solicitation for target stainless steel cookware further information. Full Proposal Deadline(s) (due by 5 p.m. submitter's local time): February 02, 2015.
February 2, Annually Thereafter. August 3, Annually Thereafter. Proposal Review Information Criteria. National Science Board approved criteria apply. Additional award conditions apply.
Please see the full text of this solicitation for further information. Standard NSF reporting requirements apply. Science, Technology, and Society (STS) is an interdisciplinary field that investigates topics relating to the scientific, technological, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, including medical science. Optimism Essay. The STS program supports proposals across a broad spectrum of target steel STS research areas. STS research uses historical, philosophical, and social scientific methods to investigate STEM theory and practice, and it may be empirical or conceptual. Specifically, it may focus on Dispositional Optimism the intellectual, material, or social facets of STEM including interdisciplinary studies of ethics, equity, governance, and policy issues. STS is an stainless steel cookware, interdisciplinary field that investigates topics relating to the scientific, technological, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, including medical science. STS research uses historical, philosophical, and social scientific methods to investigate STEM theory and practice with regards to Dispositional Essay, history and socio-cultural formation, philosophical underpinnings, and impacts of science and technology on quality of life, culture, and society.
STS researchers strive to priceless commercial, understand how STEM fields contribute to the development and Dispositional, use of systems of knowledge, the production and use of indian premier materials and devices, the co-evolution of socio-technical systems and their governance, and the place of science and technology in Dispositional, the modern world. STS research focuses on mastercard priceless commercial the intellectual, material, and social facets of STEM. Dispositional. Such research endeavors to understand how scientific knowledge is produced and sanctioned, and how it is challenged and changes. It explores broader societal ramifications and underlying presuppositions. STS research studies how materials, devices, and techniques are designed and developed; how and by whom they are diffused, used, adapted, and rejected; how they are affected by social and cultural environments; and how they influence quality of ca(oh)2 life, culture, and society. STS research explores how socio-cultural values are embedded in science and technology, and how issues of governance and equity co-evolve with the development and use of scientific knowledge and technological artifacts. STS researchers make use of Dispositional Optimism methods from a variety of sherburn speech disciplines, including anthropology, communication studies, history, philosophy, political science, and sociology. STS research includes interdisciplinary studies of Optimism ethics, equity, governance, and policy issues. Target Steel Cookware. STS studies may be empirical or conceptual.
The STS program supports proposals across the broad spectrum of STS research areas, topics, and approaches. Examples include, but are by no means limited to: Societal aspects of emerging high-tech technologies (e.g., nanotechnology, synthetic biology, neuroscience, robotics, drones, ubiquitous computing, crowdsourcing, remote-sensing) Societal aspects of emerging low-tech technologies (e.g., paper microscopes; whirlwind wheel chairs) Issues relating to equity, ethics, governance, sustainability, public engagement, user-centeredness, and inclusiveness. Integration of traditional STS approaches with innovative perspectives from the arts or humanities. Ethical, policy, and cultural issues regarding big data, surveillance and privacy in an increasingly networked world, and The science of Optimism broadening participation in STEM disciplines. In addition, the STS program is particularly interested in proposals that will contribute to NSF's research-focused Big Ideas: Harnessing the Data Revolution for teams 21st Century Science and Engineering Navigating the New Arctic The Quantum Leap: Leading the Next Quantum Revolution Work at the Human-Technology Frontier: Shaping the Optimism, Future Understanding the Rules of Life: Predicting Phenotype Windows on the Universe: The Era of Multi-Messenger Astrophysics. Effective STS proposals will clearly present the indian, research questions, describe and Optimism Essay, explain the suitability of the methods to be used to address those questions, and provide a detailed work plan with a timeline that demonstrates adequate resources and access to Randomized Essay, any required data.
If the plan involves research at archives, working in specific labs, or engaging with pertinent community groups, it is important to provide evidence of access and to indicate the specific questions to be asked or addressed. If the plan involves surveys, the proposal should discuss sample selection and Dispositional Optimism, survey design and content. Steel. Similar advice pertains for other modes of STS research involving focus groups, ethnographies, modeling, conceptual analysis, and so forth. Effective proposals suitably situate the proposed project in pertinent STS literatures, issues, and conceptual or theoretical frameworks, and articulate how the results of the proposed project would serve to Optimism, advance STS, or subfields thereof. Finally, successful proposals make a strong case for broader impacts. The Project Summary should describe specific, feasible broader project impacts and colonel sherburn, detailed plans to Optimism, achieve them. A work plan for maximizing potential broader impacts and dissemination of results to multiple audiences including stakeholders and the public should be included in Randomized Controlled, the Project Description. PIs are encouraged to Dispositional Essay, engage in new modes of disseminating results broadly, not just to academics, but to stakeholders and the general public. The STS program supports several distinct modes of funding in order to accommodate the diverse research needs of the STS community.
Modes of support include Standard Research Grants and Grants for Collaborative Research, Scholars Awards, Postdoctoral Fellowships, Conference and Workshop Support, and priceless commercial, Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. To assist the program in reviewing the same types of proposals together, you must include a prefix in the title of the Dispositional, proposal that indicates the sherburn speech, mode of support being requested; for example, if the workshop title is Dispositional, “On the Reliability of Evidence in Forensic Science,” the workshop proposal title should be “Workshop: On the Reliability of Evidence in ca(oh)2 soluble, Forensic Science.” 1. STANDARD RESEARCH GRANTS and GRANTS FOR COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH. These grants support proposals for basic STS research. They also support proposals for Essay infrastructure development that serves to enhance STS research; program support of infrastructure projects is directed towards scholarly research and data production, rather than administrative or logistical activities.
Eligibility Requirements for Standard Grants and Collaborative Research Grants. These grants are made to U.S. academic institutions and to U.S. non-profit research organizations. Budget Guidelines for Standard Grants and Collaborative Grants. These grants are governed by NSF’s general policy, which limits salary compensation for Trials Essay senior project personnel to no more than two months of Optimism Essay their regular salary in any one year. Mastercard Commercial. Other restrictions apply; see NSF’s Proposals and Dispositional Optimism Essay, Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG) for details. Seneca Convention. Additional program guidelines and restrictions follow. Essay. Research assistance may be requested and must be justified in the Project Description in laying out the mastercard, plan of work.
Funds may also be requested for other research related expenses, such as data collection or data processing activities, or travel expenses for Dispositional research or for the dissemination of seneca falls summary research results. Due to budgetary constraints, total direct costs will rarely exceed $400,000. Optimism Essay. (Total award size includes both total direct costs plus total indirect costs.) The duration is typically for seneca falls two to three years. Proposals requesting larger amounts of Dispositional Optimism Essay support or a longer duration will be considered, if extraordinarily well justified and merited. Scholars Awards provide up to full-time release for soluble an academic year and a summer to conduct research. Dispositional Optimism. This time can be distributed over two or more years. In exceptional circumstances, longer releases can be requested. Some of the budgetary guidelines for Scholars Awards indicated below deviate from NSF’s Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG). As indicated in the PAPPG, program solicitation guidelines supersede PAPPG guidelines.
Eligibility Requirements for Scholars Awards. Scholars Awards are normally made to U.S. academic institutions, although an individual who is not affiliated with an appropriate U.S. academic institution may submit a proposal as an independent scholar, in which case the scholar must be a U.S. citizen or national, or have permanent resident status. Budget Guidelines for ca(oh)2 soluble Scholars Awards. These awards provide course-release support for research up to one full-time academic year (nine person-months), covering both salary and fringe benefits. They may also provide support for Essay up to two summer months, including salary and fringe benefits. Colonel Sherburn Speech. Research assistance may also be requested and must be justified in the proposal's work plan.
Funds may also be requested for other research related expenses, such as data collection or data processing activities, or travel expenses for Essay research or the dissemination of research results. Due to budgetary constraints, total direct costs will rarely exceed $180,000. (Total award size includes both total direct costs plus total indirect costs.) The duration is typically for one year. Proposals requesting larger amounts of commercial support or a longer duration will be considered, if extraordinarily well justified and merited. 3. POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIPS. Postdoctoral fellowships support researchers within five years of receipt of their doctoral degree in order to enhance their methodological skills and research competence.
Proposals for postdoctoral fellowships must include a mentoring plan, consistent with the PAPPG (Part I: Proposal Preparation and Submission Guidelines, Chapter II) and which includes mentoring in the ethical conduct of research. The site of the fellowship must be different than the institution where the scholar received her or his doctoral degree and Dispositional Essay, the mentor must be someone other than members of the scholar’s doctoral committee. The proposal should justify the choice of venue and the host faculty member. Host institutions should provide letters agreeing to provide appropriate space and facilities. A letter of Randomized support must also be included from the scholar's dissertation advisor. These letters should be placed in the Supplementary Documents section of the proposal.
Eligibility Requirements for Postdoctoral Fellowships. Postdoctoral Fellowships are normally made to U.S. academic institutions, although an individual who is not affiliated with a U.S. academic institution may submit a proposal as an independent scholar, in which case the scholar must be a U.S. citizen or national, or have permanent resident status. Budget Guidelines for Postdoctoral Fellowships. Postdoctoral Fellowships normally provide an annual stipend of $50,000 per year to cover both salary and fringe benefits for a maximum of two years. Funds may also be requested for other research related expenses, such as data collection or data processing activities, or travel expenses for research or the dissemination of research results.
Due to budgetary constraints, total direct costs will rarely exceed $120,000. (Total award size includes both total direct costs plus total indirect costs.) The maximum duration is typically for two years. Proposals requesting larger amounts of support or a longer duration will be considered, if extraordinarily well justified and merited. 4. CONFERENCE AND WORKSHOP SUPPORT. These proposals should be prepared in accordance with NSF’s Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG). Dispositional Optimism Essay. Additional program guidelines and restrictions are provided below. The STS program provides financial support for national and speech, international conferences, symposia, and research workshops. The program is particularly interested in proposals that promote new research networks between researchers in STS and Optimism Essay, scientists and engineers, or between STS scholars and members of scholarly communities not normally in contact with each other. Seneca Falls Convention. A goal of the gathering should be development of a new field of scholarship, pedagogy, or research. Proposals for conference or workshop support should describe the need for Dispositional the gathering, the proposed date and location, topics and persons who will be involved, prior related meetings, publicity, and expected outcomes.
Conferences and workshops may be carried out as special sessions in regular meetings of professional societies if justified. Workshops may be held at NSF at falls convention no charge provided that meeting-room space is available. Meetings usually should be open. Every effort should be made to include younger scholars and members of Essay underrepresented groups as speakers, organizers, attendees and in other pertinent roles; these efforts should be described in the Project Description component of the proposal. Eligibility Requirements for indian premier Conference and Dispositional Optimism Essay, Workshop Support. All categories of proposers recognized by NSF are eligible to cookware, apply. See the PAPPG (Chapter 1, Section E) for Dispositional Essay more information about who may submit proposals.
Budget Guidelines for Conference and premier teams, Workshop Support. Support for Dispositional Optimism conferences and workshops typically do not exceed $25,000 in direct costs. Expenses (travel, stipends, etc.) for attendees should be entered on the Participant Support line of the mastercard commercial, budget. A small percentage of the total direct costs may be requested for administrative support, such as a graduate student paid to assist the organizer with logistical concerns. Dissemination of results to as broad an audience as possible is encouraged and plans for Optimism maximizing broader impacts should be included in the project description. 5. DOCTORAL DISSERTATION RESEARCH IMPROVEMENT GRANTS (DDRIGs) DDRIGs provide funds for dissertation research expenses not normally available through the student's university. The dissertation director is the Controlled Trials Essay, Principal Investigator on Optimism these proposals; the doctoral student should be listed as Co-Principal Investigator. DDRIG proposals should be prepared in accordance with the guidelines for teams regular research proposals specified in Optimism, NSF’s Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG). The Project Description should not exceed 10 pages and should describe the scientific significance of the work, including its relationship to other current research, and the design of the project in sufficient detail to target steel, permit evaluation.
It should present and Essay, interpret progress to date if the research is already underway. The Results from Prior NSF Support section is not required for these proposals. Awards are not intended to cover the full costs of a student's doctoral dissertation research. Funds may be used only for valid research expenses which include, but are not limited to, conducting field research in settings away from campus that would not otherwise be possible, data collection costs, payments to subjects or informants, supplies, travel to archives, special collections or seminars, and facilities or field research locations, and partial living expenses for conducting necessary research away from the student's university. Funds are to be used exclusively for the actual conduct of sherburn speech dissertation research and dissemination of results. These funds may not be used as a student stipend, for Dispositional tuition, textbooks, journals, or for the typing, reproduction, or publication costs of the student's dissertation. Funds may be requested for research assistants only in very special circumstances, which should be carefully justified. The Results from Prior NSF Support section is not required for Randomized Controlled Trials Essay DDRIG proposals.
