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Skiba - Code Switching as a Countenance of Language Interference
AP English Literature and Composition. Unit 4: Suffering and Triumph. Unit 3: A Troubled World- Colonization, industrialization, War and Modernization. Define? Unit 2: Women’s Role in History and Society. Unit 1: Classic Tragic Hero vs Modern Common Man. Advanced Placement English Literature Syllabus. AP English expands and develops skills in critical reading and writing about literature. Welfare Reform Essay? Authors are chosen from the AP English Course Description for the English Literature and Composition Exam or from those appearing on previous AP Literature and code Composition Exams.
Works are at a reading and content level appropriate for college freshmen. The course stresses a critical awareness of genre, theme, and style, focusing on British, American and world literature. Writing assignments emphasize the refinement of personal expression and style and critical thinking at a level equivalent to composition assignments at the freshman college level. And Pestel Analysis? Each unit involves thematic reading of full length literary works, close reading of code switching excerpts including close examination of maxwell kane authors’ style and crafts; writing exercises, including formal extended analyses, timed in-class responses, micro-essays which enable students to define code, learn methods of analysis they will use in extended essays, and reading logs. Topics for micro-essays and timed writings are assigned; given a range of possibilities, students select the topics for their own major essays. They have a week for the first draft, with a required peer edit two days before the draft is due to the instructor. This draft is returned with the instructor’s suggestions for maxwell kane revision, which is define code switching due a week later to allow for writing conferences.
Students may revise multiple times within the week. Not all writing is Indian Food analytical. The college essay unit involves a free writing journal on a variety of prompts similar to college application essay prompts; this journal becomes a resource for students as they revise toward a college application essay. For each unit, students keep a reading journal which provides the code switching notes for a graded discussion( in pairs or a small group of 3-4) and the basis for their essays. War By Timothy Findley? Students also reflect upon their own writing process in written self-assessment each semester. For poetry unit, a creative responses such as writing a villanelle, sestina, Terza rima, sonnet or ode; for the “Troubled World” unit, writing a satire satirizing a current social or political problem; creating vignettes based on characters in plays and a script with homage to Samule Becketts’ Krapp’s Last Tape ; and writing a missing scene from As You Like It. Unit 1: Close Reading: Analyzing Poetry College Essay Writing. Time Fame: Sept. 9-Sept. 30. Texts: Kennedy, X. Code? J., and Dana Gioia, An Introduction to Poetry.
8th ed. Harper, 1994.Perrine, Laurence and swot and pestel analysis Thomas R. Arp, eds. Sound and Sense: An Introduction to Poetry. 8th ed. Harcourt Brace, 1992. Define? Poems: William Shakespeare (“Sonnet 138, “Sonnet 130”), Petrarch (“Sonnet 219”), William Carlos Williams (“The Dance”), Edna St. Vincent Millay (“I will put chaos into fourteen lines”), Edgar Allan Poe (“The Bells”), John Frederick Nims (“Love Poem”), Seamus Heaney (“Mid-Term Break” and “Digging”), Gerard Manley Hopkins (“Pied Beauty”), Allen Ginsberg (“A Supermarket in America,”) Derek Walcott (“The Virgins”), Andrew Marvell (“To His Coy Mistress”), Lord Byron (“The West Wind”), Elizabeth Bishop ( “One Art”), John Keats (“Ode to Autumn”, “Bright Star, Would I were steadfast as thou art-“), Margaret Atwood (“Siren Song”), Roethke’s “My Papa’s Waltz” Literary Criticism articles: Kennedy Gioia (“Writing Critically: Word Choice, Tone and Point of View”, “How Metaphors Enlarge a Poem’s Meaning”, “Is it possible to write about sound?”, “Analyzing Images”); Jago Shea (“Special Consideration for reading Poetry Closely”) Students will demonstrate the ability to: Read a poem critically, with attention to the poem’s theme and Essay Indian Food the elements of code style such as poetic syntax Analyze the form, structure, diction, voice, connotations, sound devices, imagery figures of flanders speech, symbol, purpose, persona, tone Distinguish various fixed forms of poetry such as sonnet, sestina, terza rima, villanelle, blank verse, free verse Identify figurative language and syntactical patterns, Use the define code switching language of the criticism of Medical Essay poetry, and Write well-supported analytical essays of poems.
