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When was cyrus the great born

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How do the when was cyrus the great born, mental health service respond to the rising incidents of self harm among young people. The Oxford Medical Dictionary defines suicide as self-destruction that is performed as a deliberate act. Although it is strongly linked to self-harm , it is After School, noteworthy that self-harm is often not a suicide attempt, but actually a parasuicide -when self-harm is carried out for other reasons other than killing oneself. Deliberate self-harm refers to “a wide range of behaviours and when born intentions including attempted hanging, impulsive self-poisoning, and superficial self-cutting in response to intolerable tension” (Skegg, 2005). According to The National Institute of Woman's Dependence on Men, Clinical Excellence (NICE), self-harm is an expression of personal distress, and is not in itself, and illness. It is a situation in which a person inflicts harm on himself or herself in an attempt to end one’s life, relieve tension, escape anguish, change others’ behaviours, show desperation or cry for help (Hawton and James, 2005). Thus it ranges from behaviours with no suicidal intent through to actual suicide. However, is has been proposed that some successful suicides are actually self-harming episodes that go wrong. Suicide and the great born self-harm among teenagers usually occurs by means of Gender Roles: Biology or Culture Essay, self-cutting or self-poisoning. Other common examples include hitting or burning oneself, pulling hair or picking skins and when was cyrus born self-strangulation. Generally, teenagers tend to use means that are readily available within their homes.

Self-poisoning accounts for approximately 90% of reported hospital cases -usually involving over-the-counter preparations such as paracetamol and Dependence on Men Essay aspirin, or psychotropic agents. Rarely, self-harm is carried out by more violent acts such as attempted hanging; in which case, it is generally associated with higher suicidal intent. While previous self-harm is a major determining factor for when the great future suicides, the reverse is obviously not the case. Possibly, a major difference between these two increasingly prevalent occurrences is complete hopelessness often associated with suicide victims. It is widely believed that adolescents who commit suicides are products of broken homes, have history of family of self-psychiatric disorders or suicidal behaviour, substance misuse or have previously self-harmed. In self-harm, oftentimes the individual is merely crying for help in The Increasing Number of Drugs and Crime an extreme manner. This is fundamental to the rationale behind the extensive assessment recommended for all patients who have self-harmed. Although these two conditions often overlap, differences have been highlighted between suicides and deliberate self-harm in terms of epidemiology and prevalence. While suicide rates increase with age, the was cyrus the great, majority of deliberate self-harm occur in people under 35 years of age. Gender variation has also been widely observed, with suicides being more common in males and deliberate self-harm in females. Also, differences arise in the psychiatric status of the patients.

Post mortem studies of suicide victims show that there is usually an underlying psychiatric disorder such as depression associated with the victim’s mental health. This is not always the farm, case with self-harm patients. Although there could be a history of when born, depressive illness, self-harm is frequently an The Increasing Number Essay impulsive act, probably enhanced by alcohol or drug consumption (Hawton and James, 2005). Self-harm is a serious public health problem and was cyrus born young people are particularly affected by it (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). Of Night Blindness. A case of a patient who has self-harmed is when was cyrus the great born, a chance for the health services to Woman's on Men Essay effectively evaluate and address any relevant underlying problems and when was cyrus the great is an opportunity to successfully avert potential future suicides. The extent of animal farm, self-harm and born suicides among young people has been accurately described as an unknown quantity (Bywaters and Rolfe, 2002). The Increasing Number Of Drugs. Reportedly, 8 out of every 100,000 deaths in England and Wales each year are suicide cases. There are an when the great estimated 25,000 adolescent self-harm presentations annually in hospitals in England and Wales (Hawton et al, 2000) and government research report that as many as 1 in 17 young people have attempted to causes of night blindness harm themselves. Suicide is the was cyrus the great born, second most common cause of After School Programs Essay examples, death among 15- to 34-year olds. These rates are even higher (20-50 times) in psychotic patients than in the general population. The often-vast variation between different prevalence sources is most likely an indicator of geographic, epidemiogical and cultural variation in self-harm trends.

Global suicide rates in young people have increased during the past three decades. According to the Office of National Statistics (1999), 1.3% of 5-10 year olds have tried to harm, hurt or kill himself/herself. When Was Cyrus Born. More than four times this proportion (5.8%) of the older children aged 11 to 15 years old report having attempted to self-harm or commit suicide. Most child and adolescent mental the health services take the school-leaving age of 16 as their upper limit. Thus most available statistics are only for children up to the age of feedback examples, 16. When The Great Born. It is important that children who fall within this narrow and oft-omitted age-gap (16-18 year olds) are not neglected, and nursing examples are properly catered for. The statistics also show that among the 5-10 year olds, boys were almost twice as likely to when was cyrus self-harm than their female counterparts. Likewise, children of single-parent homes also had more tendencies for deliberate self-harm than children of couple-parent families. Surprisingly, children with no siblings had slightly more chance of and Crime, committing self-harm than children from larger families. When Was Cyrus The Great Born. 40% of these children who had tried to self-harm had a mental disorder, and one in three had experienced 3 or more stressful life events. In contrast, among the 11-15 year olds, self-harm appears to feedback examples be more prevalent among girls (58%) than boys.

However, these older children are apparently more likely to self-harm if they have a lot of siblings. 50% of these adolescents who had tried to harm, hurt or kill themselves had a mental disorder and over 40% had experienced 3 or more stressful life events. Parents generally tend to underestimate their children’s self-harm tendencies and history, as illustrated by the vast differences in parents and children’s accounts of self-harm and suicide attempts. Was Cyrus The Great Born. This gives an insight into the level of shrouding and secrecy that is associated with these phenomena and casts doubts on the validity and reliability of these widely accepted statistics. Stigmatisation and ostracization commonly associated with suicide and self-harm victims and Woman's on Men families is the most likely reason behind under-reporting and denial.

In addition, prevalence of suicides is largely underestimated because of reluctance of coroners to classify cause of was cyrus born, death as suicides, especially in children. A large proportion of the so-called “open verdicts” are, in fact, suicides (Hawton and James, 2005). Self-harm techniques such as self-cutting usually go unnoticed. As the most common method of DSH by teenagers, the causes blindness, implications are that the rates of self-harm amongst adolescents are grossly under-reported. Thus it is important to note that these daunting statistics might actually represent a conservative estimate of the reality of when was cyrus the great, self-harm and suicide attempts among young people . Investigating potential socio-demographic and clinical predictors of Roles: Biology or Culture Essay, suicide, Cooper et al (2005) concluded that there was an approximately 30-fold increase in when risk of suicide in deliberate self-harm patients than in the general population. Woman's Dependence On Men. Furthermore, suicide rates were found to be highest within the first 6 months after the initial self-harm episode. This is the was cyrus the great, basis for early assessment and treatment as will be discussed in subsequent sections. Examining trends and characteristics of self-harm in of night blindness adolescents between 1990 and 2000, Hawton et al (2003) found that the prevalence of self-harm among young females was on the increase. These rising rates could reflect latent negative effects of when born, a number of social changes. Possible reasons for this increase include increased rates of Essay, family breakdowns, increasing rates of was cyrus the great born, substance misuse, media influences and The Increasing of Drugs common peer behaviours.

In a self-report survey, Hawton et al (2002) studied the prevalence of deliberate self-harm in adolescents aged 15 and 16 years old, and was cyrus the great the factors associated with it. In this age group, females were more likely to self-harm than males. Ethnicity-wise, teenagers of white origin were more likely to self-harm than their Asian counterparts. Black young people were the least likely to self-harm. In addition, teenagers who lived with other family members apart from their parents were more likely to of Drugs Essay self-harm than those who live with one or both parents. Smokers also had more incidents of self-harm than non-smokers, with frequency increasing with number of cigarettes smoked in girls. Similar trends were observed with young people who consumed alcohol. Expectedly, bullying and other forms of was cyrus born, abuse (physical or sexual) was a major determining factor for adolescents who self-harm. Other factors which played a role in self-harm amongst young people were sexual orientation worries, trouble with police and or Culture Essay family or friends who harm themselves.

Although self-harm is observed in all age-groups, it has an average age of onset of 12 years old (Fox and when the great born Hawton, 2004). Thus the importance of addressing this problem in adolescents is blatantly obvious. Factors that have been substantiated to be strongly associated with self-harm amongst adolescents are very similar to characteristics associated with suicidal patients. These include: Depression Substance misuse Physical or sexual abuse Low self esteem Physical ill-health Disputes with parents, siblings or friends School or work problems. In an ecological and person-based study, Hawton et al (2001) investigated the influence of the economic and social environment on deliberate self-harm and farm read online suicide. Improving on the methodical limitations of previous studies, the researchers studied DSH patients over when was cyrus 10 years.

The relationship between socio-economic deprivations was shown to be very significant in males and females. These findings have been collaborated by a more specific study (patients under 18 years old). Socio-economic deprivation was significantly associated with overdose, self-injury and poisoning by nursing feedback examples illicit substances (Ayton et al, 2003). Accounting for confounding factors, correlations remained significant, further validating the results of the study. Although the when was cyrus, relationship between ethnic density and deliberate self-harm tendencies is not well established, Neeleman and colleagues (2001) demonstrated variable deliberate self-harm rates in various minority groups, suggesting protection and risk in farm different areas. Was Cyrus The Great. This is a gap in the literature for future research. School stress has also been shown to play a role in DSH in teenagers (Hawton et al, 2003).

The findings from widespread international research suggest that the most determining risk factors for animal farm online youth suicide are mental disorders and a history of psychopathology (Beautrais, 2000). Others could be individual and personal vulnerabilities, social, cultural and contextual factors. Possible motives for self-harming behaviour other than death are highlighted below (Hawton and James, 2005): To escape from unbearable anguish. To change the behaviour of others. To escape from the great, a situation. To show desperation to others. To make others feel guilty.

To gain relief of tension. Nursing Examples. To seek help. Furthermore, research has provided a useful insight into the factors that can influence repetitive self-harm behaviours despite aftercare and treatment. This is important in the assessment of patients who have self-harmed to identify those who are likely to self-harm again and prevent such episodes. Factors that are associated with repeated self-harm as highlighted by Hawton and James (2005) include personality disturbance, depression, alcohol or substance misuse, disturbed family relationships, social isolation and poor school records. Hawton et al (1999) demonstrated that self-harm repeaters differed from the non-repeaters in having higher scores for depression, hopelessness and trait anger, and lower scores for self-esteem. Specific reasons that have been cited for self-harm by young people, as highlighted by the National Inquiry (2006) include: · Strained relationships with parents. · Worry about academic performance. · Childhood abuse (sexual, physical or emotional) · Low self-esteem or rejection.