The program has additional requirements that are specified below. One of those requirements deviates from the PAPPG; specifically, the program requires that a letter of Dispositional Optimism support from the student’s dissertation director is to indian league, be included in the proposal. Please note that program solicitation guidelines supersede PAPPG guidelines, as indicated in the PAPPG. The proposal must include a letter from the dissertation director. This letter is not intended as a traditional recommendation, but should evaluate the Essay, student's promise as a researcher, the student's capabilities for undertaking this project, and the value and status of the proposed research. It should also discuss the student's current progress in speech, the graduate program, affirming that the student has passed the qualifying exams, completed all course work required for the degree, and obtained official approval of the dissertation topic or will do so within six months. If the doctoral student will use the award for travel expenses to Optimism, work with a specialist, the sherburn, proposal should provide a justification for this choice and a letter of collaboration from the specialist agreeing to work with the student. This letter of collaboration should not provide any evaluative content concerning the quality of the work or of the student. The letter of support from the dissertation director and letters of collaboration (if any) should be placed in the Supplementary Documents section of the FastLane proposal.
Eligibility Requirements for Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. Only doctoral students who are enrolled in graduate programs at Optimism US graduate research institutions are eligible to mastercard priceless commercial, apply. Doctoral students must have passed the qualifying exams, have completed all course work required for the degree, and have official approval of the dissertation topic prior to receiving the award. Budget Guidelines for Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. Due to budgetary limitations, dissertation grants typically do not exceed $10,000 in direct costs for research in North America and $12,500 in Dispositional Optimism Essay, direct costs for international research, plus applicable indirect costs. Priceless Commercial. Neither the PI (the dissertation director) nor any of the Co-PIs (including the dissertation student) should be listed on Optimism Essay the Senior Personnel Listing on the Budget page, since DDRIG proposals do not provide funds for salaries or stipends for the doctoral student, the dissertation director, or other faculty advisors. After the PI and the Co-PI(s) are entered on the Cover Sheet, their names should be manually removed from the Senior Personnel Listing on the budget pages to avoid construal as voluntary committed cost sharing, which is not permitted. 6. OTHER GRANT OPPORTUNITIES.
The STS Program also participates in Foundation-wide initiatives such as CAREER, ADVANCE, CCE STEM, NUE and INSPIRE. Investigators may also wish to seneca falls convention, view the SBE Office of Multidisciplinary Activities (SMA) web site for additional funding opportunities. Anticipated Type of Award: Standard, Continuing Grant, or Fellowship Estimated Number of Awards: 40 Anticipated Funding Amount: $6,200,000 in FY 2015. Proposals may only be submitted by Dispositional, the following: Organization limit varies by the mode of support: Standard Research Grants and Grants for colonel sherburn Collaborative Research: US Academic Institutions and Non-Profit Research Organizations. Scholars Awards and Postdoctoral Fellowships: US Academic Institutions and Optimism Essay, Independent Scholars. Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants: US Academic Institutions. Conference and Workshop Support: No limitations.
See NSF's Proposals and Awards Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG), Chapter I, Section E for categories of league teams proposers eligible to Essay, submit proposals to mastercard priceless, NSF. See Section II. Program Description for detailed information about Optimism Essay, each mode of support. PI eligibility limit varies by priceless, the mode of Dispositional Essay support. See Section II. Program Description for detailed information about each mode of support.
Limit on Number of Proposals per Organization: There are no restrictions or limits. Limit on Number of Proposals per PI or Co-PI: There are no restrictions or limits. V. PROPOSAL PREPARATION AND SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS. A. Proposal Preparation Instructions. Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: Proposers may opt to submit proposals in response to this Program Solicitation via Grants.gov or via the NSF FastLane system. Full proposals submitted via FastLane: Proposals submitted in response to this program solicitation should be prepared and submitted in accordance with the mastercard priceless, general guidelines contained in the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG).
The complete text of the PAPPG is available electronically on the NSF website at: https://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=papp. Optimism Essay. Paper copies of the PAPPG may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by e-mail from email@example.com. Proposers are reminded to identify this program solicitation number in the program solicitation block on the NSF Cover Sheet For Proposal to Randomized Trials Essay, the National Science Foundation. Optimism. Compliance with this requirement is critical to determining the commercial, relevant proposal processing guidelines. Failure to Optimism, submit this information may delay processing. Full proposals submitted via Grants.gov: Proposals submitted in response to this program solicitation via Grants.gov should be prepared and submitted in accordance with the target cookware, NSF Grants.gov Application Guide: A Guide for the Preparation and Submission of NSF Applications via Grants.gov. The complete text of the NSF Grants.gov Application Guide is available on the Grants.gov website and on the NSF website at: (http://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=grantsgovguide). To obtain copies of the Application Guide and Application Forms Package, click on the Apply tab on the Grants.gov site, then click on Optimism the Apply Step 1: Download a Grant Application Package and Application Instructions link and enter the funding opportunity number, (the program solicitation number without the steel cookware, NSF prefix) and press the Download Package button. Paper copies of the Grants.gov Application Guide also may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by e-mail from firstname.lastname@example.org.
In determining which method to utilize in the electronic preparation and submission of the proposal, please note the following: Collaborative Proposals. All collaborative proposals submitted as separate submissions from multiple organizations must be submitted via the NSF FastLane system. PAPPG Chapter II.D.3 provides additional information on collaborative proposals. See PAPPG Chapter II.C.2 for Dispositional Optimism Essay guidance on the required sections of Randomized Trials a full research proposal submitted to NSF. Please note that the Dispositional Essay, proposal preparation instructions provided in this program solicitation may deviate from the PAPPG instructions. Additional Proposal Preparation Instructions. The title of the seneca falls summary, proposal must identify the mode of Dispositional Essay support (five modes are distinguished above in Section II) using the appropriate title prefix: Standard Grant, Scholars Award, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Dissertation Grant, or Workshop. Section II of this solicitation provides detailed information and special instructions for each mode of support. The instructions for Essay some of these modes of support deviate from the Optimism Essay, guidelines in Controlled Trials Essay, the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG) and the NSF Grants.gov Application Guide.
Inclusion of voluntary committed cost sharing is prohibited. Other Budgetary Limitations: See Section II. Program Description for detailed information. Full Proposal Deadline(s) (due by Optimism Essay, 5 p.m. submitter's local time): February 02, 2015. February 2, Annually Thereafter. August 3, Annually Thereafter. Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant proposals will have only one deadline per year, August 3rd.
For Proposals Submitted Via FastLane: To prepare and submit a proposal via FastLane, see detailed technical instructions available at: https://www.fastlane.nsf.gov/a1/newstan.htm. For FastLane user support, call the FastLane Help Desk at 1-800-673-6188 or e-mail email@example.com. The FastLane Help Desk answers general technical questions related to indian premier league teams, the use of the FastLane system. Specific questions related to this program solicitation should be referred to the NSF program staff contact(s) listed in Section VIII of this funding opportunity. For Proposals Submitted Via Grants.gov: Before using Grants.gov for the first time, each organization must register to Dispositional, create an institutional profile.
Once registered, the applicant's organization can then apply for premier any federal grant on the Grants.gov website. Comprehensive information about using Grants.gov is available on the Grants.gov Applicant Resources webpage: http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/applicants.html. Dispositional Optimism. In addition, the NSF Grants.gov Application Guide (see link in Section V.A) provides instructions regarding the technical preparation of proposals via Grants.gov. For Grants.gov user support, contact the Grants.gov Contact Center at 1-800-518-4726 or by email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The Grants.gov Contact Center answers general technical questions related to the use of Grants.gov. Specific questions related to this program solicitation should be referred to the NSF program staff contact(s) listed in Section VIII of this solicitation.
Submitting the stainless cookware, Proposal: Once all documents have been completed, the Dispositional Optimism Essay, Authorized Organizational Representative (AOR) must submit the application to Grants.gov and verify the mastercard priceless commercial, desired funding opportunity and agency to which the application is submitted. The AOR must then sign and submit the application to Dispositional, Grants.gov. Trials. The completed application will be transferred to the NSF FastLane system for Dispositional further processing. Proposers that submitted via FastLane are strongly encouraged to use FastLane to verify the status of their submission to NSF. For proposers that submitted via Grants.gov, until an target stainless steel cookware, application has been received and validated by NSF, the Authorized Organizational Representative may check the Essay, status of an application on Grants.gov. After proposers have received an indian teams, e-mail notification from NSF, Research.gov should be used to check the status of an application. VI. Optimism. NSF PROPOSAL PROCESSING AND REVIEW PROCEDURES. Proposals received by NSF are assigned to premier teams, the appropriate NSF program for acknowledgement and, if they meet NSF requirements, for review.
All proposals are carefully reviewed by a scientist, engineer, or educator serving as an NSF Program Officer, and usually by three to ten other persons outside NSF either as ad hoc reviewers, panelists, or both, who are experts in the particular fields represented by the proposal. Dispositional Optimism Essay. These reviewers are selected by Program Officers charged with oversight of the review process. Proposers are invited to suggest names of persons they believe are especially well qualified to mastercard commercial, review the proposal and/or persons they would prefer not review the proposal. These suggestions may serve as one source in the reviewer selection process at the Program Officer's discretion. Submission of Dispositional such names, however, is optional. Care is taken to ensure that reviewers have no conflicts of interest with the proposal.
In addition, Program Officers may obtain comments from seneca convention summary, site visits before recommending final action on proposals. Senior NSF staff further review recommendations for awards. A flowchart that depicts the Dispositional, entire NSF proposal and indian premier, award process (and associated timeline) is Essay, included in PAPPG Exhibit III-1. A comprehensive description of the Foundation's merit review process is available on soluble or insoluble the NSF website at: http://www.nsf.gov/bfa/dias/policy/merit_review/. Proposers should also be aware of core strategies that are essential to the fulfillment of NSF's mission, as articulated in Investing in Science, Engineering, and Essay, Education for the Nation's Future: NSF Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 . These strategies are integrated in the program planning and implementation process, of which proposal review is one part. NSF's mission is target steel cookware, particularly well-implemented through the integration of Dispositional research and education and broadening participation in NSF programs, projects, and activities. One of the strategic objectives in support of NSF's mission is to foster integration of research and education through the programs, projects, and activities it supports at academic and research institutions. These institutions must recruit, train, and prepare a diverse STEM workforce to advance the frontiers of science and participate in the U.S. technology-based economy.
NSF's contribution to the national innovation ecosystem is to provide cutting-edge research under the guidance of the Nation's most creative scientists and engineers. NSF also supports development of a strong science, technology, engineering, and soluble, mathematics (STEM) workforce by investing in building the knowledge that informs improvements in Optimism Essay, STEM teaching and learning. NSF's mission calls for colonel the broadening of opportunities and expanding participation of groups, institutions, and geographic regions that are underrepresented in Optimism Essay, STEM disciplines, which is essential to the health and vitality of science and engineering. NSF is committed to this principle of diversity and deems it central to the programs, projects, and activities it considers and supports. A. Randomized Trials. Merit Review Principles and Criteria. The National Science Foundation strives to invest in a robust and diverse portfolio of Dispositional Essay projects that creates new knowledge and enables breakthroughs in understanding across all areas of target steel science and engineering research and education. To identify which projects to support, NSF relies on Dispositional Optimism Essay a merit review process that incorporates consideration of both the technical aspects of a proposed project and its potential to contribute more broadly to advancing NSF's mission to Essay, promote the Optimism, progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense; and for other purposes. NSF makes every effort to conduct a fair, competitive, transparent merit review process for the selection of projects. 1. Merit Review Principles.
These principles are to be given due diligence by PIs and organizations when preparing proposals and managing projects, by reviewers when reading and evaluating proposals, and by NSF program staff when determining whether or not to recommend proposals for funding and while overseeing awards. Given that NSF is the primary federal agency charged with nurturing and supporting excellence in basic research and colonel sherburn speech, education, the following three principles apply: All NSF projects should be of the highest quality and Optimism, have the potential to advance, if not transform, the frontiers of knowledge. NSF projects, in the aggregate, should contribute more broadly to achieving societal goals. These Broader Impacts may be accomplished through the research itself, through activities that are directly related to specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to, the project. The project activities may be based on previously established and/or innovative methods and approaches, but in colonel sherburn, either case must be well justified. Optimism. Meaningful assessment and evaluation of NSF funded projects should be based on appropriate metrics, keeping in mind the likely correlation between the effect of commercial broader impacts and the resources provided to implement projects. If the size of the activity is limited, evaluation of that activity in isolation is not likely to be meaningful. Thus, assessing the effectiveness of these activities may best be done at a higher, more aggregated, level than the individual project. With respect to Dispositional Optimism Essay, the third principle, even if assessment of Broader Impacts outcomes for particular projects is done at an aggregated level, PIs are expected to be accountable for ca(oh)2 soluble carrying out the activities described in the funded project.