Write their own poem of one of the closed forms. Students will write, peer edit and code revise 3 out of 5 micro-essays (brief analytical essays): Ambiguous diction in maxwell kane, Sonnet 138 Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke’s “My Papa’s Waltz” Diction, paradox and structure in or “Love Poem” Figures of Speech in Emily Dickinson’s “ My Life Had Stood-A Loaded Gun” “Rhyme, Meter, Form, Poetic Syntax and Sound” in “Bright Star, Would I were steadfast as thou art-“ by John Keats A timed writing on a poem, using a prompt from define code switching, a past AP English Literature exam ( Summative Assessment). Evaluation Criteria: College board AP Essay rubric. Federal Welfare Reform? Evaluation of these essays will include comments and writing conferences addressing grammar and code usage, logical structure, levels of generalization, Text: Bloom, Lynn Z. The Essay Connection: Readings for Writers. 7 th Edition Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston New York. Students will demonstrate the ability to: Critically read and discuss sample personal essays by professional authors, Write journal entries in Essay Food, response to a variety of different prompts on personal subjects, including description, exposition, narration, and reflection, Write a personal essay for an academic audience, Write in switching, a variety of modes, including description, exposition, narration and persuasion, and Revise repeatedly for various audiences and within various constraints. 3 journal responses to sample college application prompts, Peer editing of 1 entry, Revision of one prompt into a sample application essay, Peer editing of the essay, Teacher feedback on the essay, and Revision, including editing of essay for audience and length.
Teacher-made rubric for Journals Six-Trait Rubric for personal essay. Unit 2: Classic Tragic Hero vs Modern Common Man. Time Frame: Oct.1, 2013-Nov.26,2013. Texts: Poetics by Aristotle, Oedipus by Sophocles, Hamlet by Shakespeare (http://cla.calpoly.edu/ dschwart/engl339/hamlet.html) , Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, “On Common Man” by Federal Welfare Essay, Arthur Miller; Literary Concepts and Theory: tragic hero*, tragedy, tragic flaw, on tragedies (http://cla.calpoly.edu/ Students will demonstrate the ability to: Identify the define switching tragic flaw in a tragic character and understand the conflicted nature of fate and character Examine the improbability of a tragic fate a tragic hero must face and the circumstances that cause such inevitability Compare a classical tragic hero and Federal a tragic common man Identify and examine themes such as fate, American dream, disillusionment, revenge, justice, deception, illusion, love, failure, madness Identify patterns of code development, including character foils and parallel plots, Discuss quotations from the text in relation to major themes, including kingship, inheritance, fate, justice, parents and children, love, legitimacy, eyes and sight, madness, religion, truth, jealousy, guilt, identity, cruelty, Write and rewrite formal, extended analyses and timed, in-class responses in all of the following modes: writing to understand, writing to explain, and writing to evaluate. Gain awareness that the maxwell kane English language that writers use has changed dramatically through history, and define code switching Engage in swot, thoughtful discussion. Reading quizzes on each text Micro-essays: Rhetorical analysis of code switching one of Hamlet’s soliloquys “To be or not to be…”, “What a rogue I am…” and “” “Give your pardon sir I have done you wrong” How all occasions do inform against me “ Written or oral rhetorical analysis of an argument scene between Creon and Haemon in Oedipus Written analysis of a specific passage in timothy findley, Things Fall Apart and discuss how the passage reveals the overall theme of the book artfully In-depth reading and analysis of define Willy Loman as a tragic character but nevertheless a “hero”. Analysis? Quotation analysis quiz, Essay test emphasizing themes and characterization, Formal, revised analytical essay with peer editing. AP Essay based on one of the define College Board-published open-ended essay questions ( summative assessment). Unit 3: Women’s Role in History and Society Application of Literary Theories.
Time Frame: Dec. 2, 2013 -Jan. 30, 2014. Texts: Euripides’ Medea or Electra , Antigone by Sophocles , Hamlet By Shakespeare ( Gertrude and Ophelia), As You Like It (Rosalind) by Shakespeare, Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austin, The Mill on the Floss by George Eliot, Jude the Obscure by Essay Food, Thomas Hardy, The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorn, A Room with a View by Virginia Woolf, Three Sisters by Chekov, A Streetcar Named Desire ( Blanch) by Tennessee Williams, Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House, Three Tall Women by Edward Albee. Resources: Meyer, Michael. Define? The Bedford Introduction to Essay, Literature. 3rd. Code Switching? ed.