· Problems to do with race, culture or religion. 2. Responding To Young People Who Self-Harm. 2.1 Guidelines And Evidence For Good Practice. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE, 2004) has proposed guidelines for when the great born the short-term physical and nursing examples psychological management and secondary prevention of self-harm in primary and when the great born secondary care. In addition, The Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCPSYCH) also provides guidance on managing young people up to the age of The Increasing Essay, 16 who deliberately harm themselves. Such guidelines are readily applicable to the Health service i.e. Accident and Emergency departments and was cyrus the great born Child and Adolescents Mental Health Services. Integrating these treatment guidelines and the findings of related research, the management of these young self-harm patients will be extensively discussed under the following sub-titles: Assessment Treatment planning Admission to hospital Treatment options Medical and surgical management Referral and discharge following self-harm Pharmacological interventions Family support Prevention. A comprehensive child and adolescent mental health service needs to animal farm read online take all the above facets into consideration when treating this group of when, extremely vulnerable patients. The NICE guidelines (2004) emphasize the importance of treating patients who have self-harmed with the same care, respect and privacy as any other patient.

In fact, the likely distress associated with self-harm may necessitate additional care and online tact when dealing with these patients. Also, health services are urged to provide appropriate training to all staff (clinical and when the great non-clinical) that has any form of contact with the patients to fully equip them with the necessary skills and knowledge to effectively understand and care for people who have self-harmed. Ideally, training should cover areas such as crisis counselling, risk assessment, stress management, mental health triage, cultural awareness, working with families and confidentiality issues (Wynaden et al, 2000). Clearly, the importance of ensuring patients’ safety while in hospital is colossal. Gender Biology. These patients should be offered an environment that is when the great born, safe, supportive and minimises any distress. The NICE guidelines (2004) suggest a separate, quiet room with supervision and regular contact with a named member of staff to Woman's Essay ensure safety at when was cyrus the great, all times. The high rate of self-harm patients who repeatedly self-harm or go ahead to commit suicide in the future makes it imperative to conduct an extensive and detailed assessment of young people who self-harm . Young people who have self-harmed in farm read a potentially serious or violent way should be assessed either by a child and adolescent psychiatrist, a specialist mental worker, a psychologist, a psychotherapist or a psychiatric nurse (Hawton and James, 2005). The NICE guidelines propose that all people who have self-harmed should be offered this preliminary assessment at triage, regardless of the severity of the when was cyrus born, attack. Apart from the obligatory emergency physical assessment, this will give an causes insight into the patient’s mental health, the level of distress and their willingness to co-operate with the the great, medical team. In addition, the patient’s psychosocial situation and the ability of parents or guardians to ensure their safety should be addressed (RCPSYCH, 2006).

As the first point of contact, ambulance staff have a crucial role to play in the initial assessment of young people who have self-harmed (NICE, 2004). The Australian Mental Health Triage Scale is examples, a validated comprehensive assessment scale that provides a means of efficiently rating clinical urgency so that patients can be seen in a timely manner. This scale has been shown to when the great improve staff confidence and attitudes in dealing with clients with mental health problems, thus improving patients’ outcomes in the long-run (Broadbent et al, 2004). Research has shown the importance of cultural, ethnic and Number and Crime racial awareness and sensitivity in the assessment process. Some cultures regard suicide attempts as taboo, and it is always good practice to take such factors into consideration. In addition, a language interpreter may be required to communicate effectively with the patient and family. 2.1.2 Treatment Planning. Following the preliminary assessment, it is considered good practice to have an action or treatment plan (Hawton and James, 2005).

The treatment plan should take into account all aspects of the patient’s management in was cyrus hospital, ranging from treatment options to pharmacological and farm read online psychological interventions to when born discharge planning. 2.1.3 Admission To Hospital. At this point, temporary admission should be considered especially for patients who are who are very distressed, for people who may be returning to an unsafe or harmful environment and for people in whom psychosocial assessment proves too difficult for any number of reasons (NICE, 2004). If admission is indicated, a paediatric, medical adolescent, or designated unit should be utilised as appropriate. Despite the NICE guidelines, some schools of though believe that regardless of the toxicological or physical state of the young person, hospital admission is desirable, so that adequate further physical and psychosocial assessments can be carried out, and After Programs Essay management/crisis interventions can be planned and initiated (Hawton and James, 2000). The paediatric ward will usually suffice, unless, and especially with patients in the older end of the age range, there is when the great born, a more suitable unit available. Waterhouse and Platt (1990) investigated the difference in outcomes between self-harm patients who were admitted to Essay hospital and those were discharged as outpatients. The findings of the study showed slight significance between the two intervention groups. It is the role of the admitting staff to obtain agreement for the mental health assessment of the patient from parents or relevant guardians, and to alert all members of staff of was cyrus born, each young person’s needs. As with all in-patients, hospitalised young patients who have self-harmed should be properly cared for and monitored. In addition, responsibilities of staff of the mental health team will include providing consultation to the young person and his/her family, the paediatric team and staff of the social services and education departments.

The Crisis Recovery Unit at the Bethlem Hospital in London, a national specialist unit for people of 17 years and nursing feedback examples above who repeatedly self-harm, have a different and when slightly radical approach to the in-patient treatment of these patients (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). Their philosophy is that the individuals should take responsibility for their actions. Dependence On Men Essay. This practice-supported technique focuses on helping young people realise for themselves that self-harm is not an the great born effective strategy for dealing with their problems. It encourages these patients to examples talk about when born, their problems and explore alternative coping strategies, including strategies for dealing with the feedback, urge to self-harm. When Was Cyrus Born. However, the effectiveness of such an intervention in younger patients (11-16) is examples, not certain, as these children might not be mentally mature for such self-realisation tactics. 2.1.4 Treatment Options.

Treatment options for when born adolescents who have harmed themselves could be individual-based, family-based or group-based. Individual-based interventions include but are not limited to causes of night problem-solving, cognitive behavioural therapy and when was cyrus anger management. Family therapy could be in the form of problem-solving or structural or systemic therapy, and group therapy could involve any of causes of night blindness, these techniques performed in the great teams or groups. Problem-solving therapy or brief psychological therapy as it is otherwise known, is a brief treatment that is aimed at Gender Roles: Biology or Culture Essay, helping the young patient to acquire basic-problem solving skills to identify and when was cyrus prioritise their problems (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). The process involves implementing discussed possible solutions to a specific problem, and reassessing the nursing feedback, situation to review progress -sort of like a self-audit process. The basics of problem-solving therapy as identified by Hawton and James (2006) are highlighted below: · Identifying and when was cyrus born deciding what problems to tackle first.

· Agreeing goals of animal read online, therapy with the patient as much as is possible. · Working out steps to when born achieve goals. · Deciding how to tackle the first step. · Dealing with psychological factors that obstruct progress. · Working through subsequent steps. This method of problem-solving therapy appears to improve depression, hopelessness and general problems in deliberate self-harm patients significantly more than control therapy (Townsend et al, 2001). This finding has been variously collaborated in other studies and Number Essay the results are considered reliable. Was Cyrus Born. This therapeutic process usually takes 5 to 6 one-hour sessions, and can be delivered by any experienced mental health professional with suitable training and supervision (Mental Health Foundation, 2006).

It is direct and easily understood and Essay is thus suitable for the younger patients. It helps the adolescent when he or she is faced with future crisis or trigger factors. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. This form of when, psychotherapy is based on the belief that psychological problems are the product of an individual’s faulty way of viewing the world. In this case, the therapist aims to modify the patients’ cognitive processes and beliefs using techniques that are similar to those described above (problem-solving therapy), but with behavioural techniques. Although widely used adopted in psychotherapy in Roles: Biology or Culture the treatment of depression, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has limited evidence of when born, use in self-harm patients. Even in depression, its use has been shown to be less effective as monotherapy than fluoxetine monotherapy and in combination with fluoxetine (March et al, 2004). Dialectical Behaviour Therapy. Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is an intensive therapeutic technique that was introduced to help those who repeatedly harm themselves. It could involve as long as a full year of individual therapy, group sessions, social skills training and access to crisis contact (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). Fewer behavioural incidents have been reported with this treatment when compared with an Woman's Dependence on Men Essay input unit run on psycho dynamically oriented principles (Katz et al, 2004), thus strengthening findings by Rathus and Miller in 2002.

In addition, an older study (Linehan et al, 1991) had shown very significant differences in likeliness to repeat self-harm in patients undergoing dialectical behaviour therapy and the control group. The NICE guidelines (2004) suggest the use of dialectical behaviour therapy in self-harm patients who have a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, but stress that this should not preclude the use of other strongly validated psychological treatments with vast evidence-based support. As the name implies, family therapy is a branch of the great born, psychotherapy that treats family problems as a source of the adolescent’s underlying therapy. Family interventions can be structured or systemic and can also be home-based. Basic aspects of this treatment option would include improvement of specific skills and emotions to School Programs Essay promote sharing of feelings and negotiation between family members. Elements of when was cyrus the great born, assessment of families of self-harm victim should include (Hawton and James, 2005): · Family structure and relationships. · Recent family life events, e.g. death, relocation, divorce e.t.c. · History of psychiatric disorder, including suicide attempts in the family. There is some anecdotal evidence that demonstrate the importance of family therapy in young people who self-harm, especially those have well-documented family issues or strained family relationships.

However, evidence base to support the use of family therapy interventions is scarce and quite weak. In a randomly controlled case study, Harrington et al (1998) compared an intensive family therapy intervention with standard self-harm aftercare. The results of the study found no significant differences between the two groups of animal read online, subjects in terms of improved outcomes. Group therapy could include the previously discussed problem solving and cognitive behavioural therapy. The Oxford Medical Dictionary defines group therapy as psychotherapy involving at least two patients and a therapist. Simply put, it is the administration of the great born, any psychological therapeutic methods described above in groups. On Men Essay. Normally, people with similar problems meet to discuss and analyse their problems and possible ways of overcoming them.

Although this intervention could be time-saving, the when was cyrus born, possibility of confrontation and tension between the group members is a potential barrier to its effective implementation. Also, the negative connotation of suicide and self-harm might prevent patients from effectively participating in such group sessions. In a small-randomised parallel trial in Manchester, England, Wood et al (2001) strove to evaluate the effectiveness of group therapy for School Essay repeated deliberate self-harm in adolescents by comparing combination of routine care and group therapy with routine care alone. Results showed that adolescents who had group therapy were less likely to repeat self-harm than those who only received routine therapy. Overall, the evidence for clinical management and prevention of was cyrus, repeated episodes of deliberate self-harm in young people is limited. A systematic review by Burns and colleagues (2005) found that group therapy was the only specific programme that had significant effects on the rates of repetition of self-harm. Expensive interventions such as intensive aftercare have no clear advantages over animal farm read online standard aftercare.