Thus, individual projects should include clearly stated goals, specific descriptions of the activities that the PI intends to do, and a plan in place to document the Optimism Essay, outputs of those activities. These three merit review principles provide the basis for the merit review criteria, as well as a context within which the users of the criteria can better understand their intent. All NSF proposals are evaluated through use of the two National Science Board approved merit review criteria. In some instances, however, NSF will employ additional criteria as required to highlight the specific objectives of certain programs and activities. The two merit review criteria are listed below.
Both criteria are to be given full consideration during the cookware, review and decision-making processes; each criterion is necessary but neither, by itself, is sufficient. Therefore, proposers must fully address both criteria. (PAPPG Chapter II.C.2.d(i). contains additional information for use by proposers in development of the Project Description section of the Optimism Essay, proposal). Reviewers are strongly encouraged to review the criteria, including PAPPG Chapter II.C.2.d(i), prior to the review of a proposal. When evaluating NSF proposals, reviewers will be asked to consider what the proposers want to do, why they want to do it, how they plan to do it, how they will know if they succeed, and what benefits could accrue if the project is successful. These issues apply both to the technical aspects of the mastercard commercial, proposal and the way in which the project may make broader contributions. To that end, reviewers will be asked to Essay, evaluate all proposals against two criteria: Intellectual Merit: The Intellectual Merit criterion encompasses the potential to advance knowledge; and Broader Impacts: The Broader Impacts criterion encompasses the potential to benefit society and contribute to the achievement of specific, desired societal outcomes. The following elements should be considered in the review for both criteria: What is the potential for the proposed activity to Advance knowledge and understanding within its own field or across different fields (Intellectual Merit); and Benefit society or advance desired societal outcomes (Broader Impacts)? To what extent do the proposed activities suggest and explore creative, original, or potentially transformative concepts?
Is the plan for carrying out the proposed activities well-reasoned, well-organized, and based on a sound rationale? Does the plan incorporate a mechanism to assess success? How well qualified is the individual, team, or organization to convention summary, conduct the Optimism, proposed activities? Are there adequate resources available to the PI (either at the home organization or through collaborations) to carry out the proposed activities? Broader impacts may be accomplished through the research itself, through the seneca convention, activities that are directly related to specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to, the project. NSF values the advancement of scientific knowledge and activities that contribute to achievement of societally relevant outcomes. Such outcomes include, but are not limited to: full participation of women, persons with disabilities, and underrepresented minorities in Essay, science, technology, engineering, and mastercard, mathematics (STEM); improved STEM education and Dispositional, educator development at any level; increased public scientific literacy and public engagement with science and Randomized, technology; improved well-being of individuals in society; development of a diverse, globally competitive STEM workforce; increased partnerships between academia, industry, and others; improved national security; increased economic competitiveness of the United States; and enhanced infrastructure for research and education. Proposers are reminded that reviewers will also be asked to review the Data Management Plan and Optimism, the Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan, as appropriate.
Proposals submitted in response to this program solicitation will be reviewed by Ad hoc Review and/or Panel Review. Reviewers will be asked to evaluate proposals using two National Science Board approved merit review criteria and, if applicable, additional program specific criteria. A summary rating and accompanying narrative will generally be completed and submitted by each reviewer and/or panel. The Program Officer assigned to manage the proposal's review will consider the Trials, advice of reviewers and will formulate a recommendation. After scientific, technical and programmatic review and consideration of appropriate factors, the NSF Program Officer recommends to the cognizant Division Director whether the proposal should be declined or recommended for award.
NSF strives to be able to tell applicants whether their proposals have been declined or recommended for funding within six months. Large or particularly complex proposals or proposals from new awardees may require additional review and Dispositional Optimism Essay, processing time. The time interval begins on the deadline or target date, or receipt date, whichever is later. The interval ends when the Division Director acts upon mastercard commercial, the Program Officer's recommendation. After programmatic approval has been obtained, the proposals recommended for funding will be forwarded to Optimism Essay, the Division of Grants and Agreements for review of priceless business, financial, and policy implications. Dispositional. After an administrative review has occurred, Grants and Agreements Officers perform the processing and issuance of a grant or other agreement.
Proposers are cautioned that only a Grants and Agreements Officer may make commitments, obligations or awards on behalf of NSF or authorize the expenditure of teams funds. No commitment on Dispositional Optimism Essay the part of NSF should be inferred from technical or budgetary discussions with a NSF Program Officer. A Principal Investigator or organization that makes financial or personnel commitments in the absence of a grant or cooperative agreement signed by cookware, the NSF Grants and Dispositional, Agreements Officer does so at their own risk. Once an target, award or declination decision has been made, Principal Investigators are provided feedback about their proposals. In all cases, reviews are treated as confidential documents. Verbatim copies of reviews, excluding the names of the reviewers or any reviewer-identifying information, are sent to the Principal Investigator/Project Director by the Program Officer. In addition, the proposer will receive an explanation of the Essay, decision to mastercard, award or decline funding. VII. AWARD ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION. Notification of the award is Dispositional Essay, made to the submitting organization by a Grants Officer in the Division of Grants and Agreements.
Organizations whose proposals are declined will be advised as promptly as possible by the cognizant NSF Program administering the program. Verbatim copies of reviews, not including the identity of the reviewer, will be provided automatically to the Principal Investigator. (See Section VI.B. for ca(oh)2 or insoluble additional information on the review process). An NSF award consists of: (1) the award notice, which includes any special provisions applicable to the award and any numbered amendments thereto; (2) the budget, which indicates the amounts, by categories of Essay expense, on which NSF has based its support (or otherwise communicates any specific approvals or disapprovals of seneca falls summary proposed expenditures); (3) the proposal referenced in the award notice; (4) the Dispositional Optimism, applicable award conditions, such as Grant General Conditions (GC-1)*; or Research Terms and Conditions* and (5) any announcement or other NSF issuance that may be incorporated by reference in the award notice. Cooperative agreements also are administered in accordance with NSF Cooperative Agreement Financial and indian premier, Administrative Terms and Conditions (CA-FATC) and the applicable Programmatic Terms and Conditions. Essay. NSF awards are electronically signed by an NSF Grants and Agreements Officer and transmitted electronically to the organization via e-mail. *These documents may be accessed electronically on colonel sherburn NSF's Website at Optimism Essay http://www.nsf.gov/awards/managing/award_conditions.jsp?org=NSF. Paper copies may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by e-mail from email@example.com. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions and other important information on the administration of falls convention summary NSF awards is contained in the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG) Chapter VII, available electronically on the NSF Website at Dispositional Essay https://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=papp. Life-changing situations during the Randomized Controlled Trials Essay, period of the award. NSF takes seriously career-life balance. Optimism Essay. Awardees who encounter any life-changing situation (e.g. birth or adoption of a child, serious illness or death of family member) during the commercial, period of the award will be encouraged to reference http://www.nsf.gov/career-life-balance/ and to discuss resolutions with a program officer.
For all multi-year grants (including both standard and continuing grants), the Principal Investigator must submit an annual project report to Dispositional Optimism Essay, the cognizant Program Officer no later than 90 days prior to seneca falls, the end of the Dispositional Optimism, current budget period. (Some programs or awards require submission of more frequent project reports). No later than 120 days following expiration of a grant, the PI also is required to submit a final project report, and a project outcomes report for mastercard commercial the general public. Failure to Dispositional Optimism, provide the required annual or final project reports, or the project outcomes report, will delay NSF review and processing of stainless steel any future funding increments as well as any pending proposals for all identified PIs and co-PIs on a given award. PIs should examine the formats of the required reports in advance to assure availability of required data. PIs are required to use NSF's electronic project-reporting system, available through Research.gov, for preparation and submission of annual and final project reports. Such reports provide information on accomplishments, project participants (individual and organizational), publications, and other specific products and impacts of the project. Submission of the report via Research.gov constitutes certification by the PI that the contents of the report are accurate and complete. The project outcomes report also must be prepared and submitted using Research.gov. This report serves as a brief summary, prepared specifically for the public, of the nature and Dispositional Optimism, outcomes of the project.
This report will be posted on the NSF website exactly as it is submitted by the PI. More comprehensive information on NSF Reporting Requirements and other important information on the administration of NSF awards is contained in the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG) Chapter VII, available electronically on falls convention summary the NSF Website at https://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=papp. Please note that the program contact information is Dispositional, current at the time of publishing. See program website for any updates to the points of contact. General inquiries regarding this program should be made to:
Frederick Kronz-Program Director, Program Officer, 995 N, telephone: (703) 292-7283, email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Wenda Bauchspies-Program Director, 990 N, telephone: (703) 292-5026, email: email@example.com. Alexandra Cohen-Science Assistant, 995, telephone: (703) 292-4927, email: firstname.lastname@example.org. For questions related to the use of FastLane, contact: FastLane Help Desk, telephone: 1-800-673-6188; e-mail: email@example.com. For questions relating to Grants.gov contact: Grants.gov Contact Center: If the Authorized Organizational Representatives (AOR) has not received a confirmation message from Grants.gov within 48 hours of submission of application, please contact via telephone: 1-800-518-4726; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The NSF website provides the most comprehensive source of information on NSF Directorates (including contact information), programs and funding opportunities. Use of this website by potential proposers is strongly encouraged. In addition, NSF Update is an commercial, information-delivery system designed to keep potential proposers and Optimism, other interested parties apprised of new NSF funding opportunities and publications, important changes in proposal and award policies and falls, procedures, and Dispositional Optimism Essay, upcoming NSF Grants Conferences. Subscribers are informed through e-mail or the user's Web browser each time new publications are issued that match their identified interests. NSF Update also is Controlled Essay, available on NSF's website. Grants.gov provides an additional electronic capability to Dispositional, search for Federal government-wide grant opportunities. NSF funding opportunities may be accessed via this mechanism. Further information on Grants.gov may be obtained at http://www.grants.gov. ABOUT THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an target stainless steel, independent Federal agency created by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended (42 USC 1861-75). Dispositional Essay. The Act states the purpose of the NSF is to promote the progress of science; [and] to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare by supporting research and ca(oh)2 soluble or insoluble, education in Optimism, all fields of science and engineering. NSF funds research and education in speech, most fields of science and engineering. It does this through grants and cooperative agreements to more than 2,000 colleges, universities, K-12 school systems, businesses, informal science organizations and other research organizations throughout the US. The Foundation accounts for about one-fourth of Federal support to academic institutions for basic research. NSF receives approximately 55,000 proposals each year for Dispositional Optimism Essay research, education and training projects, of which approximately 11,000 are funded. In addition, the Foundation receives several thousand applications for graduate and postdoctoral fellowships. The agency operates no laboratories itself but does support National Research Centers, user facilities, certain oceanographic vessels and Arctic and Antarctic research stations. The Foundation also supports cooperative research between universities and industry, US participation in international scientific and Controlled, engineering efforts, and educational activities at every academic level.
Facilitation Awards for Scientists and Engineers with Disabilities (FASED) provide funding for special assistance or equipment to enable persons with disabilities to work on NSF-supported projects. See the NSF Proposal Award Policies Procedures Guide Chapter II.E.6 for instructions regarding preparation of these types of proposals. The National Science Foundation has Telephonic Device for Dispositional Optimism Essay the Deaf (TDD) and Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) capabilities that enable individuals with hearing impairments to communicate with the Foundation about NSF programs, employment or general information. TDD may be accessed at priceless commercial (703) 292-5090 and (800) 281-8749, FIRS at (800) 877-8339. The National Science Foundation Information Center may be reached at Essay (703) 292-5111. The National Science Foundation promotes and colonel sherburn speech, advances scientific progress in the United States by Dispositional Optimism, competitively awarding grants and cooperative agreements for research and education in the sciences, mathematics, and Randomized Trials, engineering. To get the latest information about program deadlines, to download copies of NSF publications, and to access abstracts of awards, visit the Dispositional Optimism Essay, NSF Website at http://www.nsf.gov. 4201 Wilson Blvd. Seneca Falls Convention Summary. Arlington, VA 22230.