St. Timothy Findley? Martin’s, 1993; Library and internet resources. Part I: Women’s Role in define, History and Society. Students will demonstrate the ability to: Identify unconventional traits in a female character against timothy findley her social structure and code switching ideology Recognize and explain how each heroin is swot a “woman warrior” in her own way Identify the common cause of their tragic ending Read critically and analyze an excerpt from a chosen text to discuss how the excerpt is related to a specific theme that permeates the work. Switching? Use a specific literary theory to analyze one of the heroines. Maxwell Kane? Reading quizzes on define code switching, each required text Micro-essays: Rhetorical analysis of who wrote moll Antigone’s speech to Creon in define code switching, Scene 4 of Antigone ; analyze excerpts of Welfare Reform a 19 th century novel and discuss how the section helps develop a theme; analyze an define code switching excerpt from a modern drama( Tennessee or Albee) and maxwell kane discuss how the section contributes to the larger picture of the heroine’s character development. Written and oral rhetorical argument of a character who might revert her fate if she lived in today’s world. Essay test emphasizing themes and characterization, Formal, revised analytical essay with peer editing.
AP Essay based on one of the College Board-published open-ended essay questions ( summative assessment). Part II: Application of Literary Theories. Students will demonstrate the ability to: Identify the differences among literary theories, including formalism, archetypal criticism, feminist and switching gender criticism, Marxist criticism, psychological criticism, reader-response criticism, deconstructionism, school of the absurd, biographical criticism, multicultural criticism, literary history and new historicism, Appraise a critics’ view on a specific work listed and locate literary criticism that represents a specific critical approach to the text Interpret a text from at least one of these critical theories, with relevant details Deliver a comprehensive group oral presentation explaining the origins, major critics, and theory of each approach, including an flanders interpretation of the text Synthesize their own interpretation and relevant critical perspectives into an oral analysis of the text, and Write, peer edit and revise a documented essay applying one critical approach, with support relevant to code, the critical perspective selected. Group explanation of approach and analysis of text, and Individual essay drafts and Reflection Week Placement Essay revisions analyzing one of the texts according to the student’s choice of literary theory. Teacher-made rubric for oral presentation Six-Trait Rubric for essay. Unit 4: A Troubled World- Colonization, industrialization, War and Modernization. Time Frame: Feb.
2014-March 2014 ( Spring 2014) Texts: Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad, ‘Shooting an Elephant’ Other essays by George Orwell, North and South by Elizabeth Gaskell, “Chimney Sweepers” by William Blake, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, war poetry by Wilfred Owen, Things They Carried by Tim O’Brian, “The Wasteland” by T.S. Eliot, End Game by code, Samuel Beckett. Students will demonstrate the ability to- Identify the effect of literary techniques such as point of maxwell kane view, structure, frame narration, imagery, figurative language, tone, diction, theme and syntax. Question and code discuss the authors’ purpose in relation to the social, historical and political context of the novel’s setting and the values of their time. Evaluate the relevance of different approaches to analyzing the novella Heart of Darkness and debate the novel as a view of Week Medical a racist o imperialist Analyze Marlow ‘s views of Congo as a character; Analyze the meaning of the title ; Analyze the symbolic meaning of define code switching Kurtz Compare Orwell’s work with Conrad’s in the sense of Food colonization- how effectively does each author describe the colonization? How different are their approaches to define code switching, the social issue? Compare Blake and Gaskell’s attitude toward an ever-growing industrialized world Identify the war by connections between the war effect described in Owen’s poems and that of O’Brian’s novel. Identify the similar tone and theme conveyed in ‘The Wasteland” and end Game. Identify major characteristics of the” theater of the define code absurd” and modern poetry. Write a well-supported essay( in class) based on an open-ended essay prompt (from a previous AP Lit Exam) relating to one of the themes of Heart of Darkness. Eight Informal passage-based responses Character analysis ( individual and group) Theme comparison Timed writing ( Open-Ended essay prompt) Teacher-created rubric for informal responses and character analysis College Board AP Essay rubric for in-class time essay.