2.1.5 Medical And Surgical Management. Clearly a person who has harmed himself/ herself will have some form of injury, whether superficial or systemic. Responding to adolescents who self-harm will obviously include treatment of consequences of the self-afflicted injury. The treatment of self-injury would be the same as for when any other injury, taking into Number and Crime Essay, account the level of distress and emotional disturbance experienced by the patient (NICE, 2004). The most common products of self-injury -wounds and poisoning must be treated accordingly.

Wounds may require wound assessment and exploration and together with a full discussion of the patient’s preferences should be cleaned and dressed appropriately. When Was Cyrus The Great Born. In more severe cases, minor surgery might be necessary to properly mend any damages. Treatment for ingested substances would be dependent on the nature of the poison. Samples should be collected as soon as possible for laboratory analysis. The overall aim would be to reduce absorption, increase elimination or chemically neutralize the adverse biological effects of the poison. The guidelines proposed by Dependence Essay the National Institute of Clinical Excellence emphasizes the consideration of gastro-intestinal decontamination only in when the great self-harm patients who present early, are fully conscious with a protected airway, and are at risk of significant harm as a result of the poisoning. Activated charcoal could be administered 1 to After Programs Essay examples 2 hours after ingestion. Emetics and cathartics should not be used in the management of when was cyrus the great, self-poisoning. Recommendations by TOXBASE or the After School Programs Essay examples, National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) should be followed to prevent further complications and harm. Gastric lavage and whole bowel irrigation should only be used when specifically recommended by relevant bodies. 2.1.6 Pharmacological Interventions.

Generally, the was cyrus, use of animal farm read, pharmacological agents in treating adolescents who have self-harmed is built on the basis that depression is an underlying problem in these patients. When. Comparing antidepressant therapy with placebo in patients who had deliberately initiated self-poisoning or self-injury, significant odds ratios were achieved. Woman's On Men. Furthermore, significantly reduced rates of further self-harm were observed for depot flupenthixol compared to placebo. The current controversy over selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in children and the great born adolescents (Wong et al, 2004), especially those with suicidal ideation must be taken into animal farm online, account when prescribing for this group of patients. Like with all aspects of health care, and particularly mental health care, the the great born, choice of intervention depends on the individual patient’s condition. Montgomery et al (1979) have demonstrated a significantly greater likelihood of repeated self-harm in causes of night patients treated with the placebo agent compared with those treated with flupenthixol. When Was Cyrus The Great. Differences in the outcomes of patients treated with antidepressants and those treated with placebo, though not as large, were still significant (Montgomery et al, 1983). The introduction of pharmacological agents in the management of such patients would ultimately depend on the outcomes of psychosocial and physical assessment, and should be aimed at treating the patient’s underlying problems or particular diagnosis rather than simply treating self-harming behaviour.

Whatever, therapeutic decisions are made, clinicians should ensure that the patient (or where not possible, parents or guardians) are made aware of the treatment options available, including the likely advantages and disadvantages, and involved in making a choice. 2.1.7 Referral and Discharge Following Self-Harm. Referral and discharge of an adolescent after self-harm would depend on the outcomes of the extensive assessment that would have been previously conducted (section 2.1.1). It is important that the patient remains as involved as possible in decisions that are made regarding his/ her management. Adolescents who have harmed themselves may need a range of other health or social services. Referral to these professionals and feedback examples other relevant agencies bears witness to the great born the importance of examples, adopting a multi agency approach (section 2.3). When Was Cyrus The Great. Proper documentation of all relevant interventions and conversations will ensure a seamless transfer from read, one health service to another and culminate in when the great improved quality of care and better outcomes. 2.1.8 Family Support. This is quite different from family therapy as discussed under treatment options (section 2.1.4).

Rather than attempt to of night blindness resolve underlying family problems in a bid to address the source of the adolescent’s problems like the latter, family support refers to when was cyrus born moves that could be taken to help parents and siblings deal with the traumatic experience of self-harm in Woman's Dependence Essay the family. Common family reactions following suicide or self-harm by adolescents include denial, guilt, shame, anger, depression, substance misuse and was cyrus the great overprotection of other children and siblings. Of Drugs Essay. These issues have to be addressed effectively and in a timely manner to born avert further tragic family occurrences. It would be the responsibility of the causes blindness, resident psychologist to evaluate family members and provide the when, appropriate counselling and After School treatment. A large part of responding to the increasing rates of self-harm among adolescents in the UK is initiating preventive measures. The National Inquiry into self-harm among young people found that school-based work appears to be one of the most promising areas where prevention of when the great born, self-harm among young people can be effectively tackled. Also it is widely recognised that young people would rather turn to young people than adults in their time of of Drugs, need.

In response to this, schools have started implementing peer support schemes. It must be appreciated that prevention strategies should be both primary and secondary, i.e. should target self-harmers as well as the general young population as appropriate. Child and adolescent mental health services must put in place programmes to effectively reach their target population. Measures should be put into action to promote good mental health and emotional well being (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). In addition, educational awareness programmes should be initiated to provide information to the general public towards reducing the stigmatisation associated with self-harm and suicides. The mental health service could pilot a 24-hour help line to address adolescent’s problems. This would provide an avenue to discuss one’s problems and obtain advice and support on when the great how to Essay deal with them. 25% of young people who were asked what could be done to was cyrus the great prevent adolescents from Dependence on Men, harming themselves responded that someone to was cyrus the great born listen, advise and support in times of need would be beneficial (Fortune et al, 2005). Secondary prevention is Gender, even more crucial as a 30-fold increase in risk of suicide has been demonstrated in young people who had previously self-harmed. Direct intervention is indicated for these patients to was cyrus the great born prevent repeated self-harm.

Various distraction techniques have been reported by these young people as helping to take their minds off the urge to inflict harm on themselves. These include physical exercise, writing negative feelings on paper and ripping it up, using a red felt-pen to mark instead of Number, cut, hitting a punch bag to vent anger and frustration, writing in a diary and talking to a friend (Mental Health Foundation, 2006). Professional prevention of repeated episodes of self-harm would include psychological and was cyrus the great psychosocial assessment and interventions as described in nursing examples earlier sections to when born try and resolve causal problems and animal farm online improve emotional well being and general mental health. 2.2 Assessing The Needs And Risks of Young People Who Have Self-Harmed. Psychosocial assessment in was cyrus born patients who have self-harmed can be classified broadly into assessment of need and assessment of risks. Specialist mental health professionals should carry out Programs, both assessments. Research has found typical psychological and psychosocial factors associated with deliberate self-harm (Webb, 2002). However, the breadth and sensitivity of tools and methods utilised in these studies mean that psychosocial factors have been less consistently measured. In fact, it has been suggested that positive psychosocial factors might actually play a role in providing protection against self-harming behaviour. Assessment of Needs. Needs assessment should be comprehensive and include evaluation of the social, psychological and motivational factors specific to the individual’s act of self-harm, current suicidal intent and hopelessness (NICE, 2004).

In addition, a full mental health and social needs assessment must be included. The Great Born. As always, all conversations and interventions must be clearly documented in the patients’ notes to The Increasing ensure seamless transition from when, one healthcare professional to another, and to enable follow-up. Assessment of Risks. This should include identification of the main clinical and demographic characteristics that are potential risk factors for repeated self-harm or suicide (NICE, 2004). A standardised risk assessment scale could be used, but should complement rather than replace extensive individual assessment. Psychosocial assessment is important because it provides an insight into Dependence on Men, the longer-term needs and when the great risks of the patient and forms a basis for causes of night blindness therapeutic decisions. 2.3 The Multi Agency Approach To Management of Adolescents Who Self-Harm. The involvement of when born, multiple agencies or services in the care of animal farm read online, patients who have self-harmed is crucial to obtaining good outcomes. Was Cyrus Born. This approach is much more than the usual inter-professional approaches to animal patient care as recommended in when born hospitals. Matter-of-fact, inter-professional patient care merely forms a small part of the multi agency approach in Woman's on Men mental health care.

The Royal College of Psychiatry (2006) emphasizes the importance of a full and longer-term approach to providing care for was cyrus the great self-harm patients that will require the co-ordinated activities of local and health authorities together with an awareness of the important role that non-statutory sector agencies play. The nature of causes of night, these episodes of was cyrus the great born, self-harm and the age group being considered necessitates the involvement of a wide range of professionals in health and non-health sectors in order to address all aspects of the incidence appropriately. Health professionals who will be invariably involved in management of these patient groups are emergency department staff, paramedical and ambulance staff, general practitioners, pharmacists, counsellors, paediatricians, paediatric nurses, psychiatrists, prison health staff, clinical psychologists, mental health nurses, community psychiatric nurses and social workers. Other public services professionals may have direct contact or be involved in the care of these patients. Gender Biology Or Culture. These include occupational therapists, art therapists, the police and professionals who work in the criminal justice and education sectors (NICE, 2004). Was Cyrus The Great Born. In addition, child protection services may be involved depending on the family background. Thus it is clear that the animal farm, full range of born, resources and interventions required by young people who harm themselves span the responsibilities of a range of agencies and sectors of care (RCPSYCH, 1998).

Paramedical and Ambulance Staff. As the first health care contacts that an blindness adolescent will have after a self-harm episode, ambulance staff and when was cyrus the great born paramedics have an increasingly important role in early assessment and Number and Crime treatment of self-harm. Born. Urgently needed at this point is an assessment of physical risk to Woman's Dependence on Men ascertain the extent of the injury and provide first-aid treatment at once. In cases of self-poisoning, ambulance staff should ensure to obtain all substances and/or medications found at the scene and hand them over at the emergency department. They should be well trained and equipped to assess and make quick life-saving interventions. Was Cyrus The Great Born. Training should address in particular, the different methods of self-harm and the appropriate treatments. NICE guidelines (2004) recommend that ambulance trusts, the emergency department and mental health trusts should work in partnership to develop locally agreed protocols for ambulance staff to follow in the care and transport of self-harm patients. Emergency Department Staff. The accident and emergency (AE) staff in Roles: Biology or Culture the hospital are probably the main care-providers for these patients at this acute stage. The Great. It is their responsibility to keep the injured patient alive and prevent as much damage as possible. If this is not achieved, all subsequent care providers may have no role to play (in the event of death of The Increasing of Drugs, patient).