Send an Dispositional Optimism Essay, e-mail to: PRIVACY ACT AND PUBLIC BURDEN STATEMENTS. The information requested on proposal forms and project reports is solicited under the Essay, authority of the Essay, National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended. The information on proposal forms will be used in connection with the selection of qualified proposals; and project reports submitted by awardees will be used for program evaluation and mastercard priceless commercial, reporting within the Optimism Essay, Executive Branch and to colonel sherburn, Congress. The information requested may be disclosed to qualified reviewers and staff assistants as part of the proposal review process; to Essay, proposer institutions/grantees to provide or obtain data regarding the proposal review process, award decisions, or the administration of ca(oh)2 or insoluble awards; to government contractors, experts, volunteers and researchers and educators as necessary to complete assigned work; to other government agencies or other entities needing information regarding applicants or nominees as part of a joint application review process, or in order to coordinate programs or policy; and to Dispositional Essay, another Federal agency, court, or party in a court or Federal administrative proceeding if the government is a party. Information about Principal Investigators may be added to the Reviewer file and league, used to select potential candidates to serve as peer reviewers or advisory committee members. See Systems of Records, NSF-50, Principal Investigator/Proposal File and Associated Records, 69 Federal Register 26410 (May 12, 2004), and NSF-51, Reviewer/Proposal File and Associated Records, 69 Federal Register 26410 (May 12, 2004). Submission of the information is voluntary. Failure to provide full and complete information, however, may reduce the possibility of receiving an award.
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resume old habits Summary of Stephen R. Dispositional! Covey's. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. In his #1 bestseller, Stephen R. Target Cookware! Covey presented a framework for Optimism Essay, personal effectiveness. The following is a summary of the first part of his book, concluding with a list of the seven habits. Inside-Out: The Change Starts from Within. While working on indian premier league his doctorate in the 1970's, Stephen R. Dispositional Optimism! Covey reviewed 200 years of literature on success. He noticed that since the 1920's, success writings have focused on solutions to specific problems. In some cases such tactical advice may have been effective, but only for immediate issues and not for the long-term, underlying ones. Target! The success literature of the last half of the Dispositional Optimism 20th century largely attributed success to personality traits, skills, techniques, maintaining a positive attitude, etc.
This philosophy can be referred to as the league Personality Ethic . However, during the 150 years or so that preceded that period, the literature on Dispositional Essay success was more character oriented. It emphasized the indian premier league deeper principles and foundations of success. This philosophy is known as the Character Ethic , under which success is attributed more to underlying characteristics such as integrity, courage, justice, patience, etc. The elements of the Dispositional Optimism Character Ethic are primary traits while those of the Personality Ethic are secondary. While secondary traits may help one to play the game to succeed in some specific circumstances, for long-term success both are necessary. One's character is what is convention most visible in long-term relationships.
Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, What you are shouts so loudly in my ears I cannot hear what you say. To illustrate the difference between primary and Dispositional Optimism, secondary traits, Covey offers the following example. Suppose you are in Chicago and are using a map to find a particular destination in the city. You may have excellent secondary skills in commercial, map reading and navigation, but will never find your destination if you are using a map of Detroit. Dispositional Optimism! In this example, getting the right map is a necessary primary element before your secondary skills can be used effectively.
The problem with relying on sherburn the Personality Ethic is that unless the basic underlying paradigms are right, simply changing outward behavior is not effective. We see the world based on our perspective, which can have a dramatic impact on the way we perceive things. For example, many experiments have been conducted in which two groups of people are shown two different drawings. One group is Essay shown, for instance, a drawing of a young, beautiful woman and the other group is shown a drawing of an old, frail woman. After the mastercard priceless commercial initial exposure to the pictures, both groups are shown one picture of a more abstract drawing. Dispositional Optimism Essay! This drawing actually contains the elements of both the young and seneca, the old woman. Optimism! Almost invariably, everybody in the group that was first shown the Randomized Controlled Trials young woman sees a young woman in the abstract drawing, and Dispositional Essay, those who were shown the old woman see an old woman. Each group was convinced that it had objectively evaluated the drawing. The point is that we see things not as they are, but as we are conditioned to see them.
Once we understand the importance of Randomized Controlled, our past conditioning, we can experience a paradigm shift in the way we see things. To make large changes in our lives, we must work on the basic paradigms through which we see the world. The Character Ethic assumes that there are some absolute principles that exist in all human beings. Essay! Some examples of such principles are fairness, honesty, integrity, human dignity, quality, potential, and growth. Principles contrast with practices in that practices are for specific situations whereas principles have universal application. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People presents an or insoluble, inside-out approach to effectiveness that is centered on principles and character. Inside-out means that the change starts within oneself. For many people, this approach represents a paradigm shift away from the Optimism Personality Ethic and toward the soluble or insoluble Character Ethic. The Seven Habits - An Overview. Our character is a collection of our habits, and habits have a powerful role in our lives.
Habits consist of knowledge, skill, and desire. Knowledge allows us to know what to do, skill gives us the ability to know how to do it, and desire is the motivation to do it. The Seven Habits move us through the following stages: Dependence: the paradigm under which we are born, relying upon others to take care of us. Much of the success literature today tends to value independence, encouraging people to become liberated and do their own thing. The reality is that we are interdependent, and Dispositional Optimism, the independent model is not optimal for use in an interdependent environment that requires leaders and team players. To make the Randomized Controlled Trials Essay choice to become interdependent, one first must be independent, since dependent people have not yet developed the Essay character for interdependence.
Therefore, the stainless cookware first three habits focus on self-mastery, that is, achieving the private victories required to move from dependence to Essay, independence. The first three habits are: Habit 1: Be Proactive Habit 2: Begin with the mastercard priceless End in Mind Habit 3: Put First Things First. Habits 4, 5, and 6 then address interdependence: Habit 4: Think Win/Win Habit 5: Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood Habit 6: Synergize.
Finally, the seventh habit is one of renewal and continual improvement, that is, of building one's personal production capability. To be effective, one must find the proper balance between actually producing and improving one's capability to produce. Dispositional! Covey illustrates this point with the Randomized Controlled Trials Essay fable of the goose and the golden egg. In the fable, a poor farmer's goose began laying a solid gold egg every day, and the farmer soon became rich. He also became greedy and Dispositional Essay, figured that the goose must have many golden eggs within her. In order to obtain all of the eggs immediately, he killed the goose. Upon cutting it open he discovered that it was not full of golden eggs. The lesson is that if one attempts to maximize immediate production with no regard to the production capability, the capability will be lost. Effectiveness is a function of target stainless cookware, both production and the capacity to produce.
The need for balance between production and production capability applies to physical, financial, and Optimism Essay, human assets. Soluble Or Insoluble! For example, in an organization the person in charge of a particular machine may increase the machine's immediate production by postponing scheduled maintenance. As a result of the increased output, this person may be rewarded with a promotion. However, the increased immediate output comes at the expense of future production since more maintenance will have to be performed on the machine later. The person who inherits the mess may even be blamed for the inevitable downtime and Dispositional Optimism, high maintenance expense. Customer loyalty also is an asset to which the production and premier teams, production capability balance applies. A restaurant may have a reputation for serving great food, but the Dispositional owner may decide to cut costs and lower the quality of the food. Immediately, profits will soar, but soon the restaurant's reputation will be tarnished, the seneca convention summary customer's trust will be lost, and profits will decline. This does not mean that only production capacity is important. If one builds capacity but never uses it, there will be no production. There is a balance between building production capacity and actually producing.
Finding the right tradeoff is Dispositional Optimism central to one's effectiveness. The above has been an introduction and overview of the 7 Habits. The following introduces the first habit in convention, Covey's framework. FROM DEPENDENCE TO INDEPENDENCE. A unique ability that sets humans apart from Essay, animals is self-awareness and the ability to choose how we respond to any stimulus. Randomized! While conditioning can have a strong impact on our lives, we are not determined by it. Essay! There are three widely accepted theories of determinism: genetic, psychic, and environmental. Genetic determinism says that our nature is coded into our DNA, and that our personality traits are inherited from our grandparents. Psychic determinism says that our upbringing determines our personal tendencies, and that emotional pain that we felt at convention, a young age is remembered and affects the Essay way we behave today. Environmental determinism states that factors in our present environment are responsible for our situation, such as relatives, the national economy, etc.
These theories of determinism each assume a model in which the target stainless cookware stimulus determines the response. Viktor Frankl was a Jewish psychiatrist who survived the death camps of Nazi Germany. While in the death camps, Frankl realized that he alone had the power to determine his response to Optimism Essay, the horror of the situation. He exercised the only freedom he had in Randomized Trials Essay, that environment by Essay envisioning himself teaching students after his release. Mastercard! He became an inspiration for Essay, others around him. He realized that in the middle of the stimulus-response model, humans have the freedom to choose. Animals do not have this independent will. They respond to a stimulus like a computer responds to its program.
They are not aware of seneca falls summary, their programming and do not have the ability to change it. The model of determinism was developed based on experiments with animals and neurotic people. Such a model neglects our ability to choose how we will respond to stimuli. We can choose to be reactive to our environment. For example, if the weather is Dispositional Optimism good, we will be happy. If the weather is bad, we will be unhappy. If people treat us well, we will feel well; if they don't, we will feel bad and become defensive.
We also can choose to Randomized Controlled, be proactive and not let our situation determine how we will feel. Reactive behavior can be a self-fulfilling prophecy. By accepting that there is Optimism nothing we can do about our situation, we in fact become passive and do nothing. The first habit of seneca summary, highly effective people is proactivity . Proactive people are driven by values that are independent of the weather or how people treat them. Gandhi said, They cannot take away our self respect if we do not give it to them. Optimism Essay! Our response to what happened to us affects us more than what actually happened. We can choose to use difficult situations to build our character and develop the ability to target cookware, better handle such situations in the future. Proactive people use their resourcefulness and initiative to find solutions rather than just reporting problems and waiting for other people to solve them. Being proactive means assessing the situation and Dispositional Essay, developing a positive response for it.
Organizations can be proactive rather than be at indian premier, the mercy of Optimism Essay, their environment. For example, a company operating in an industry that is experiencing a downturn can develop a plan to cut costs and sherburn speech, actually use the downturn to increase market share. Once we decide to be proactive, exactly where we focus our efforts becomes important. Optimism! There are many concerns in our lives, but we do not always have control over them. One can draw a circle that represents areas of concern, and a smaller circle within the first that represents areas of control. Proactive people focus their efforts on the things over which they have influence, and in the process often expand their area of influence. Reactive people often focus their efforts on areas of Controlled Essay, concern over which they have no control.
Their complaining and Dispositional Optimism, negative energy tend to shrink their circle of influence. In our area of convention summary, concern, we may have direct control, indirect control, or no control at Dispositional Essay, all. We have direct control over problems caused by Randomized Trials our own behavior. Essay! We can solve these problems by changing our habits. We have indirect control over problems related to other people's behavior. We can solve these problems by using various methods of human influence, such as empathy, confrontation, example, and persuasion. Many people have only a few basic methods such as fight or flight.
For problems over colonel sherburn, which we have no control, first we must recognize that we have no control, and then gracefully accept that fact and make the Dispositional Essay best of the situation. SUMMARY OF THE SEVEN HABITS. Habit 1: Be Proactive. Change starts from within, and highly effective people make the decision to improve their lives through the or insoluble things that they can influence rather than by Essay simply reacting to external forces. Habit 2: Begin with the End in Mind. Develop a principle-centered personal mission statement. Extend the mission statement into long-term goals based on personal principles. Habit 3: Put First Things First.
Spend time doing what fits into your personal mission, observing the proper balance between production and building production capacity. Identify the key roles that you take on in life, and indian premier league teams, make time for each of them. Habit 4: Think Win/Win. Seek agreements and Dispositional Optimism, relationships that are mutually beneficial. In cases where a win/win deal cannot be achieved, accept the fact that agreeing to make no deal may be the best alternative. Randomized Controlled! In developing an organizational culture, be sure to reward win/win behavior among employees and avoid inadvertantly rewarding win/lose behavior. Habit 5: Seek First to Dispositional Essay, Understand, Then to Be Understood. First seek to understand the other person, and only then try to be understood.
Stephen Covey presents this habit as the Trials most important principle of interpersonal relations. Effective listening is Dispositional not simply echoing what the other person has said through the lens of ca(oh)2 or insoluble, one's own experience. Rather, it is putting oneself in the perspective of the other person, listening empathically for both feeling and meaning. Habit 6: Synergize. Through trustful communication, find ways to leverage individual differences to create a whole that is greater than the sum of the parts. Through mutual trust and understanding, one often can solve conflicts and find a better solution than would have been obtained through either person's own solution. Habit 7: Sharpen the Saw.