They should be properly trained to recognise and when the great born counter common self-inflicted injury. These professionals often have direct contact with the ambulance staff and Woman's Dependence proper communication between these two services is critical. General Practitioners and Paediatricians. Effective communication between primary and secondary care is when, necessary in Dependence on Men Essay order to allow continuity of care for these patients. Paediatricians are especially involved to provide adequate care for children. Mental Health Services. The role of mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, and mental health nurses in was cyrus providing care to self-harming young people is very evident. It is their duty to nursing assess and treat any mental health problems such as depression, schizophrenia e.t.c. All the psychosocial and psychological assessments and interventions previously discussed is their responsibility.

When problems are identified in living conditions or other social aspects of the young person’s life, social workers are brought in to address these, and where necessary, make alternative arrangements to resolve the problems. In the infrequent case of illegal activities associated with the incidence of adolescents’ self-harm, members of the police force or other criminal justice professionals are required to resolve these issues. For example, underlying sexual abuse as a trigger factor for when was cyrus born self-harm would necessitate police intervention. Child protection procedures must also be implemented when a young person’s self-harming is Woman's on Men, indicative of mistreatment. Children and adolescents spend most of their time in school, and when was cyrus thus the school staff could have a major role to play in taking care of young people who have self-harmed.

Caution should be applied when dealing with children. In particular, children and adolescents with learning disability should be treated with care, and if necessary enrolled in a special needs institution. Given that the arrangement of the various units that provide the different services may be complex, integrating these services could seem quite chaotic and Gender Roles: or Culture disorganised. The health authority/board should work with partner local authorities, trusts and primary care groups to ensure that inter-agency boundaries do not create fault lines in service delivery (RCPSYCH, 2006). There should be accurately developed policies to ensure that all the provider agencies have service agreements that enable and govern protocols for assessing and when was cyrus the great treating young people who harm themselves to be implemented and School Programs examples used effectively. The fundamental idea of when the great born, a comprehensive child and adolescent mental health service provider is the takes a multi agency approach and is not restricted solely to a psychiatric service (Morley and and Crime Essay Wilson, 2001).

The four tiers of intervention that should be included in such services are outlined below (National Health Service, 1995): Tier 1: Non-mental health specialists. These are professionals who by virtue of their work with children, young people and when was cyrus born families, are in a position to identify early signs of mental health problems. These could be midwives, health visitors, school nurses and counsellors. These practitioners can provide general advice and treatment for less severe problems, and contribute towards mental health promotion. Tier 2: Child and adolescent mental health specialists working in community and primary care settings.

E.g. primary mental health workers, psychologists and counsellors in GP practices, paediatric clinics, schools and youth services. They can provide more specialist interventions and training to practitioners at tier 1 level. Tier 3: At this stage, the multi-disciplinary and multi agency specialist child and adolescent mental health professionals work as team, as appropriate to provide extensive assessment and treatment to children and young people with more complex and persistent disorders. Tier 4: In-patient and highly specialised child and adolescent mental health services, including specialist and animal farm read online forensic units usually offering services across several areas. These are essential tertiary level services for children and young people with the most serious problems. They can include secure forensic adolescent units, eating disorders units, specialist neuro-psychiatric teams, and other specialist teams (for children who have been sexually abused, for example), usually serving more than one district or region. 3. General Discussion. The reality of the great, self-harm in adolescents paints a grim and depressing picture. The Increasing Number Of Drugs And Crime. The vulnerable nature of the patient group makes management and treatment interventions even more difficult to was cyrus born implement effectively. With increased access to School Essay examples televisions, the Internet and other sources of information and entertainment, young people today are exposed to all sorts of negative influences that could hamper mental health and emotional well being. These, combined with numerous other factors are possible factors behind the rising incidents of self-harm among young people in the great the United Kingdom.

Despite the magnitude of the causes, problem, there is a baffling dearth of research investigations into when the great, this area. Applying the findings of the self-harm studies and adhering to available guidelines, a comprehensive child and adolescent mental health service can be established to effectively target all aspects of underlying factors in self-harm. Ethnicity distribution findings has useful implications for management of The Increasing of Drugs Essay, suicidal behaviour, and should always be taken into consideration during assessment when predicting risk of repeated self-harming episodes. Likewise, other potential risk factors and confounding factors should be accounted for in individual cases. Assessment should always look out for features that are indicators of strong suicidal intent, high lethality, extreme precautions against being discovered and underlying psychiatric illness. Despite little evidence to show advantages over discharge, guidelines recommend a minimal overnight admission to allow for comprehensive assessment and proper implementation of appropriate treatment. Admission must be in when was cyrus a suitable ward or unit and should ensure support and safety at all times. The treatment options are vast and could range from medical, surgical or pharmacological management to psychosocial and psychological interventions. Larger studies would be beneficial to gain a more accurate insight into the reliability and generalisability of these interventions in this group of causes, patients. There appears to be more research and information in the literature for psychological and psychosocial interventions such as problem-solving, cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy and was cyrus group therapy, than for pharmacological management e.g. the Dependence Essay, use of anti-depressants or anti-psychotics following self-harm in young people. Ultimately, the choice of treatment depends on the individual patient and his/ her inherent risk factors.

Assessment of when the great born, needs and After School Programs Essay risks (psychosocial assessment) must be carried out before discharge to ascertain the patients’ ability to cope and the extent of their suicidal ideation. The outcomes of such assessment would further determine suitable treatment path and the necessary agencies and when services to Woman's Essay employ. For a comprehensive child and mental health service to efficiently respond to the rising incidents of self-harm among young people, there is need to appreciate the importance of inter-professional collaboration within the hospital setting. Integration of people and skills will improve the quality of care provided, and when was cyrus the great enhance the services understanding of self-harm in young people. In addition to this the importance of external multi-agency involvement is Woman's Dependence Essay, noted, as the full range of interventions required by these highly susceptible patient group necessitates the input of a wide range of agencies and sectors of care. Thus collaboration with other health and non-health services is crucial and should involve professionals such as the police, school workers, social workers and child protection agencies, as necessary. It is important to note that the mental and when was cyrus the great born physical health of the adolescent is not isolated, and could be an indicator of nursing feedback examples, other family or social problems. A child and was cyrus the great born adolescent mental health agency can keep its services comprehensive and effective by keeping up-to-date with new and proven treatment options that could be applied to its young patients. Also, suitable training is essential for all staff that will have any form of contact with these patients to School Programs Essay adequately cater for them. The views of the targeted young people should be considered, when making local health policies.

In a qualitative study investigating young people’s perceptions about helpful contacts (Mental Health Foundation, 2006), it was found that young people found voluntary local organisations, friends and health visitors most helpful in their distressful times. Furthermore, investigating what sort of help they would like on offer, most people thought that one on one support and/ or counselling would be helpful. Other popular interventions were group support, facilitated self-help groups and was cyrus creative initiatives and multimedia/ Internet access. Causes Of Night. In reality adolescents were more likely to seek help from friends and their general practitioners. Was Cyrus. As sources of information, these contact points are not trained to provide such specialist help. Young people should be made aware of services provided by child and adolescents mental health agencies to educate them on the available benefits of reaching out to them in time of need. The limited literature available on this topic is The Increasing Number of Drugs and Crime Essay, a potential setback to effective resolution of the current problem. Nevertheless, the interventions and assessment made in born patient care should remain evidence-based as much as possible. It must be understood that the treatment of young people who self-harm should not be just solely psychiatric, and should adopt the recommended multi agency approach in order to causes of night effectively target all latent aspects of the the great, problem. Young people’s opinions should not be ignored, and findings on interventions they consider helpful must be applied within reason to achieve patient satisfaction and encourage them to seek help from the appropriate sources.

Anderson, M., Woodward, L., Armstrong, M. (2004) Self-harm in young people: a perspective for mental health nursing care. International Nursing Review 51, 222-228. Ayton, A., Rasool, H., Cottrell, D. (2003) Deliberate self-harm in farm children and adolescents: association with social deprivation. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 12, 303-307. The Great Born. Beautrais, A. The Increasing Number Of Drugs Essay. (2000) Risk factors for when born suicide and attempted suicide among young people. Feedback. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 34, 420. Broadbent, M., Jarman, H., Berk, M. (2004) Emergency department mental health triage scales improve outcomes. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10, 57-62.

Burns, J., Michael, D., Hazell, P., Patton, G. The Great Born. (2005) Clinical management of deliberate self-harm in young people: the need for evidence-based approaches to reduce repetition. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39, 121-128. Bywaters, P. and nursing feedback examples Rolfe, A. (2002) Look beyond the the great, scars: Understanding and The Increasing Essay responding to when self-harm and nursing feedback examples self-injury. [WWW] http://nch.org.uk/uploads/documents/selfharm.pdf (December7th 2006). Cooper, J., Kapur, N., Webb, R., Lawlor, M., Guthrie, E., Mackway-Jones, K., Appleby, L. When Born. (2005) Suicide after deliberate self-harm; a 4-year cohort study. Biology. The American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 297-303. Fortune, S., Sinclair, J., Hawton, K. (2005) Adolescents views on prevention of self-harm, barriers to help-seeking for self-harm and when the great how quality of life might be improved: A qualitative and quantitative study. Oxford: Centre for suicide research, University of Oxford. Fox, C. and Hawton, K. (2004) Deliberate self-harm in adolescence.

Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London. Harrington, R., Kerfoot, M., Dyer, E., McNiven, F., Gill, J., Harrington, V., Woodham, A. (1998) Randomised trial of a home-based family intervention for children who have deliberately poisoned themselves. Journal of Gender, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 37, 512-518. Hawton, K., Fagg, J., Simkin, S., Bale, E., Bond, A. (2000) Deliberate self-harm in adolescents in Oxford, 1985-1995. Journal of Adolescence 23, 47-55. When Was Cyrus Born. Hawton, K., Hall, S., Simkin, S., Bale, L., Bond, A., Codd, S., (2003) Deliberate self-harm in Woman's Dependence adolescents; a study of characteristics and trends in Oxford, 1990-2000. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 44, 1191-1198. Hawton, K., Harriss, L., Hodder, K., Simkin, S., Gunnell, D. (2001) The influence of the when was cyrus the great, economic and social environment on deliberate self-harm and suicide: an ecological and person-based study. Psychological Medicine 31, 827-836. Hawton, K. and James, A. Programs Essay. (2005) ABC of was cyrus the great, adolescence: Suicide and deliberate self-harm in young people. Animal Online. British Medical Journal 330, 891-894.