Take time out from production to build production capacity through personal renewal of the physical, mental, social/emotional, and spiritual dimensions. Maintain a balance among these dimensions. QuickMBA / Management / The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. The articles on this website are copyrighted material and may not be reproduced, stored on a computer disk, republished on another website, or distributed in any.
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Types of Optimism: What are the Dangers of Optimism?
essay sexuality Sex and Optimism, Sexuality in Islam. by Muslim Women's League. Even though it comprises only part of our identities, the sexuality of women represents so much more; such that women's sexuality has been viewed as something to be controlled, hidden, or mastered, most often by men. Through the colonel, ages, sexuality has an impact on one's identity, self-esteem, relationships with others, societal mores, legal codes and Dispositional Essay, so on. If sexual behavior simply existed to allow for procreation, so much controversy and fascination would have no reason to exist. Unfortunately, in many societies and for many years women have been principally defined by their roles as sexual beings whose chief purpose is to indian premier teams satisfy men's sexual needs; this perception contributed to maintaining women in positions of Dispositional Essay, inferiority and often subservience to men. Even today, women are singled out as sex objects, either as victims of rape or willing participants in industries such as advertising or pornography, that exploit women's sexuality. The purpose of this chapter is to explore important issues of sexuality from an Islamic point of stainless cookware, view in an effort to expose demeaning cultural habits which have no basis in Dispositional Essay, Islam, and to offer alternative understandings of these issues based on the primary sources of Qur'an and Hadith.
The view of priceless, sexuality as taboo and shameful is by no means unique to any particular religious or ethnic group. The Victorian era in England and the US(late 19th century) was characterized by such a strong inhibition of sexuality that was subsequently blamed for Dispositional psychological problems seen in women by psychiatrists such as Sigmund Freud. Breaking free from the oppressiveness of that era was an important goal for women through most of the premier teams, 20th century since the prevailing attitudes were not confined to sexual issues as women were denied many other essential human rights. Laila Ahmed addresses some of the misogynistic conditions and beliefs that preceded Islam in the Mediterranean area, heavily influenced by Jewish and Christian thinking at Dispositional Essay, that time(6th and 7th centuries). She points out the church's attitude on abortion and contraception . formed part of a broader negative ethos concerning the body and sexuality -- a sense of mastercard priceless commercial, these as sinful and shameful and of sexuality as legitimate only for procreation. women were evidently perceived as innately more implicated in physicality and sexuality than men. (Women and Gender in Islam, p.35) Unfortunately, a similar view of women has been adopted by some Muslims and Dispositional Optimism, may actually be rooted in the cultural values which existed when Islam was introduced. Human sexual development goes through several well-defined stages.
Throughout growth, opportunities exist to teach children about their bodies, to inculcate values and attitudes, and most importantly to foster self-esteem. The success or failure (as determined by a woman's overall understanding and value of herself as well as her ability to maintain a satisfying relationship) can be determined by prevailing attitudes of the commercial, family and surrounding culture. Sexual development occurs throughout the Essay, life-cycle, beginning in infancy and colonel sherburn, childhood. The healthy progression from one stage of development to the next is dependent upon Dispositional fulfillment of basic requirements at Randomized Trials Essay, each stage. Essay. For example, an infant must develop trust that the caregiver will consistently respond to her cries before she can safely venture into the world and test the budding independence of toddlerhood. The ultimate achievement is the Randomized Trials, development of an intact, secure adult with a high sense of self-esteem and self-worth. If a girl is constantly being told that she is naughty, shameful, stupid or ugly, she will come to believe it and obviously have low self-esteem which will interfere with relationships, school, work and so on. This illustration in general terms introduces the argument that cultural habits which teach girls excessive shame breed guilt and reinforce a negative self-image contributing to low self-esteem and Dispositional, even dysfunctional sexual lives. This stage of development has been referred to as the latent stage in Freudian terms. It was felt that between early childhood and puberty children had no interest in seneca, their or others sexuality; they are essentially dormant in this regard until hormonal changes signal the onset of puberty.
However, this argument has been challenged by other experts in the field. Regardless of psychological theories, certain facts must be considered about Dispositional Optimism children at this age. Falls Summary. They are developing mentally and as such are often extremely curious about themselves, others, animals and so on. This is a good time to reinforce concepts of cleanliness, privacy and self-respect and to begin to teach them about sexuality and Optimism Essay, reproduction in an age appropriate manner. Some girls will start menstruating as early as age nine and should be prepared ahead of time by frank and open discussions with their parents. For many girls, the most significant thing to Controlled happen during this time is the Dispositional Optimism, onset of menstruation. If a girl has not been prepared for this event, the target cookware, sight of the first few drops of blood can be terribly frightening. The signs that a girl is entering this stage of development include breast development, growth of hair under the arms and in the pubic area, increase in height and finally onset of menses. At this time, cultural and familial attitudes about Dispositional Essay menstruation are critical in impacting a girl's acceptance or rejection of this milestone in her life. Because of the stainless steel cookware, rapid rate of change and accompanying sense of Optimism, awkwardness, adolescents are often insecure and preoccupied with appearances, with a strong desire to be accepted by their peers.
This stage is characterized by a heightened interest in and awareness of members of the opposite steel cookware, sex. In the United States and in many other countries, young people begin to develop relationships during the teenage years. Over half of the students graduating from high school have been sexually active. Dispositional. Many communities are working hard to Controlled Trials teach abstinence before marriage but they are working against difficult odds especially when dating is viewed as normal, age-appropriate behavior. Yet, a primary task at Essay, this stage is to achieve a healthy, intimate relationship, which, for Muslims, can only exist in the context of marriage. Once women become sexually active, they then must deal with issues related to mastercard priceless commercial pregnancy, such as attitudes toward child-bearing, timing and Dispositional Optimism Essay, spacing of children, and contraception. Ideally, decisions are made within a mutually supportive monogamous relationship. Also, during this time, sexual satisfaction as well as sexual dysfunction or incompatibility become important issues as part of an overall relationship and can contribute to premier league teams its well being or be a source of Optimism, tension and stress.
Historically, older women and men were considered asexual as aging and sexuality seemed incompatible. Especially today, as women and speech, men live well into their eighties, sexuality is still an important part of many people's lives. While some may experience a decreased sex drive, others do not notice any change at all. Early in life, children become aware of their sexuality even to the point that infants can experience sexual pleasure (see Your Baby and Child, P. Leach, p. 212). Infants develop awareness of the function and form of all body parts as they grow. To a child, the penis or vagina is just another part of the body, like arms and legs.
The focus on the genitals is particularly evident during the toilet training years. Dispositional. If a child is taught that her genitals are dirty and shameful , but she wants to explore them just the same, naturally she will feel ashamed and naughty if she does so. Therefore, early on she sees part of herself as negative. Mastercard. Most child development experts encourage parents to remain neutral about Optimism a child's interest in seneca falls summary, her genitals to avoid preoccupation with that body part and to enhance the development of a positive sexual identity. As the child grows, it becomes important to teach her about privacy and appropriate behavior when around others. Oftentimes, parents fear that by not discouraging their children from Essay touching themselves, they are encouraging them to explore sexuality at an early age. But teaching children to respect and understand their bodies will more positively impact their self image compared to emphasizing the sense of shame ('ayb) that many children are taught. Such a sense of shame can be taken to extremes; for example, a mother refuses to apply necessary medication to Randomized Essay her three year old daughter's vagina because to touch her there is 'ayb. Other girls are afraid to Dispositional Optimism Essay cleanse their genitals properly because to touch themselves is 'ayb. The concept of shame or disgust regarding one's body has no basis in Islam. During adolescence, sexuality becomes of interest to young people as their bodies experience hormonal upheavals which result in physical and mastercard priceless, emotional changes.
Again, a girl's experience through childhood will influence her passage through this difficult time. If she is taught that the onset of menstruation is a curse, then her experience and coping mechanisms will be affected negatively. A positive attitude will enable a young woman to view it as a milestone, not a hindrance. Unfortunately, much folklore and negative cultural beliefs abound regarding a woman's menses. Indeed, for some women menstruation is a physically difficult, unwelcome disruption every month. But it is a simple biological process that can be managed like any other physical condition, and needn't impair a woman's ability to function. Several hadith exist regarding menstruation. The only Qur'anic reference is found in Surah 2, verse 222 where Muslims are told to avoid sexual intercourse during a woman's menses: And they will ask thee about (woman's) monthly courses. Say, 'It is a vulnerable condition. Keep, therefore, aloof from women during their monthly courses, and do not draw near unto them until they are cleansed; and when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God has bidden you to do.' In a hadith found in Muslim (No.
592, also reported in Sunan Abu Dawud, No, 258), a discussion occurs whereby the Prophet emphasizes that the Islamic view of menstruation differs significantly from the Jewish attitude during his time, which strongly restricted women from Dispositional several arenas while they were menstruating. In this hadith he says, Associate with them in the houses and do everything except sexual intercourse. Aisha and the other wives of the Prophet were instrumental in pointing out his attitude of seneca convention summary, tolerance; for example, Maimuna recalled an occasion when she was sitting near him while he was praying. She happened to be menstruating and during his prayers he knelt on her garment but did not displace it, meaning that being in the presence of a menstruating woman had no impact on his prayers ( Mishkat ul Masabih, No. 550; for other hadith along similar lines see Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 212-213, 267-273; Muslim, Nos. 269, 577-588 and Bukhari, Vol. Dispositional Optimism. 1, Nos. 293-300) Also, the stainless cookware, Prophet commanded menstruating women and those observing purdah to participate in Eid festivities. They sat behind those who prayed but joined in Optimism, takbir ( Muslim, Nos. 1932-34; Bukhari, Vol.1, No.
321). Exemptions from premier league Rituals. Today, as in Essay, the time of the Prophet, women do not pray or fast while on mastercard priceless commercial their menses. The Qur'an does not address this practice at all; several hadith exist which expressly forbid women to pray while on Dispositional Essay their period. Target Steel. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 271-287, Bukhari, Vol.1., No.327). Dispositional Optimism Essay. Several traditions show that menstruating women were not supposed to perform tawaf (circumambulation) around the Kaaba during Hajj while they were menstruating (Bukhari, Vol.
1, Nos. 302,321,325; al-Muwatta, 20.16) The menses were viewed as a temporary illness such that days not fasted had to be made up as any ill person would do after Ramadan. The Qur'an states that those who are ill or on a journey can desist from fasting and make the ca(oh)2, days up later (2:184). There are no hadith which expressly forbid women from fasting while menstruating, but based on the text from the following, one concludes that menstruating women did not fast: Aisha is reported to have said that during menstruation in the time of the Prophet, the women were commanded to complete the Optimism, fast (abandoned during menses) but were not commanded to complete the (abandoned) prayer (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 262-3, Muslim, Nos. 660-662). Women who have prolonged menses because of an underlying medical problem can resume prayers , fasting, and ca(oh)2 or insoluble, intercourse after a certain number of days (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 274-306, Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 303,306,322,324).
In view of the verse mentioned above which admonishes against sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman in Dispositional Optimism, order to avoid causing her harm, the exemptions from the above-mentioned rituals could be viewed as an extension of God's consideration of women. Perhaps abstention from prayer and fasting during one's menses is a divine acknowledgement of women's increased difficulty during that period. God gave them permission not to sherburn pray or fast as a sign of mercy, just as He allows travelers to shorten their prayers to ease their burden. Many Muslims believe that menstruating women are not allowed to enter the mosque or touch the Essay, Qur'an. This relates to the view of the menstruating woman as unclean. Ca(oh)2 Soluble Or Insoluble. Since she cannot be purified with ablution until after her menses stop, she is Dispositional not in the proper state to enter a mosque or recite Qur'an.
Conflicting hadith exist regarding these habits. When looking at the whole body of hadith regarding the subject of menstruation, it appears that many of the injunctions were made because of the physical problems associated with active bleeding. Women at that time did not have access to modern amenities which protect a woman and her garments from the blood flow. One hadith points out that one of the seneca convention, Prophet's wives (Um Salamah, who was having irregular bleeding) needed a dish underneath her to catch the menstrual blood while she was observing I'tikaf in the mosque during Ramadan (Bukhari No. 306, Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 2470, Muslim, No. 2470).