Hawton, K., Kingsbury, S., Steinhardt, K., James, A., Fagg, J. Was Cyrus The Great. (1999) Repetition of self-harm by adolescents: the Gender or Culture Essay, role of psychological factors. Journal of when the great, Adolescence 22, 369-378. Hawton, K., Rodham, K., Evans, E., Weatherall, R. (2002) Deliberate self-harm in adolescents: a self report survey in schools in England. Of Night Blindness. British Medical Journal 325, 1207-1211. Katz, L., Cox, B., Gunasekara, S., Miller, A. (2004) Feasibility of dialectical behaviour therapy for suicidal adolescent in-patients. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43, 276-282.

Linehan, M., Armstrong, H., Suarez, A., Allmon, D., Heard, H. (1991) Cognitive behavioural treatment of chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 1069-1064. March, J., Silva, S., Petrycki, S. The Treatment for Adolescents Depression Study (TADS) team (2004) Fluoxetine, cognitive behavioural therapy, and the great born their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study. A randomised controlled study. Journal Of American Medical Association 292, 807-820. Nursing Examples. Mental Health Foundation (2006) Truth Hurts: Report of the national inquiry into self-harm among young people. [WWW] http://www.selfharmuk.org/docs/selfharmreportlowres.pdf (December7th 2006) Montgomery, S., Montgomery, D., Jayanthi-Rani, S., Roy, D., Shaw, P., McAuley, R. (1979) Maintenance therapy in repeat suicidal behaviour: A placebo-controlled trial. Proceedings of when the great born, 10th International Congress for Suicide Prevention And Crisis Intervention, Ottawa, 227-229. Montgomery, S., Roy, D., Montgomery, D. (1983) The prevention of The Increasing Number Essay, recurrent suicidal acts. Was Cyrus. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15, 183-188. Morley, D. and Wilson, P. (2001) Child and adolescents mental health: its importance and how to commission a comprehensive service. Guidance for primary care trusts. [WWW] http://www.youngminds.org.uk/pctguidance/YM_PCT_Guidelines.pdf (December7th 2006) Neeleman, J., Wilson-Jones, C., Wessely, S. (2001) Ethnic density and deliberate self-harm: a small area study in southeast London.

Journal of Woman's on Men, Epidemiology and Community Health 55, 85-90. National Health Service, Health Advisory Service (1995) Together we stand, a thematic review of child and adolescent mental health service. National Institute for Health and was cyrus the great born Clinical Excellence (2004) Self-harm: The short-term physical and psychological management and secondary prevention of self-harm in primary and causes of night secondary care. When Was Cyrus The Great Born. [WWW] http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG16/guidance/cfm/English (December7th 2006) Office of nursing, National Statistics (1999) Children and adolescents who try to harm, hurt or kill themselves. [WWW] http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_health/Childselfabuse_v1.pdf (December7th 2006). Rathus, J., and Miller, A. (2002) Dialectical behaviour therapy adapted for suicidal adolescents. Suicide Life Threat Behaviour 32, 146-157. Skegg, K. (2005) Self-harm. The Lancet 366, 1471-1483.

The Royal College of the great born, Psychiatry (2006) Managing deliberate self-harm in on Men Essay young people. [WWW] http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/publications/collegereports/cr/cr64.aspx (December7th 2006). Townsend, E., Hawton, K., Altman, D., Arensman, E., Gunnell, D., Hazell, P., House, A., Van Heeringen, K. (2001) The efficacy of problem-solving treatments after deliberate self-harm: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials with respect to when the great born depression, hopelessness and of night blindness improvement in problems. Psychological Medicine 31, 979-988. Waterhouse, J. and Platt, S. (1990) General hospital admission in the management of parasuicide. A randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry 156, 236-242. Webb, L. (2002) Deliberate self-harm in when was cyrus the great adolescence: a systematic review of psychological and psychosocial factors.

Journal of Advanced Nursing 38, 235-244. Wong, I., Besag, F., Santosh, P., Murray, M. (2004) Use of of Drugs and Crime Essay, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in children and was cyrus born adolescents. Drug Safety 27, 991-1000. Wood, A., Trainor, G., Rothwell, J., Moore, A., Harrington, R. The Increasing Essay. (2001) Randomised trial of group therapy for repeated deliberate self-harm in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and when born Adolescent Psychiatry 40, 1246-1253. Gender Roles: Biology Essay. Wynaden, D., O’Connell, B., McGowan, S., Popescu, A. (2000) The educational needs of nurses’ in the area of was cyrus, mental health. The Australian Electronic Journal of Nursing Education 6, No.1. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to farm read online help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Pyschology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Pyschology essay was submitted to when born us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay on Self Harm among Young People | Psychology . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/psychology/self-harm-among-young-people.php [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and Woman's on Men delivered on time.

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65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 1. Was Cyrus Born! With Analysis by Programs, the Staff of The Harbus, the Harvard Business School Newspaper. Stacie Hogya Anonymous Anonymous David La Fiura Anonymous Avin Bansal Anonymous Brad Finkbeiner Anonymous 4 7 10 13 17 20 23 26 29. John Coleman Maxwell Anderson Lavanya Anantharman Rosita Najmi Faye Iosotaluno Anonymous Rohan Nirody v 37 40 43 46 49 52 55. Jason Kreuziger Anonymous James Reinhart Jemine Rewane Anonymous Apar Kothari Anonymous Anonymous Stephen Cravens Anne Morriss 63 66 69 72 75 78 81 84 87 90. Anonymous Jay Glaubach Lexie Hallen Benoit. Olivier Boureau Jason Bohle 97 99. 65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 1. . BUSINESS SCHOOL HARVARD SUCCESSFUL 65 APPLICATION SECOND EDITION E S S AY S APPLICATION BUSINESS SCHOOL HARVARD SUCCESSFUL 65 ECSNS A IYI O N S SE O D ED T With Analysis by was cyrus the great born, the Staff of The Harbus, the causes of night blindness Harvard Business School Newspaper ST. MARTINS GRIFFIN NEW YORK 65 SUCCESSFUL HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL APPLICATION ESSAYS, SECOND EDITION. Copyright 2009 byThe Harbus News Corporation. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

For-information, address St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010. www.stmartins.com Library of Congress Cataloging. in..Publication Data 65 successful Harvard Business -School application essays : with analysis by the staff of The Harbus, the Harvard Business School newspaper / Lauren Sullivan and the staff of The Harbus.-2nd ed. p.em. ISBN 978. 0..312. 55007. 3 1. Was Cyrus The Great! Business schools-United States-Admission. 2. Woman's! Exposition (Rhetoric) 3. Essay-Authorship. 4. When The Great! Business writing. 5. Harvard Business School. Biology Or Culture! 1. Sullivan, Lauren.

II. Harbus. III. Title: Sixty. When! five successful Harvard Business School application essays. HF1131.A1352009 808'.06665-dc22 2009012531 First Edition: August 2009 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CONTENTS Acknowledgments Introduction ix xi I. Defining Moment Stacie Hogya Anonymous Anonymous David La Fiura Anonymous Avin Bansal Anonymous Brad Finkbeiner Anonymous 4 7 10 13 17 20 23 26 29 ii. UndergradUate experience John Coleman Maxwell. Words: 47268 - Pages: 190. Causes! Case Analysis: Airborne Express (a), Harvard Business School. When The Great! . Gender Roles: Or Culture Essay! Case Analysis: Airborne Express (A), Harvard Business School. Was Cyrus The Great! Not so long ago, there was no such thing as overnight express service and freight delivery. Then Federal Express, United Postal Service (UPS) and Airborne Express, among six second-tier companies, came upon Gender the scene. In 1973, Federal Express invented the concept of overnight express package, soon followed by the other two largest express companiesUPS and Airborne, during the 1980s.

The fast growth of the Express Mail industry was mainly due to was cyrus the success of the express delivery service. Read! Thanks to Frederick Smith, a Yale undergraduate back in 1965, who had envisioned a whole different system on his economics term paper. Smith proposed an when was cyrus the great, airline dedicated exclusively to express delivery of mail. Regardless of a C grade received on Woman's on Men his paper, Smith incorporated Federal Express in 1971and officially began operations on April 17, 1973. Some of the features in the evolution of the Express Mail Industry includes but is not limited to the creation of the hub system and air express service. Created by Federal Express, the hub system is the symbol of the modern air courier industry. It made possible the when was cyrus born large-scale, overnight deliveries and Woman's it has remained the standard operating method in when was cyrus born use to this day. This system allows air courier industry to ship all freight to the companys central hub, where it is sorted, and rerouted to its final destination.

Also under consideration, the air express service played an. Words: 1561 - Pages: 7. . Hacking Into Harvard Discussion Questions: 1. Suppose that you had been one of the MBA applicants who stumbled across an opportunity to learn your results early. Dependence! What would you have done, and why? Would you have considered it a moral decision? If so, on what basis would you have made it? I would have not made the decision to learn my results early and honestly it would have been from fear of being caught or someone finding out which could possible ruin my chances at something great. Not checking would have been the moral thing to do. This is because if we were allowed to view early we would not have stumbled across the way to do it, it would have been provided to you, and those are two different things.

2. Assess the morality of what the when was cyrus curious applicants did from the point of view of egoism, utilitarianism, Kants ethics, Rosss pluralism, and rule utilitarianism. Egoism: They were morally right as long as their actions promote their long term interest helps the greater good. Utilitarianism: If the animal farm read actions balance, good over bad for everyone affected by the actions they were morally correct. Kants Ethics: If it was not done in when the great the sense of duty because action out of own desires, inclination or self- interest the actions are morally wrong. Rosss Pluralism: Moral duty cannot be reduced to Gender or Culture the single obligation to make the was cyrus born most of happiness so they were morally wrong. Rule Utilitarianism: There should be standards moral principles so the actions could. Words: 452 - Pages: 2. Gender Roles: Or Culture Essay! Business School Application Essay. . Contribution and Diversity Questions Your background, experiences, and values will enhance and diversify Kellogg.

How? (1-2 double-spaced pages) The Darden School seeks a diverse and unique entering class of future managers. How will your distinctiveness enrich our learning environment and the great born enhance your prospects for success as a manager? Every essay question on the admissions application is geared toward the same thing. Committee members want to find out who you are, what makes you different from feedback everyone else, and how you will contribute to when was cyrus the great born the school if accepted. Gender Roles: Or Culture! This question asks these things outright.

Because it asks so directly what the admissions committee wants to know, this is one of the was cyrus the great most common questions you will find. The question has a structure similar to the Why M.B.A.? question. It asks both Why us? and Why you? However, the nature of this question lends itself to a more personal response. Whereas the Why M.B.A.? question asks what you have done, what you want to do, and how that relates to School Programs the school, this question asks about who you are and how it relates to the school. The Why M.B.A.? question asks about your experiences, and this question asks about was cyrus the great your qualities.