Therefore, practically speaking , women might have been restricted in Dispositional Optimism Essay, their activities if they did not have the means to deal with a heavy period, for example. Today, women have so many options so that there are rarely fears of such difficulties. In addition, the Prophet once asked Aisha to fetch his mat which was in seneca falls convention summary, the mosque. She said, But I am menstruating to Essay which he replied Your menstruation is sherburn not in your hand. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. Dispositional Essay. 261) However, another hadith exists which states that menstruating women should not enter the mosque: The Prophet is reported to have said, I do not make the mosque lawful for a menstruating woman and for colonel speech a person who is junub. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 232) The act of not touching the Dispositional Optimism, Qur'an while menstruating is based on the hadith that the Prophet wrote a letter in which he said that no one should touch the colonel sherburn, Qur'an but one who is pure. Dispositional. (Mishkat-ul-Masabih, No. 465;). Also, in Surah 56, verses 77-79 we find: That this indeed is a Qur'an most honorable, in a Book well-guarded, which none shall touch but those who are clean (tahir). In Mishkat-ul Masabih a hadith from Tirmidhi states that the Randomized Trials, Prophet said that the Dispositional Essay, menstruating woman and one who is junub should not recite anything from the Qur'an (No.
461). In general, since, in either of or insoluble, these states, women or men are not yet physically purified (tahir) they cannot touch or formally recite the Qur'an until that state comes to Dispositional Optimism an end. By performing ghusl (complete ablution) after the menses are over, one achieves the prerequisite physical state which allows for the resumption of prayers, fasting, reciting Qur'an and sexual relations. This does not imply impurity of spirit nor does it necessarily have to mean that a menstruating woman is unclean or dirty. The Prophet was known to premier teams perform ghusl after intercourse before reciting Qur'an, and he also would recite Qur'an while resting his head in Aisha's lap and she happened to be menstruating. (Mishkat, No. 460, Muslim, Nos.
260, 591) It is Essay possible to understand why Muslims might view menses as a negative aspect of the female identity. A well known and oft-quoted hadith which leads to the conclusion that menstruating women neither prayed nor fasted is summary found in Bukhari with several versions: The Prophet is reported to have said, Isn't it true that a woman does not pray and does not fast on menstruating? And that is the defect in her religion (Vol. 3, No. 172, see also Vol. 1, No. 301). The conclusion usually derived from this hadith is that women can never achieve the same level of faith or spirituality as men because they cannot fulfill their religious duties all the time.
The weakness in this argument and Dispositional Optimism, therefore in priceless, the hadith is that it contradicts the undisputed image expressed in Dispositional Optimism, the Qur'an of women and men as equal in terms of their duties and expectations as Muslims, servants of God. To say that one's faith is determined only by the extent to which she can carry out the rituals negates all of the other aspects of faithfulness and observance that cannot be quantified. God rewards or punishes according to deeds and intentions; how, then, can something that is biologically determined, not chosen or willed by the individual, serve as a measure of ca(oh)2 soluble, faith? Would God punish women for something that He created? Because this hadith is found in Dispositional Essay, Bukhari, it is rarely questioned or reinterpreted and unfortunately reinforces a negative view of women in Islam. The large volume of hadith regarding menstruation reflects the need for practical guidance on the part of the Muslim community at the time of the Prophet. Priceless Commercial. After reviewing all of the texts, one can't help but feel the burden of menstruation for the Muslim woman.
Regardless of the Optimism, deficiency hadith and in view of modern advances, Muslim women today can view menstruation as a simple fact of life that has no negative bearing on her value as a human being. Modern medicine has enabled us to falls convention summary manipulate the menstrual cycle in a myriad of ways so that women can continue to carry out their activities without being disabled once a month. Indeed, many women take advantage of medical technology to Dispositional Essay avoid menstruating during Hajj which, for many, is truly a once in a lifetime event not to be missed because of bad timing. Virginity and the Hymen: The Double Standard. Throughout childhood and adolescence, girls are sometimes prohibited by their parents from engaging in any activities that might interfere with the integrity of the hymen which is a small circular membrane at the opening of the vagina which allows the passage of menstrual flow. The opening is very narrow and is torn when penetration occurs (as in sexual intercourse). This is Trials Essay occasionally accompanied by bleeding.
Such blood loss has been required in some cultures to prove that the woman is a virgin at marriage so a blood stained cloth would be given to the groom's family on the wedding night to verify the bride's pure state. If a woman did not bleed, the repercussions could be severe. So it became vitally important that the hymen remain intact as a sign of virginity with the family's honor at stake. While many of the cultural traditions involving proof of Dispositional Essay, a woman's virginity are less prevalent than in the past, one can still find a persistent concern about the hymen as a marker for virginity today throughout many parts of the Muslim world. (It should be noted that the concern about the hymen is not limited only to commercial Muslims.) As a result, any activity that might cause tearing of the hymen would be forbidden, such as bicycle riding, horseback riding, gymnastics, etc. Unfortunately, the prohibitions against these activities are rarely accompanied by an explanation (most likely due to shyness on Dispositional Optimism the part of the parents); thus, the young girl learns that because she is a girl she cannot participate in activities enjoyed by other children. Again, such an attitude promotes a negative self-image. These attitudes are culturally entrenched and not based on Islam. While virginity of both men and women is target steel emphasized in Islam, there is no text in Qur'an or Hadith which specifically addresses the Essay, intactness of any part of a woman's anatomy as a marker for virginity. As will be discussed in detail later, the Islamic position on sexual behavior is colonel sherburn speech explicit.
Both men and women are required to be chaste and to Dispositional seek fulfilling relationships in marriage. Consequently, pre- and extra-marital relations are prohibited (Qur'an, 17:32, 24:26, 25:68; Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos. 798-802). Randomized. Of course, then, there is no debate that Muslims, male and female, must be virgins before they enter into their first marriage. Each individual is responsible and accountable to Dispositional Essay God for maintaining a state of purity prior to matrimony. Indian Premier League. Why should a woman have to prove that she is Dispositional Essay a virgin with physical evidence, when the ca(oh)2 soluble, man is taken on his word? Naturally, a woman who marries for the second or third time cannot give the same proof, meaning the Dispositional, status of the hymen is truly irrelevant for determining sexual purity. The hymen exists as a remnant of embryological development which serves no purpose physiologically speaking (K. L. Moore, The Developing Human).
If it tears because a girl goes bike riding or uses a tampon or even has a pelvic exam by a physician as part of an seneca falls convention evaluation of a medical condition, must it then follow that she is no longer a virgin? The restriction against vaginal penetration applies to premarital sexual behavior with a member of the opposite sex. Dispositional. The prohibition against premier league premarital sex exists because of multiple negative social, psychological and Dispositional, physical consequences that do not apply if the hymen is torn by an act that does not involve sexual intercourse. An unfortunate consequence of focusing on the shamefulness of sexuality is the inability of many women to enjoy a fulfilling sexual life once married. If a woman is taught from childhood that her genitals are unclean, untouchable, and basically an area off limits, and if inadequate discussion takes place to prepare her for her first sexual experience, then naturally she would be horrified to imagine the or insoluble, penetration of that area by another person such as her husband. And if the first encounter is painful, the Optimism Essay, stage is set for inhibition and fear so that a fulfilling sexual relationship is practically impossible. Problems that ensue include the summary, inability to Dispositional Essay consummate a marriage, vaginismus (spasm of the vaginal muscles which causes pain and prevents penile penetration), dyspareunia (painful intercourse), and the emotional and sherburn, psychological consequences for the individuals involved in the relationship. Dispositional. Also, the strong sense of fear and Randomized Trials Essay, shame often prevents adequate medical evaluation during pelvic examinations because some women are unable to sufficiently relax even if they are married and have already borne children. While our religion stresses the Dispositional Optimism Essay, importance of mutual sexual satisfaction between marriage partners, negative cultural factors can prevent such an outcome.
By educating children and young adults properly about sexuality, and by eliminating the features or habits which contribute to a negative self-image, and by focusing on the positive language found regarding these issues in Islamic literature women and men will be able to enjoy a fulfilling sexual relationship in marriage that is Trials Essay each person's right. Sexuality in Optimism Essay, Qur'an and Hadith. The references to steel cookware sexuality found in Qur'an and hadith will now be discussed. Dispositional. In the following verse, men and women are referred to as the garments of one another, implying a sense of balance and mutual nurturance from one to the other. It is lawful for you to go in unto your wives during the night preceding the (day's) fast: they are as a garment for you, and you are as a garment for them. God is aware that you would have deprived yourselves of this right, and so He has turned unto you in His mercy and removed this hardship from you. Now, then, you may lie with them skin to skin, and avail yourselves to that which God has ordained for Randomized Controlled Essay you.(2:187) Also, by reviewing this and the verses below one appreciates the Essay, fact that sexual relations are sanctioned by Trials Essay God and are viewed as part of the spiritual relationship that exists between a husband and wife. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits intercourse during a woman's period (2:222) to avoid causing her discomfort. In verse 223 of the same Surah, the Qur'an says: Your wives are your tilth; go, then, unto your tilth as you may desire, but first provide something for your souls, and remain conscious of God, and know that you are destined to meet Him.
And give glad tidings unto those who believe. Based on these verses and some hadith, Muslim couples are encouraged to enjoy sexual relations in any manner the two prefer. Dispositional Essay. The only target stainless cookware prohibitions involve avoiding intercourse while a woman is menstruating, and avoiding anal penetration (Muslim, No.3365); this explains the text in the verse mentioned above since it was revealed when one of the Optimism Essay, Sahaba was concerned about having sexual intercourse from behind. He was worried that he committed a sin. So the indian teams, Prophet said that any position was lawful as long as anal penetration did not occur. Therefore, if the Essay, couple is mutually agreeable, no other restrictions apply.
Other verses that address sexuality focus on the unlawfulness of extra-marital sexual relationships which will be discussed later. Sexual Rights of the Wife. Several hadith also address the issue of indian teams, sexual satisfaction with reference to the wife's rights in Dispositional Essay, this matter. The Prophet advised Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As (who spent all day fasting and all night in prayer) to fast sometimes and not at other times; to Randomized Trials pray at night and to sleep at night. Your body has a right over you, your eyes have a right over you and your wife has a right over you. (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. Dispositional Essay. 127) The wife's rights include a right to ca(oh)2 companionship from her husband and fulfillment of her sexual needs. A woman's satisfaction is particularly referred to Dispositional Optimism Essay in the interpretation of the hadiths which discuss penile withdrawal as a method of contraception.
One stipulation is that the woman must consent because such a practice could interfere with her sexual fulfillment to which she is entitled. Also, if she desires to bear children, coitus interruptus practiced by her husband would violate that right as well. This viewpoint is based on a hadith transmitted by Umar ibn-al-Khattab who said that the mastercard commercial, Prophet forbade the practice of coitus interruptus with a woman except with her permission This reference is found in Sex and Society in Islam, by B. F. Essay. Musallam who also points out that this hadith was considered weak by some Medieval jurists (see also al-Muwatta, 29.34, No. 100). Nevertheless, the position regarding the woman's right to sherburn orgasm was developed over time by several Muslim jurists during the same period (Busallam, Chapter 2 and footnotes).
Also, one undisputed justification for divorce on behalf of the wife is her sexual dissatisfaction. The most explicit discussions of sexual relations with respect to fulfilling the wife's needs are found in the Book on the Etiquette of Marriage, part of Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali's larger work, Revival of the Religious Sciences (Ihya Ulum al-Din), written in the eleventh century. In spite of Essay, some of his comments that are generally disparaging of women, he argues forcefully regarding the wife's right to sexual fulfillment. Speech. He quotes the Dispositional, Prophet as saying, Let none of you come upon his wife like an animal, let there be an emissary between them. When asked what is the emissary, he replied, The kiss and target, sweet words. In another hadith, the Prophet points out that one of the deficiencies of Optimism, a man is that he should approach his wife and have sexual contact with her before exchanging words and caresses, consequently, he sleeps with her and fulfills his needs (i.e. orgasm) before she fulfills hers. Al-Ghazali further elaborates on the importance of commercial, a woman achieving orgasm by stating, Congruence in attaining a climax is Dispositional Optimism more gratifying to her because the man is not preoccupied with his own pleasure, but rather with hers. Indian Premier League Teams. Rights of the Husband.
The sexual rights of the husband are also elucidated in the traditions, but the language is Essay such that it appears that his rights supersede those of his wife. Falls Summary. For example, in Bukhari, AbuHuraira reports that the Prophet said, If a man invites his wife to sleep with him and Dispositional Essay, she refuses, then the angels send their curses on her till morning. (Vol. 7, No. 121-2; in Muslim, the text reads that God is summary displeased with her until the husband is pleased with her Nos. 3366-68).
In Riyadh-us-Salaheen, a hadith attributed to Tirmidhi and Nisai states that the Prophet said, When a man sends for Dispositional Optimism Essay his wife for mastercard priceless commercial the satisfaction of his need, she should go to him even if she may be occupied in baking bread. Dispositional Optimism. (No. 284) Similarly, Muslim women are advised not to fast without the permission of their husbands since fasting would interfere with sexual relations (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 2452-3; Muslim, Nos. 3366-68; Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 120). Clearly, Islamic literature stresses the importance of the ca(oh)2 soluble or insoluble, sexual relationship between a husband and wife, but the above traditions seem to Dispositional Essay show that the husband's right to have sex is Controlled more important than the wife's right of refusal if she is not willing for whatever reason. The only time she can refuse intercourse, then, is during menstruation. The verse (2:222) commands Muslims to avoid sex during that time because it may be associated with discomfort on the part of the woman. A logical conclusion would be that sexual relations are better avoided for Essay any circumstances (physical or otherwise) that would lead to discomfort. A common view of sex is that the soluble, stronger sexual urges of Optimism Essay, men (compared to women) can be controlled only to a certain extent; according to some, this justifies the soluble, practice of polygamy even though the Qur'an makes no mention of sexual desires in the verses on polygamy (4:3-5). Also, the Dispositional Essay, same argument is made to justify forcing women to have sex against their will, as they are forbidden to refuse to have sexual relations.
Since the husband's urges are so strong, and to prevent him from acting out on them illicitly, a wife's duty therefore is to submit in order to preserve the marriage. Yet, human beings are endowed with self control not seen in any other species, such that we do not act on every instinctual impulse because of some uncontrollable force. This is what distinguishes humankind since God gave us the ability to think and make choices. Therefore, there is no justification for forcing women to have sex against their will, even in marriage. One does not find any traditions that show the Prophet as an aggressive or coercive husband. Similarly, behavior involving coercion and force goes against the philosophy of Controlled, mutual satisfaction outlined in the Qur'an (see verses above) and against the hadith which states that the best among Muslims are those who are best towards their wives (Riyadh-us-Salaheen, No. 278).
Also, the Prophet expressed his strong disapproval of those who physically beat their wives and then had sexual relations that night (Bukhari, Vol. Dispositional Optimism. 7, No. Falls Summary. 132, Vol.9, 81-82; see also Riyadh us-Salaheen, No. 274). The example of the Prophet clearly reveals that he and his wives enjoyed physical affection not necessarily related to intercourse thus reflecting an attitude of loving behavior in Dispositional Optimism, a variety of circumstances. Based on the hadith transmitted by his wives (particularly regarding physical intimacy while they were menstruating), this behavior included kissing, caressing, embracing and bathing together. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 267-273, 2376-2379; Muslim, Nos. Mastercard Priceless Commercial. 577-586, 629)
Husbands and Essay, wives should strive to seneca falls summary satisfy one another's sexual needs as much as possible. This can be achieved by honest, open discussions; care, kindness and a desire to Dispositional Optimism please one another. Viewing sexual intimacy as an important part of the relationship will enable a couple to achieve mutual satisfaction that enhances the overall success of the marriage. Clearly, coercion and lack of consideration for one's spouses feelings will result in colonel sherburn speech, tension that can have negative effects on the rest of the Optimism, relationship. Unfortunately, if a Muslim woman is raised to abhor and fear any matters related to sex, then in most instances of sexual contact she would be a passive and perhaps unwilling participant, and definitely not one who derives pleasure from sex. Also, the general view of seneca falls, sex as a shameful and Essay, dirty act contributes to inhibitions of both men and women, preventing them from steel enjoying an act sanctioned by God.
The following hadith highlights the importance of privacy in Essay, sexual relationships: the Prophet is reported to have said, The most wicked among the mastercard priceless commercial, people in Dispositional Essay, the sight of God on the Day of Judgement is the man who goes to target steel cookware his wife and she comes to him, and then he divulges her secret. (Muslim, Nos. 3369-70). Consequently, Muslims would be very unlikely to discuss matters of their sexual lives outside of the home. By keeping sexual issues private, the couple ensures mutual respect and avoids the chances of violating trust by divulging personal tastes and practices to others. Dispositional Optimism. However, this attitude would also prevent couples from seeking necessary help, thus diminishing opportunities for alleviating any problems related to soluble sexual dysfunction. Consultations with professionals, such as physicians, would not violate the code of privacy, and could help the individual or couple in matters that significantly impact the marriage.
Sex Outside of Marraige. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits sexual acts outside of Dispositional Optimism Essay, marriage (zina). Interestingly, the teams, text does not go into detail to explain why such behavior is sinful. The verses which mention illicit sexual relations do so while admonishing Muslims to Dispositional Essay avoid other grave sinful deeds such as murder and stealing (Qur'an 25:68, 60:12). Sherburn. Muslims acknowledge and believe in Divine wisdom which is understood, to Optimism some extent, by the application of common sense and an exploration of the ramifications of fornication and adultery which include but are not limited to unwanted pregnancy, transmission of target stainless, sexually transmitted diseases, negative emotional and psychological consequences, and physical intimacy without emotional commitment. Optimism. In addition to Qur'an, numerous hadith exist which point out that zina is considered a major sin (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 148; Vol. 8, Nos.
798-802). The issue of extramarital sexual relations takes on even more profound importance because laws exist in Islamic jurisprudence which outline the punishment (hadd) for seneca falls convention this behavior which is considered a sex crime. Clearly, the threat of punishment authorized by God serves as a very effective deterrent for illicit sexual behavior which results in negative social consequences beyond those experienced by the couple in question. Even though the text is Optimism Essay clear regarding the mastercard priceless commercial, unlawfulness of zina, the following references point out Dispositional Optimism, how difficult it is to Randomized Controlled Essay accuse someone of such a crime. According to the Qur'an, those who accuse another of zina are required to produce four eyewitnesses of the act of genital penetration (meaning the act of intercourse would practically have to be committed in public view). According to hadith, other incriminating evidence include confession and pregnancy (Bukhari, Vol. 8, No.
816; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4518; Muslim, No. 4194). While the seriousness of the Essay, crime is not in question, the Prophet himself demonstrated reluctance in reacting to accusations and even confessions without giving individuals the indian premier league teams, opportunity to avoid punishment and repent to God, with the hopes of avoiding punishment in Optimism, the hereafter as well. In addition, the Prophet himself advised the believers not to make public their misbehaviors. When a man came to colonel speech confess that he had been with a woman and Optimism, did everything except sexual intercourse, Omar ibn al Khattab said, Allah has concealed your fault; it would have been better if you had concealed it yourself.
The Prophet then quoted the verse, And be constant in praying at the beginning and the end of the day. for, verily, good deeds drive away evil deeds: this is target steel a reminder to Essay all who bear (God) in mind. (11:114). In addition, the Qur'an elsewhere clearly stresses the importance of sincerely repenting as God is ever merciful (4:15-16). Several hadith refer to an instance in which the commercial, Prophet tried to give a man the opportunity to avoid punishment. Maiz ibn Malik came to the Prophet insisting on Optimism Essay confessing his sin of seneca, fornication with a slavegirl. The Prophet responded by turning away from him, then insisted that the Dispositional, couple must have just looked at each other, or only embraced or kissed; but Maiz persisted with his confession of actual intercourse.
The Prophet gave him ample opportunity to conceal his sin, and repent privately with the hopes of indian premier, receiving God's forgiveness. Yet, Maiz also knew that punishment in this life would replace the Essay, possible punishment awaiting in the Hereafter. Soluble. So upon Dispositional Optimism Essay acknowledgement and confession of convention, fornication, the Prophet ordered the punishment. (Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos. Essay. 806, 810, 812-14; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4413).
A similar story involves a pregnant woman who also wanted to steel confess and receive punishment. Again, the Optimism Essay, Prophet first told her to Go back to her tribe, but she returned again wishing to confess. Essay. The Prophet told her to go back until the child was born. She returned again with the infant and he told her to Dispositional Optimism Essay suckle him until you wean him. She returned when the boy was weaned, again confessing fully, resulting in the prescribed punishment. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4428). For a couple (or individual) convicted of zina, the punishment would be harsh. Randomized Essay. According to the Qur'an , 100 lashes for each (24:2).
In several hadith collections, the Optimism Essay, punishment of stoning to death is described for those guilty of adultery. This divergence is significant because stoning resulted in death while flogging did not.. Randomized Controlled. The Qur'an does not distinguish between fornication and Dispositional, adultery but uses one word to describe both, zina. Belief in the Qur'an as the final word would argue that the use of stoning to death instead of flogging is inappropriate; indeed a hadith in Bukhari states that a transmitter of one of the stoning hadiths did not know if stoning was practiced before or after the revelation of the above Qur'anic verse (Vol. .8, No. 804). Interestingly, both Bukhari and Muslim report a hadith transmitted by Ibn Abbas who narrated that Umar ibn al-Khattab feared that in future times Muslims would not use stoning as punishment because it is not mentioned in speech, the Qur'an.
But he spoke to confirm the obligation of Dispositional, its use as punishment for proven cases of adultery. (Bukhari, Vol.8, No. 816; Muslim, No. 4194). All of or insoluble, these issues dealing with punishment must be reviewed by modern Islamic jurists to develop laws (in those countries where Islamic law is applied) that incorporate the Islamic principles of Optimism Essay, justice, due process and compassion. In countries where Muslims live as minorities (where Islamic law does not prevail), these punishments cannot be carried out by zealous individuals or communities who may feel that they are required to carry out God's law in spite of the prevailing legal system. Yet, the system of Islamic jurisprudence must guarantee basic rights of individuals accused of serious crimes: these rights cannot possibly be upheld without a court system with checks and balances to ensure enforcement of the law while respecting the rights of individuals. The main point is sherburn speech that, while the punishment for zina is severe and extreme, the requirements for proof of guilt are so strict that the chances of one actually being convicted and then punished are very small. Thus the individual Muslim who commits such acts in private, without fear of retribution should pay heed to the following verses: Verily, God's acceptance of repentance relates only to Essay those who do evil out of ignorance and then repent before their time runs out. And it is they unto whom God will turn again in His mercy - for mastercard priceless God is all-knowing, wise; whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and then say, Behold I now repent; nor from those who die as deniers of truth; it is these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.(4:17-18) While it may seem obvious to some, the definition of Optimism, zina is not without controversy.
Again, using the hadith mentioned above(Bukhari, Vol. Indian Premier League Teams. 8, No. 806, etc.), the Prophet did not consider Maiz ibn Malek of a crime until he confessed of actual sexual intercourse involving penile penetration. This does not mean that other behaviors such as kissing, heavy petting, oral sex are not prohibited but that the requirements needed to justify a harsh punishment are strict. Obviously, many couples can engage in all of these activities without being exposed to witnesses and thus avoid punishment in this life. Dispositional Essay. But they still must answer to God who, in no uncertain terms, admonishes against any sexual contact outside of seneca convention summary, marriage. False Accusations and Optimism Essay, Honor. If a husband accuses his wife of adultery by swearing four times and she denies any wrongdoing under oath, then she is vindicated (Qur'an 24:6-9).
According to Muhammad Asad (footnote 10, Surah 24) the sherburn speech, same applies if a woman accuses her husband. If the accusation is found to Essay be false the punishment of the accuser is cookware severe: And as for those who accuse chaste women (of adultery), and then are unable to Dispositional produce four witnesses (in support of thier accusation), flog them with eighty s stripes; an target cookware ever after refuse to Optimism accept from them any testimony- since it is they, they that are truly depraved!- excepting only those who afterwards repent and made amends for, behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace. And as for sherburn speech those who accuse their own wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, let each of these (accusers) call God four times to witness that he is indeed telling the truth, and the fifth time, that God's curse be upon him if he is telling a lie. (As for the wife, all) chastisement shall be averted from her by her calling God four times to witness that he is indeed telling a lie, and the fifth (time), that God's curse be upon her if she is telling the truth . (24:4-8) These verses were revealed in response to accusations against Aisha, the Prophet's wife, who was left behind the caravan when she went looking for a lost necklace. A young soldier happened upon her and escorted her to the camp where they arrived the Dispositional Optimism Essay, following day. Rumors about sexual misconduct spread, causing great upheaval and emotional distress in the household of the Prophet.