Just as you brainstormed about your experiences, actions, and goals for causes the first question, brainstorm about your qualities and characteristics for this one. What sets you apart from everyone else? What words do friends and when was cyrus family use to describe you? For some people, the. Words: 1196 - Pages: 5. Harvard Business School Case 707-512. . ankaj Ghemawat, Raymond Hill, L.G. Programs Examples! Thomas Southern Co. Investment in CEMIG Harvard Business School Case 707-512 In the spring of 1997, Southern Company had the opportunity to acquire a significant portion of the electric utility in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais.

The shares in was cyrus born the utility, CEMIG, were being sold by the state government as part of a comprehensive privatization of of Drugs Essay, Brazil's electric sector. Brazil's privatization was, in turn, part of a world wide movement toward deregulation and privatization of the electric sector. Like many of its rivals in the utility sector, Southern had committed itself to a strategy of growth by taking advantage of the was cyrus the great born significant opportunities for cross-border investment that were being created by this trend. The privatization of CEMIG was a particularly appealing opportunity for Southern. Not only was CEMIG one of the largest utilities in Latin America, but this investment would provide a base in the Brazilian market, which was expected to have the largest potential for further growth on the continent. Brazil was in the process of reforming its system of regulating electric utilities and of introducing competition into Brazil's wholesale generating market.

These changes would further enhance the potential profitability of investing in causes CEMIG. When Was Cyrus The Great! In addition to the attractiveness of the investment, Southern had been able to farm secure non-recourse financing for half of the required amount. Keeping in mind Brazil's volatile economic. Words: 266 - Pages: 2. Business Research Methods 11th Edition Chapter 1 Answer. . and see what enticements would need to be used to help the employees change to the desired motivation. The manager can look at information that has already been used. Was Cyrus The Great Born! For instance a change in another part of the business could have an effect on the level of examples, motivation that the employees have. If the enticements help increase the motivation of the when was cyrus born employee then the custom motivation program will be good for the manger. If the custom motivation program fails then the consulting firm may be best. Dependence On Men Essay! With the consulting firm the was cyrus born manger will have to think about investing before making an agreement with the firm.

The manger needs to invest in a firm that will fall into and Crime the business budget. Going over budget can make things difficult for the business and when was cyrus the great the employees which would decrease the Gender Roles: or Culture Essay motivation. The manger also needs research the when was cyrus consulting firm to make sure that they have all the credentials needed to produces his/her business with a successful motivational program. Words: 630 - Pages: 3. Apple, Inc. Harvard Business School Case Analysis. . with their approach to sustainability. There should be more focus on Woman's on Men Essay the profitable products of the business so that the company can remain competitive in was cyrus born the industry. Conclusion Strategic management helps management find the answers to nursing feedback examples questions that involve how to was cyrus the great compete to create a competitive advantage in the market, how to design a competitive advantage plan that will be difficult for the competition to follow but valuable to the company; and where to position the company on the market. These steps are also valuable to the company to determine whether the causes of night current or new strategy needs to when was cyrus the great be changed. References Apple, Inc. (1997).

Investor Relations: Frequently Asked Questions. On Men Essay! Retrieved on September 19, 2014 from http://investor.apple.com/faq.cfm?FaqSetID=6 Dess, G., Lumpkin, G. T., Taylor, M. L. (2005). Strategic management (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin Mello, J. When Born! A. (2015). Woman's On Men! Strategic human resource management (4th ed.). Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage Learning Yoffie, D. When The Great Born! B., Sind, M. (2008, February). Apple, Inc. Harvard Business School Premier Case Collection. Retrieved from http://hbsp.harvard.edu. Words: 1367 - Pages: 6. Animal Read Online! Samsung Electronics - Harvard Business School. . Samsung Electronics 1. Introduction: With the introduction of new Chinese competitors in the DRAM market it is necessary for Samung to access their strategy for the future.

Looking at past trends in the DRAM market, current market situation, and when was cyrus projections for the Flash market, the best option for Samsung is to focus their efforts on growing the Flash technology, while maintaining their DRAM output. This is the best course of action because Samsungs customer loyalty will carry their market share in the DRAM market, while they are focusing on establishing this type of dominance in the Flash market. 2. Problem Statement: Memory industry is expected to experience a cyclical downturn in 2005. Gender Roles: Biology Essay! Samsung has been a market leader in was cyrus the great memory chip technology and causes of night has constantly remained ahead of its competitors. But over the last few years memory industry is when born, experiencing fierce rivalry and Samsung is facing fresh challenges from of Drugs Essay new Chinese entrants. Many mainland Chinese firms who have so far focused on the logic chip market are ready to enter the memory chip market. Entry barriers are high in born the memory industry as it involves high capital investment and complex technology. But these Chinese firms with the help of joint ventures and foreign partners are in a position to get license and. Words: 1370 - Pages: 6. . Writing Your Graduate School Application Essay Generally speaking, there are two types of Biology or Culture, application essays for graduate school: the statement of purpose (SOP) and the personal statement. (Refer to FAQs to find out how the two types are different.) Both types let you convince the was cyrus born admissions committee that you are a good fit for the program and can contribute to the department.

Although different graduate schools may ask you to answer different prompts, most ask that you write no more than a two-page application essay. The application essay is difficult to write because you must pitch your candidacy to a few department faculty members who read through hundreds or sometimes thousands of other essays. Feedback! In this handout, you will learn how to when show these busy readers that you will contribute meaningfully to the university and feedback examples their department. 1. Relate your past and was cyrus the great born present experiences to the future. In their application essays, many applicants make the nursing mistake of underemphasizing the future.

But its important that you show how your past experiences have informed your present work, and how your present work can be extended to the future or raise new research questions. Admissions committees assess many qualified applicants based on when the great born whether their research will reflect positively on the university and After Essay examples their department. Committees will think your past and present work is when was cyrus the great, relevant only if it relates directly to your plans for the future. If you dont know exactly where your. Words: 2318 - Pages: 10. Global Essay for Business School Application (2) Final. . Nursing Feedback Examples! Owning and running a business has always been my dream. I always had a strong conviction that I would start my own business and run it successfully. My parents had tried this before but, they had failed due to when born poor managerial tactics. To overcome those certain pitfalls, I realized the need to find out the best business solution methods and avoid the path that my parents went through. Nursing Feedback Examples! However, I never imagined that I would study business in one of the best business schools in America. The idea of joining an American University occurred to was cyrus me when I was admitted into the 2012 Harvard College Summit for Young Leaders in China.

This event was an eye opener and prompted me through a series of Dependence on Men Essay, discoveries of the American culture and when born education system. Causes Of Night Blindness! After a thorough analysis of the when was cyrus Americans way of life and their education, I was convinced that this is where I would perfect my business skills and prepare myself for Biology or Culture Essay my career business. The behavioral features that interested me most about the when was cyrus the great American students is their innovativeness, independence, open-mindedness, and their ability to work as a team. These are some of the skills that really impressed me, and, which, I thought would go a long way in Gender Biology Essay enhancing my chances for starting and running a business. During the HCSYLC event, I invited two Harvard students to born choreograph a dance that was quite successful. We related quite well and Gender Essay the experience I had with those two gave me an insight on how intelligent and innovative they. When Was Cyrus The Great! Words: 642 - Pages: 3. . in the Institute of Bankers.

Ellen went on to work for After Essay examples a former corporate client in banking and insurance, where she became the first female and youngest person to manage their financial reporting department. During this time, Ellen took university courses towards a Bachelors degree at night. In 1983, she decided to stop working for two years, and completed her degree on a full-time basis. She graduated with a major in accounting and minors in marketing and management and decided to continue her studies for an MBA. Two years later, armed with an MBA from a leading business school, Ellen Moore joined her husband in Manama, Bahrain, where she accepted a position as an expatriate manager for was cyrus the great a large American financial institution.1 Starting as a special projects coordinator, within one year Ellen was promoted to and Crime Essay manager of business planning and development, a challenging position that she was able to design herself. In this role, she managed the quality assurance department, coordinated a product launch, developed a senior management information system, and was cyrus participated actively in all senior management decisions. Ellens position required her to blindness interact daily with managers and was cyrus staff from a wide range of cultures, including Arab nationals. Woman's On Men! In March 1995, Ellen joined WSI working for SCG. After the highly successful completion of two projects with SCG in North America, Ellen was approached for when the Korea project: 1 For an account of Ellens experience in. Words: 218626 - Pages: 875. . not.

Since applying for a pass requires a lot of details to feedback be submitted and when a thorough background check, the School Programs details of the applications which are issued passes are recorded in a database. If the when was cyrus born person does not exist, then a new database entry in that persons name is created. And, based on the results from the and Crime security check, the pass is either sent for was cyrus the great issuing, or a rejection decision is sent to on Men the applicant. When Was Cyrus The Great! If the person does exist, then the officer checks whether the person made an School Programs Essay, application within 7 days time? There is a rule that only one application per week can be made. If the when was cyrus application has been before within past 7 days, a rejection decision is issued to the applicant.

If the application is made after a week of making the of night previous application, then the officer checks whether the previous pass issued has been returned or not. In not returned, then the applicant is given a days time to return the previous pass and pay a fine. If the pass has been returned, then the officer cross matches the previous details with the existing details. If all the details match, it is recorder in the database that another pass is being issued in this persons name. Was Cyrus Born! And the application is approved and passed through for issuing of the causes of night pass. Given this existing procedure, you have been given the task of: 1) Develop a simplistic process mad for was cyrus this pass processing 2) Look for any redundant activity, and 3) If a fully automated system is implemented, which of these. Words: 521 - Pages: 3. . School Essay Examples! health insurance, the employees of NIKE are awarded a health stipend to sustain the health of their employees and their families.

The agents of NIKE have to meet certain threshold to get these benefits. NIKEs major competitor is Adidas, which offers competitive compensation and benefits. Was Cyrus The Great Born! Adidas salary compensation reviews include all signing and year-end bonuses, vacation time and causes blindness other perks and was cyrus the great born reimbursements that make up total compensation. The company's benefits program, which includes a bountiful retirement package, a tuition reimbursement program, and even a legal assistance program. Of Drugs! In addition, all Adidas employees are allowed access to the companys stock based compensation plan, in its attempt to gain more partnership with its employees. Adidas also demonstrates a high commitment to diversity and minorities, and have created flexibility in their benefit plans to better suit the when needs of their diverse workforce (AdidasCo, 2012). After School! Moreover, the company ties manager compensation to their ability to when was cyrus the great born retainone-third of a managers bonus is tied directly to how well the manager did at developing and retaining employees (Field, 2008).

References Kerr, S. (1995). On the folly of rewarding for A, while hoping for B. Academy of Management Executive, 9 (1), 2537 Field. (2007). For God, country and NIKE. Atlanta: Basic Kerr, R. J. (1995). Emotional Labor in Roles: Essay Job Evaluation: Redesigning Compensation Practices. The Annals of the American Academy. Words: 1357 - Pages: 6. The Great Born! . Harvard Business Case 10-16-07 The Overhead Reduction Task Force: A Case Analysis The Facts Central Foods Corporation just hired a new General Manager, Georgia Dixon, to run the read deteriorating Countertop Appliances Division.

This new division was formed after Central Foods acquired Kitchen Help, Inc. six years ago. With sales decreasing quite dramatically over the past three years and overhead costs at their peak, Dixon is in charge of implementing positive changes in her department. For one of her first moves she appointed Larry Williams as head of the new Overhead Reduction Task Force. When The Great! This task force is being formed to decrease overhead costs by 20% in the next four months while also increasing sales. External Factors Affecting CFC There are three main external factors that are influencing the overall sales production in this case. First off, one of CFCs major competitors introduced a new household coffee maker that sold at the same retail price as CFCs coffee maker, but CFC did not have the same innovation incorporated into their product. Secondly, another main competitor of CFC launched a new and improved microwave oven, which severely hurt Countertops sales of the Gender Biology Essay same product. CFCs product line still has not made a comparable substitute for this newly designed microwave oven. Finally, competitors pricing of the kitchen products was 10% lower than CFCs pricing for the same products.

CFC believed that these competitors would eventually have to. Words: 2152 - Pages: 9. Chrysler Daimler Harvard Business School Case Study. . control. The automotive industry is very competitive and oversaturated. In order to stay competitive, the next step was to become a truly global car company. Both companies would enjoy the was cyrus benefits of farm read, a merger through pretax cost savings, increased purchasing power, better capacity realization, and technology transfer, pushing them ahead of their already global competitors. Valuation process Chrysler In order to value Chrysler we used the discounted cash flow approach. Our first step of business was to determine how far out into the future we should project cash flows. The best we can do is make an educated guess based on the companys competitive and when was cyrus the great born market position. To start off we looked at Exhibit 1 in the case and discovered that Chrysler had 15.1% market share in the US and Canada in relation to car and truck sales and 44.4% market share in the US in minivan sales during 1997. We believe that the Programs examples minivan is Chryslers strongest product based on the market share and we think that there will be room for improvements and hopefully further growth into when was cyrus born the future.

Based on these few pieces of information, we think that Chrysler is a solid company that operates with an advantage (their minivans) and has as a recognizable brand name. For that reason we are going to use a forecast period of 5 years for our discounted cash flow of Chrysler. Now that we have our forecast period we are going to look at forecasting revenue growth over that forecast period. In order.

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Estee Lauder: Integrated Marketing Communications plan Essay. The purpose of this situation analysis is to identify internal and external factors that will have an impact on Estee Lauders integrated marketing communications program (IMC). A situation analysis is necessary to determine the position Estee Lauder is currently occupying, in when was cyrus the great, terms of finances, promotional strategies, product range and Woman's Essay, brand image. A thorough analysis will help identify any opportunities and potential threats that the company may come across and when born, the effect that these opportunities and threats will have on The Increasing Number of Drugs Essay their new IMC program. Strengths and Weaknesses will also be identified and was cyrus, taken into account as the new IMC program is developed. As part of the internal analysis Estee Lauders past promotional mix strategies will be assessed and evaluated. Strengths and weaknesses will also be evaluated in terms of causes of night blindness, brand image and the products and born, services they offer were also identified.

Estee Lauders current promotional strategy has a strong focus on advertising in sources of Woman's Essay, print media within media relevant to when born its target market such as fashion magazines including, Harpers Bazaar and In Style. The Increasing Number Of Drugs Essay. Personal Selling also plays a dominant role in Estee Lauders current IMC strategy. The use of the Internet and when born, Direct marketing has played a minimal role in animal read, Estee Lauders IMC program for Australia. This was identified as a weakness but also as a potential opportunity to expand and when, use these promotional tools in their future IMC program. Other weaknesses were based around poor and inappropriate promotional strategies for Gender Roles: Essay reaching their intended youth market and consumers in their twenties. When Was Cyrus Born. Brand image, price, package and product design were seen as being too old for the targeted younger consumer. The new IMC program will be focused on overcoming these weaknesses and on nursing reaching the younger audience in the most effective way. Strengths such high levels of when was cyrus the great born, brand awareness, trust and a strong position in the market place have been Identified and The Increasing, utilised in the future IMC program. The external analysis involved gaining insight regarding customers and competitors.

A pilot study was conducted among 18-25 year olds regarding their perceptions and when the great, experiences with Estee Lauder in order to develop a more in-depth analysis of Estee Lauders customer base amongst young Australian females. Competitor Analysis required thorough research into the strategies and positions of Estee Lauder competitors in the market place. Major competitors included Loreal and Revlon, their strengths and The Increasing Number and Crime, weaknesses were identified and will be considered during the development of Estee Lauders new positioning strategy. Although a company has little or no control over their external environment an was cyrus, effective marketing communication strategy will anticipate such conditions and respond to Gender Roles: them sufficiently. Estee Lauder needs to consider socio-cultural forces such as consumers increasing concern regarding animal testing among other environmental and social issues. They must also be aware of the adverse affects on was cyrus the great born the IMC program that will occur if any social expectation are breached or if any legal or political regulations are breached.

The environmental analysis also identifies the opportunity for growth due to the trend in overall retail growth and specifically cosmetic growth in Australia today. If the Number and Crime Essay following factors are considered Estee Lauder have the opportunity to develop an effective IMC program that will strengthen its brand and born, allow them to expand into the younger market as they have been aspiring to of night do. Industry and Company Information. Estee Lauder is a market leader in when was cyrus, the cosmetics and skin-care industry. This market is highly competitive and causes of night, rapidly expanding, with competitors continually entering the market. They offer a range of cosmetics, fragrances and skincare products. Estee Lauder is a well established brand since 1946 and has grown into a parent company for many well known skincare and cosmetics brands.

These include MAC, Clinique, Stilla, Aveda and Bobbi Brown. This situation analysis will focus on Estee Lauder as a consumer brand and not the EL Companies empire as a whole (see appendix 1). Today, Estee Lauder has a solid customer base in many countries including the USA, UK, Asia and Europe. Estee Lauders and Cliniques combined sales made up 40% of the total cosmetics market share, with Lancome (owned by competitor LOreal) holding the third largest market share, with 13% of the was cyrus cosmetics market (Bittar, 2002, p.29). Over the past five years, Estee Lauders sales have slowed, allowing for Clinique, Estee Lauders sister brand to feedback examples gain market share, replacing them as number one brand in department store sales (Bittar,2002,p.29). Currently Estee Lauders primary objective is reposition themselves as the consumers first choice for cosmetics. In order to achieve this objective Estee Lauder need to analyse current marketing efforts and identify opportunities for further expansions that will increase and improve the when was cyrus the great born reputable Estee Lauder brand. Estee Lauders prices are at of Drugs, the higher end of the price scale within the cosmetics market. This is consistent with many of Estee Lauders direct competitors namely Lancome and Dior along with other subsidiary brands including MAC and Stilla. Their prices are set 20-35% above the price points of Clinique products.

Current RRP prices for various Estee Lauder products can be found in appendix 2. Review of Firms previous promotional programs. o Advertising Print media is the current primary advertising medium for Estee Lauder. The Great Born. Some of the main channels include fashion and lifestyle magazines such as Harpers Bazaar, Vogue, In Style, Marie Claire, Cleo and Cosmopolitan. Woman's Dependence. These magazines are targeted toward females with various lifestyles and levels of when, disposable income however they are all image conscious and of night, is appealing to Roy Morgans visible achievement segment and the great born, those who aspire to be part of this group (Mindset, 1998) (See appendix 3). Estee Lauder has been featuring Liz Hurley as the face of their cosmetics for The Increasing Number of Drugs Essay the past seven years and has proven successful in endorsing their prestigious brand of when the great born, cosmetics, fragrances and After Programs Essay, skin-care, (Bittar, 2002).

Estee Lauders current models infuse the brand with energy, vitality and modernity and aiming to connect the when the great brand with consumers (Staff Report, 2003). Last financial year, EL companies allocated $US56 million to advertising to promote the core Estee Lauder brand. This figure has been consistent over the past five years and is the largest advertising figure of Biology or Culture, any EL Company. o Internet Estee Lauder have not utilised the internet within the Australian marketplace. Their current website is targeted towards the U.S, European and Asian markets. It does not provide Australian consumers with a customised information source regarding available products and new company developments. o Sales Promotion Estee lauder endorses its distributer such as Myer and David Jones with promotional gift packs as an incentive to spend as certain amount of money or buy a specific product. They uphold their prestigious image by seldom discounting their products. Sampling promotion has also been used successfully to promote new products and allow consumers to experience the product first hand, without having to commit to a purchase.However, this has not been successfully used for Estee Lauders recent release of Pure Colour range of eyeshadows and lip glosss. Pilot research conducted found although this new range is targeted towards the younger market, it is still not being recognised as the brand of choice for 17-25 year olds (see appendix 4 5). o Personal Selling All Estee Lauder sales consultant are specifically trained and have high levels of product knowledge.

Cosmetics is a high involvement purchase and therefore requires consultants to have an in depth knowledge of all products offered by Estee Lauder. o Direct Marketing Currently Estee Lauder are not using the internet for direct marketing sufficiently. Department stores often send promotional brochures to opt in mailing list clients if new products are released or special offers are available. Assessment of relative strengths and weaknesses of product and brand. Estee Lauder as a brand. High brand awareness. High brand recall. High perceived quality.

High Brand Equity. Good customer service. Perceived as prestigious brand. Communication Strategy not in line with target market. Price of products too high to allow for repositioning into young market. Brand perceived as too old for target market.

Products not designed for when the great born younger market (i.e. anti-ageing moisturisers) Package design for mainstream product lines not innovative and modern, sending conflicting messages and Programs Essay examples, confusing consumers. Possible expansion into younger mass markets. Ability to pursue an online strategy to enhance their marketing communications by introducing online catalogues and creating a direct marketing database. Ability to establish themselves as the leading cosmetics brand in the great born, other markets including Australia, specifically targeting 20-30s market and the youth segment. Creation of new communication strategy to or Culture Essay build upon existing brand strengths and reputation. Opportunities for co-branding to reach untapped markets. Losing existing customer base i.e. older market due to new market direction. Possible confusion for consumers regarding mixed promotional messages targeting the the great born young and older market i.e. Dependence On Men. strategies are not integrated.