The above verses point out that a woman's word to swear to her innocence is sufficient to both preserve her reputation and result in punishment of her accusers. The following verse admonishes the community for not questioning the rumors and giving Aisha, the accused, the benefit of the doubt: Why do not the believing men and women, whenever such (a rumor) is heard, think the best of one another and say, 'This is an obvious falsehood'. and target steel cookware, were it not for God's favor upon you, and His grace in this world and in the life to come, awesome suffering would indeed have afflicted you in result of all (the calumny) in Essay, which you indulge when you take it up with your tongues, uttering with your mouths something of stainless cookware, which you have no knowledge, and deeming it a light matter whereas in the sight of God it is an awful thing. Verily, as for those who like (to hear)foul slander spread against (any of) those who have attained to faith - grievous suffering awaits them in this world and in the life to come: for Essay God knows (the full truth), whereas you know (it) not (24:12-19). Slander is considered a grave offense since it taints the reputation of individuals and disrupts relationships The verses, while referring to Aisha's particular case, universally applied, serve to protect women from any unfair accusations about their chastity. Unfortunately in many communities throughout the Controlled Trials Essay, Muslim world the, honor of the entire family is caught up in and determined by the reputation of the female members, who can be accused of sexual misconduct, even if it is only suspected. As is clear from the above verses, singling out women for Dispositional Essay punishment based only on accusations or assumptions has no basis in Islam. Even if a woman is accused of fornication, and she denies the accusation, no punishment is carried out (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4451). Thus, even the steel, suggestion of misbehavior (usually acts other than intercourse) cannot possibly serve as evidence of Optimism, wrongdoing to Islamically justify retribution (such as honor killings) on the part of the woman's family. The sin of false accusations and the focus on Randomized absolving the one who is falsely accused has become problematic regarding the punishment of rape.
If a woman accuses a man of raping her and he denies that he did, she is basically confessing to illicit sexual contact and therefore punishable. Dispositional Optimism Essay. This is colonel even more problematic if the woman has no other evidence besides her testimony. This is the current state of affairs in Pakistan where rape victims are punished for the crime committed against them. According to Imam Malik, if a man is convicted of Essay, rape, he receives the punishment as mentioned for zina and also must pay a mahr (bride-price) to the victim (al-Muwatta, 36.16). Imam Malik also states that if an mastercard unmarried woman is Dispositional pregnant and claims to have been raped, unless there is seneca falls summary physical evidence, she is presumed to be guilty of fornication and therefore punished (al-Muwatta, 41.4). Again, based on earlier interpretations, the woman is made to suffer for a crime committed by another because the focus is erroneously on the sexual act and not on Optimism Essay rape as an act of violence. Rather than viewing the act of sex as the issue requiring jurisdiction, the judges should view rape as an colonel sherburn speech act of violence perpetrated against an unwilling victim who cannot be considered guilty of a sex crime. Along the Dispositional, lines of sexual behavior arises the issue of homosexuality about seneca convention summary which the Islamic position is clear. Based on numerous verses in the Qur'an which refer to Prophet Lot and Dispositional Optimism Essay, the sins committed by indian premier league teams his community, one concludes that homosexual relations are prohibited. Dispositional Optimism. (7:80-84, 11:77-83, 15:57-77, 26:160-175, 27:54-58, 29:28-35)) Again, the Qur'an does not go into great detail to explain why; and again Muslims first accept God's wisdom and then apply reason to come to an understanding. The most basic argument is that homosexual behavior is ultimately detrimental to the survival of thehuman race. Also, it is contrary to the Islamic position of the importance of the bond between husbands and wives which is priceless a goal for Dispositional Essay which Muslims are encouraged to strive. (based on a well known hadith that marriage is half of one's religion.)
Like zina, punishment has been described for those who are found to engage in homosexual acts. The Qur'an is ca(oh)2 somewhat vague on the issue of punishment. The only verse which alludes to this behavior again calls for four witnesses to confirm the immoral conduct (fahishah) between two women or two men; if they are found guilty, they are to be punished, but if they repent they are to Dispositional Optimism Essay be left alone (4:15-16). The type of punishment is not defined. The hadith are more specific. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet said if anyone is found doing as Lot's people did, to kill the one who does it (sodomy) and to ca(oh)2 soluble whom it is done (No. 4447).
In the footnote to this hadith it is pointed out that the jurists differed in opinion regarding how the punishment would be carried out. Basically, homosexual acts are considered illicit and if verified by witnesses or confession, then the individuals would be punished like those who commit zina. What occurs in private is between individuals who are ultimately accountable to God. Naturally, sexual feelings can arise for people who are not yet married. An oft quoted hadith advises fasting to help quell the Dispositional, sexual appetite (Bukhari, Vol. 3, No. 129).
For some this may not really help. But feelings of frustration do not justify acting them out with someone outside of the marital relationship. Indian Premier Teams. Therefore, one could argue for the benefit of masturbation which would relieve the frustration and Optimism, prevent illicit sexual contact (see Musallam, p.33 and Qaradawi, pp. 170-1). According to Al-Qaradawi in The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, the target stainless steel, majority of scholars consider masturbation haram (forbidden). But, he does point out that the Hanbali jurists permit masturbation for those afraid of committing fornication or adultery or for those without the means to Dispositional Optimism Essay marry. While the value of target stainless, family and raising children is undisputed among most Muslims, it is well known that contraception is permitted and can be practiced for a variety of reasons at the discretion of the couple. This is consistent with the view that the purpose of sexual behavior between husband and wife is not limited to Optimism procreation. The Prophet did not prohibit contraception (the withdrawal method or coitus interruptus practiced at the time) and did not mention any stipulations in any of the hadith except one mentioned earlier which refers to the importance of obtaining the wife's consent before practicing withdrawal.
Similarly, use of commercial, female controlled methods, such as the birth control pill, would require the husband's consent in consideration of Dispositional Optimism, his desires for bearing children. (Bukhari, Vol. 7, Nos. 135-6; Muslim, Nos. 3371-88; al-Muwatta, 29.34) While withdrawal was the method practiced during the Prophet's time, by stainless steel analogy, contraception by the means available today is also permitted. In almost every hadith that discusses withdrawal ('azl) the Prophet is Dispositional Essay reported to have said that even if it is practiced, if God intends a child to target cookware be born she/he will be born. Although the methods used today for contraception are very effective, not a single one provides 100% assurance that pregnancy will not occur; so, as always, God's will prevails when He so ordains a matter such as conception. Optimism Essay. Some Muslims argue that sterilization of men or women is not allowed as a method of contraception because it alters the human body. They use the hadith which admonish against seneca convention summary altering one's features for Dispositional Optimism Essay cosmetic reasons (Y. Al-Qaradawi, The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, pp. 88-9). Surgery done for beautification is clearly not the same as that done for contraception so the summary, connection is flawed at Essay, best, and does not offer a convincing argument against colonel sherburn sterilization.
Like the other monotheistic religions, Islam prohibits the Dispositional Optimism, taking of the life of another human being without just cause (i.e. in ca(oh)2 or insoluble, self-defense, see 5:32) Therefore the question arises, at Optimism Essay, what point in gestation does the fetus become a human, such that to remove it would be described as murder. Target Stainless Cookware. The debate in modern Western society centers around the Dispositional Optimism, issue of choice. Since the pregnancy is part of the woman's body, she has the right to premier league make decisions regarding the Optimism, outcome. On the other hand, the fetus is a potential human being who has rights of her/his own, one of them being the right to Randomized Trials Essay life. By the early third trimester, when an infant born can survive outside of the womb, to terminate a pregnancy is considered illegal. Prior to that stage of gestation, the fetus definitely cannot survive, therefore, it is not yet considered a human being . Others believe that the fetus's status as a human begins at conception. In spite of the positions of the major jurists, many Muslims today ( and some earlier jurists) believe that abortion is unlawful under any circumstances unless the woman's life is Dispositional Optimism endangered by the pregnancy. Modern technology (not available to early jurists) enables the physician to see the beating heart of a 21 day old embryo; whether the embryo qualifies as a person is really only known by God. Many feel that life and the human spirit are present at stainless steel cookware, conception meaning pregnancy termination at any stage would involve the unlawful taking of a life ( see Islamic Perspectives in Obstetrics and Gynecology, by Dispositional Dr. Hassan Hathout, pp. 61-78 ). While some modern day scholars also feel that the fetus' right to life prevails even in cases of incest or rape, others consider those situations exceptional and premier league teams, think abortion is allowed to preserve the emotional and psychological well-being of the woman.
Female Genital Mutilation. Since female genital mutilation (FGM , known also as female circumcision). is Optimism a custom among some Muslims, the Islamic position must be made clear. This practice which involves varying degrees of mutilation (from removing the clitoris to removing all labia and teams, sewing the vagina to Dispositional such an extent that only a small opening exists to allow passage of menstrual blood) presumably is performed to limit the sexual activity of women . Teams. By eliminating their ability to experience orgasm , they will be less likely to misbehave before or during marriage. This practice pre-dated Islam and is currently a custom in a few Muslim countries, particularly in Africa. Only one hadith exists which specifically addresses FGM. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Um Atiya said that the Prophet told a woman who performed circumcision in Medina to not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband (No. Essay. 5251). According to Abu Dawud, this is a weak hadith (mursal).
In the footnote of this hadith, the translator, Ahmad Hasan, points out that all of the Controlled, major scholars maintained that FGM was recommended (but to what degree was not specified). As mentioned throughout this chapter, focusing on sexuality in a positive manner can be a difficult task for Muslims. Optimism. Cultural views of women in general, fear of indian premier teams, committing and being punished for sin, and the use of sex as a means of domination have all contributed to the silence and Dispositional Essay, repression that prevent people from being comfortable with their sexuality as individuals and in relationships. Target Cookware. Through education and understanding, a more positive approach can lead to a better outcome. Teaching children to accept their bodies and sexuality contributes to Dispositional Optimism Essay developing strong self-esteem which is a major determinant of future sexual activity. Young people, particularly women, with low self-esteem are more likely to engage in colonel, sexual behavior at a young age. Fostering self-esteem occurs mainly within the family unit and also in schools and society at Dispositional Essay, large.
Informing children and young adults about the changes that occur as they grow and then teaching them about developing healthy relationships with others is possible through formalized educational settings (especially if the parents feel too uncomfortable discussing sexuality.) Also, a willingness on the part of adults to answer questions openly and to discuss difficult issues such as homosexualty or sexually transmitted diseases will enable young adults to approach their parents and educators and therefore be less likely to obtain inaccurate information from their peers or the media. The Prophet was well-known for his frankness in target steel cookware, discussing all issues, including those related to sex and sexual development. In one hadith, he is asked by a woman if, when a woman has an orgasm while asleep (during dreaming), does she have to perform complete ablution (ghusl) prior to doing her prayers. The Prophet answered that she does because such an experience is akin to the nocturnal emissions of men which require ghusl. (Muslim, Nos. 607-613; Bukhari, Vol.1, No.
280) This is a well known hadith which shows that the early Muslims felt no inhibition about addressing the Prophet about sensitive issues such as female orgasm (see also Muslim, No. 649). Muslims today must follow the example of the Prophet to use wisdom and beautiful preaching to talk to Dispositional one another and their children about ca(oh)2 soluble all matters. Teaching about Dispositional sexuality from an ca(oh)2 Islamic perspective is necessary for Muslim young people who are growing up in a society full of tremendous pressures. Regarding menstruation, it is important to teach our daughters that this is a special part of development that signals the onset of Optimism, adulthood and sherburn speech, possible future child-bearing.
A supportive attitude by parents is essential as girls struggle to deal with a change that may leave them feeling uncomfortable and sometimes embarrassed. Pre-adolescents are usually preoccupied with the opinions of their peers. So, a Muslim girl who isn't praying or fasting because it is that time of the month naturally feels exposed and maybe even isolated. Again, this points to the importance of Dispositional Essay, teaching respect to all children to minimize the potential for hurt feelings and shame. Also, discussing this in appropriate sex education courses for young Muslims enables them to ca(oh)2 soluble or insoluble be educated and informed so that mature attitudes will be engendered among boys and girls. One could argue that the strong language found in the Qur'an and Hadith against unlawful sex contributes to a negative attitude regarding sex in general. Indeed, fear of retribution is often used to Optimism Essay discourage young adults from engaging in colonel, premarital sexual behavior, thus contributing to inhibition, guilt and Essay, repression that interfere with healthy sexuality in marriage. Muslims must be willing to discuss these issues openly with their children to point out the wisdom of mastercard priceless commercial, postponing sexual behavior until marriage and to Dispositional Essay focus on all of the positive aspects that a healthy sexual relationship contributes to that union.
Rules without explanation only Controlled Essay stimulate a young person's curiosity and interest in Optimism Essay, risky behavior that is glorified by the media and often practiced by one's peers. Also, when instilled with a strong sense of self esteem and identity, young people are better equipped to deal with the pressures they face particularly during adolescence when many of falls convention, their friends are experimenting sexually.