Losing market share. Deterioration of perceived brand quality and prestige due to when the great born changing the of night promotional strategies to suit the younger market. Potential loss of revenue as a result of decreasing product prices to attract the younger customers. As Estee Lauder redirects their focus from the the great born older aged females to those in a younger age bracket, they encounter a different group of competitors. These competitors operate in the mass market of cosmetics and skin care. Each brand is continually challenged to apply a successful integrated marketing plan so as to maintain and/or increase their share of the market thus creating a high level of competition for Estee Lauder. Revlon and Loreal Paris are both mid-range cosmetics brands that represent Estee Lauders biggest threats. They are direct competitors of the traditional EL Company brand as the quality, price and packaging of their products are more appealing to the younger market. Recent annual 2000 figures showed Revlon making $1,491,600,000 alone in feedback, cosmetics sales and when was cyrus the great born, Loreal with $12,051,000,000 from cosmetic and skin-care sales combined (http://www.sharelearn.com/520samp.html). Estee Lauder presently generates $2,700,000,000 in the prestige market, and of night blindness, can largely be attributed to a higher gross margin in retail prices (http://www.myneweconomy.com/articles/020703/estee.htm). Estee Lauders indirect competitors or product substitutes consist only in skin-care and not in when was cyrus the great, cosmetics.

Face-moisturizers and of Drugs Essay, cleansing products are not yet specifically designed or even targeted towards younger women and appear to still target mature-age women. In which case, Loreal Paris offering of skin-care products specifically designed to nourish the skin of young women, offers a substitute for those products not catered for by Estee Lauder. Message and Media Strategies used by Competitors. Evidently, Estee Lauders primary competitor is Loreal Paris because both are competing for leading positions in the skin-care and cosmetics market. The Loreal Paris brand was developed for when the great infiltration into the mass market and targets young females who desire high-quality, innovative and fashion-forward beauty products at affordable prices (http://www.lorealparisusa.com/frames.asp#aboutloreal/page_a.asp). Their promotional campaign Because Im worth it (http://www.lorealparisusa.com/frames.asp#aboutloreal/page_a.asp), has proven to animal farm read be a success in born, terms of their efforts to communicate a modern and self-confident message to their target audience. They have used a number of international spokespersons including Andie McDowell, Laetitia Casta, Heather Locklear, Vanessa Williams, Virginie Ledoyen, and Milla Jovovich (http://www.lorealparisusa.com/frames.asp#aboutloreal/page_a.asp), all famous actors and models, to endorse the quality of causes blindness, Loreal Paris products and give young females an image to aspire to. When Was Cyrus Born. Using a range of international faces allows Loreal Paris to The Increasing Number of Drugs target the when born cultural youth market because it promotes a wide cosmetics range suiting any skin colour and image. This allows them to nursing feedback examples expand their target market and the great, remain competitive. Revlon also has a similar marketing approach as Loreal Paris. Woman's Dependence On Men Essay. Their corporate strategy aims to offer young women a sense of glamour, excitement and innovation (http://www.revlon.com/corporate/corp_ca_history.asp) when using these cosmetics.

They have recently launched their new face for was cyrus the Revlon brand Halle Berry a famous U.S. Examples. actor, whom exerts an independent, confident and sexy young image for when was cyrus born women of today. By using this one spokesperson, they have created a unique identity for the brand and encourages the younger market to use the Revlon products so they can be perceived in the same way. This consistent image associated with the brand gives consumers an easy product recall whenever they see her in movies, billboards, magazines and feedback, other channels of was cyrus the great born, advertising. Key Benefits of Competitors and their Positioning Relative to Estee Lauders. has established its brand name in the market place since 1907 and Gender Roles: Biology Essay, therefore high brand awareness. large budget committed to RD and ability to be on the edge of cosmetic technology. have been targeting the when younger mass market for years and Number, are therefore trusted in their quality of beauty products and known to sell at affordable prices. is the global cosmetics leader with 16.8% market share. product offering is extended to when was cyrus born hair colouring, cosmetics, skin care and styling aids thereby enhancing brand recognition. has established its brand name in the market place since 1932.

have been targeting the younger mass market for After Essay years and are therefore trusted in their quality of beauty products and known to sell at affordable prices. ranks 4th in the top ten global cosmetics leaders with 7.1% market share. product offering extends to personal care (eg. Nail polish), fragrances, cosmetics thereby enhancing brand equity. has the opportunity to born penetrate the Gender Biology youth mass market with years of marketing and when the great, operating expertise in the cosmetics industry. is currently ranked 2nd global cosmetics leader. extensive economic resources to conduct RD.

has economies of scale because of the size of After, its pre-existing operation. trusted as a prestigious quality brand. family controlled enterprise allows for consistency in marketing and when, management decisions although no evidence to The Increasing of Drugs Essay support this observation. Cosmetics is a luxury product and involves a high level of involvement from the consumer (Schiffman et al, 2001). When purchasing cosmetics and skincare, consumers want to be sure that the products they are purchasing are safe and will not harm their skin . Estee Lauder has identified this need and has catered for this by decreasing the when born risk involved when purchasing cosmetics at pre-purchase, purchase and post-purchase stage.

Experience at Point of Purchase. Estee Lauder Australia is the third country to undergo dramatic transformations in Dependence Essay, the appearance of their counters in department stores (King, 2003). The new counters are brightly coloured and have interactive displays, which allows passers by to when was cyrus the great born test products at their own discretion without having to consult Estee Lauder staff. However should assistance be required with any of the products, there are always friendly, knowledgeable staff to and Crime Essay assist potential customers. All consultants are thoroughly trained and have extensive knowledge about all product lines. This professionalism enhances to was cyrus the great born the consumers experience of The Increasing Number Essay, Estee Lauder at when the great born, the point of Gender Biology Essay, purchase as they learn more about when the great born specific products and their skin type as well. The revitalised counters are a real feature now as they are by far the of night blindness brightest and most elaborate in major department stores (namely Myer/Grace Bros and David Jones) in comparison to any of was cyrus born, its direct or indirect competitors and creates a salon like experience for the consumer (Gold Coast Bulletin, 2003). Buyer Roles and Cosmetics.

Unlike products such as fragrances where the buyer is not the user, the majority of the time, cosmetics buyers are the users of the animal online product. Although, this does differ around increased purchase periods such as Christmas, Easter, Valentines Day and Mothers Day when the buyer (i.e. husbands and boyfriends) are not the was cyrus the great born end users of the cosmetics. Estee Lauder has identified this and designed their promotional activity accordingly. All advertising (predominantly instore promotion and print media) features young attractive women, that many purchasing the product would see as an aspirational figure. The more youthful Carolyn Murphy featured in causes of night, the current advertisements provides the younger market that Estee Lauder is was cyrus the great, currently trying to conquer, a face that they can relate to (as opposed to Elizabeth Hurley, who Estee Lauder felt was too old for the younger market).

Perception of Estee Lauder. The perception of Estee Lauder amongst younger people is farm, that it is when the great born, a brand for causes of night blindness older people (The Nation, 2003). The Great Born. This perception of the brand will clearly take an extended period of time to change, however with the current steps undertaken by Estee Lauder, they are well on their way to turning this around (see appendix 7 for Kapferer analysis of After School Programs examples, perception of Estee Lauder). As the when born pilot research conducted depicted, Estee Lauders products are priced too highly for the younger market to purchase. Number. If they do wish to conquer this market successfully, they will have to consider pricing options on when was cyrus the great certain product ranges to make it more affordable to After School Essay the target market (See appendix 8). When The Great Born. Whilst Estee Lauder is priced too highly for people in this age bracket, they still view the brand as fashionable, as results of the pilot research study concluded (see appendix 9). In recent years consumers have developed a heightened awareness of social and environmental conditions such as animal testing. Many consumers hold strong views towards animal testing and do not want to buy products that have caused animal suffering. Consequently consumers often want to acquire company information regarding animal testing before they buy the product, many cosmetic companies including Estee Lauder shy away from blindness this controversial topic and provide confusing and ambiguous statements regarding the topic as they are guilty of continuing animal testing but wish to avoid public opposition (http://www.buav.org/pdfs/cosmetic_experiments_-_bluf.pdf).

As well as being environmentally friendly consumers expect their brands to be socially responsible and to give back to the community. This force gives Estee Lauder the born opportunity to sponsor charities that are important to their target market. Roles: Or Culture. Any sponsorship should form an integral part of Estee Lauders IMC to promote the brand as being socially aware and responsible.. If a customer perceives a brand as being socially irresponsible they will often remove the brand from was cyrus the great their evoked set and and Crime Essay, not even consider them in any of when born, their future purchase decisions. There are many political and legal obligations that Australian cosmetic companies must comply with in order to protect consumers. The public has the very reasonable expectation that cosmetics should be safe to Woman's use as directed on the label and as people would normally expect to use such products (www.ASCC.com.au). All cosmetic companies selling their products within Australia must comply with all Australian Safety Regulations. Cosmetic companies must also comply with the Trades Practices Act among other regulations and legislation regarding product safety and when born, ingredients (www.ascc.com.au). These rules and regulations have enormous implications for Estee Lauder and other cosmetic companies in Australia.

It is imperative that these regulations are followed as court action can be seriously detrimental to the company financially. Further more, bad publicity as a consequence of not following such regulations can cause irreversible damage in terms of the reputation of the brand. Due to technological advancements there is a lot more information available to the consumers regarding the safety and causes blindness, effectiveness of cosmetic products and the ingredients within them. The Great Born. Due to Programs examples the amount of scientific information and studies available to them, consumers have developed a very sceptical attitude towards cosmetic brands and their products. The implication for this is that Estee Lauder must provide consumers with as much information and as much proof regarding product effectiveness as possible in born, order to facilitate the buying decision process. Technology has also worked in favour of Estee Lauder as they have been able use technology to create new innovative products in attempt to gain competitive advantage. Changes on farm the economy could also have a strong impact on cosmetic sales. Cosmetics are categorised as a luxury item so when the economy is down and consumers have less buying power cosmetics would be among the first product categories to suffer. Was Cyrus The Great Born. After the events of September 11 sales dropped to a virtual standstill resulting in the worst holdiay season for of night American retailers in years (Bittar,2002). However currently Australian retail sales has experienced strong growth since May 2003 (www.abs.com.au) (See Appendix 10). When The Great. In 1998-99 $4.1 billion was spent on cosmetics, perfumes and toiletries (www.abs.com.au).

These statistics indicate it is a healthy growing industry giving companies the opportunity to increase sales and expand product lines. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 8 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Estee Lauder: Integrated Marketing Communications plan.

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