Unit 5: Suffering and Placement Triumph. Time Frame: March 2014-May 5, 2014. Texts: Piano Lesson by August Wilson, Atonement by Ian McEwan, “A Rose for Emily” Sound and code switching Fury by William Falkner , Krapp’s Last Tape by Samuel Beckett. Students will demonstrate the swot analysis ability to: Understand the works’ complexity- structure, diction, theme, voice, character development and historical contexts Identify the effect of literary artistry Recognize the switching anachronism used in the narrative Identify traditional characterization and point of view and their modern variations Identify effective use of literary elements or techniques such as character development, plot, structure, and and pestel analysis symbolism etc. in code, untraditional ways Understand the complexity and absurdism of a modern literary work Recognize the relationship between modern art theories of timothy 20 th century and their influence on literature Write an essay to define switching, analyze a passage ( an excerpt from one of the works listed)- AP Prose analysis essay. Dialectical journals ( informal) Reading quizzes Five Micro-essays ( analysis on the effective use of literary techniques in swot and pestel analysis, a passage) Two in-class essays ( open-ended prompt and an excerpt from one of the works of this unit) Teacher-created rubric for code switching informal assessments College Board AP Lit Essay rubric ( prose analysis)
Practice Multiple-Choice format and Reflection on Six Essay types of questions Discuss essay prompts. Define Switching? *Every student in the AP class will be programed to take the AP Literature and swot and pestel analysis Composition Exam.
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Skiba - Code Switching as a Countenance of Language Interference
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Bakhtin Circle was a 20th century school of Russian thought which centered on the work of Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (1895-1975). The circle addressed philosophically the social and cultural issues posed by the Russian Revolution and its degeneration into the Stalin dictatorship. Their work focused on the centrality of questions of significance in social life in general and artistic creation in particular, examining the way in which language registered the conflicts between social groups. Define Switching. The key views of the circle are that linguistic production is essentially dialogic , formed in on Six the process of social interaction, and define switching that this leads to the interaction of different social values being registered in Essay Food terms of reaccentuation of the define code, speech of others. While the ruling stratum tries to posit a single discourse as exemplary, the subordinate classes are inclined to subvert this monologic closure. In the sphere of literature, poetry and epics represent the centripetal forces within the war by timothy findley, cultural arena whereas the novel is the structurally elaborated expression of popular ideologiekritik , the radical criticism of society.
Members of the circle included Matvei Isaevich Kagan (1889-1937); Pavel Nikolaevich Medvedev (1891-1938); Lev Vasilievich Pumpianskii (1891-1940); Ivan Ivanovich Sollertinskii (1902-1944); Valentin Nikolaevich Voloshinov (1895-1936); and others. M.M. Code. Bakhtin and his circle began meeting in the Belorussian towns of Nevel and Vitebsk in 1918 before moving to Leningrad in 1924. Their group meetings were terminated due to the arrest of many of the group in 1929. From this time until his death in 1975, Bakhtin continued to work on the topics which had occupied his group, living in internal exile first in swot and pestel Kustanai (Kazakhstan, 1930-36), Savelovo (about 100 km from Moscow, 1937-45), Saransk (Mordovia, 1936-7, 1945-69) and finally moving in 1969 to define Moscow, where he died at Reform Essay, the age of eighty.
In Saransk Bakhtin worked at the Mordov Pedagogical Institute (now University) until retirement in 1961. The Bakhtin circle is reputed to code switching have been initiated by Kagan on his return from Germany, where he had studied philosophy in Leipzig, Berlin and Marburg. Indian. He had been a pupil of the founder of Marburg Neo-Kantianism Herman Cohen and had attended lectures by Ernst Cassirer. Define Switching. Kagan established a Kantian Seminar at which various philosophical, religious and cultural issues were discussed. Kagan was a Jewish intellectual who had been a member of the Social Democratic Party (the precursor of the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks) and he may have been attracted to Cohen's philosophy for flanders, its supposed affinity with Marxism (Cohen regarded his ethical philosophy as completely compatible with that of Marx), while rejecting the atheism of define code switching Russian Communism. Whatever the truth of the matter, the members of the circle did not restrict themselves to academic philosophy but became closely involved in Federal Essay the radical cultural activities of the time, activities which became more intense with the movement of the group to Vitebsk, where many important avant-garde artists such as Malevich and Chagall had settled to avoid the define code, privations of the Civil War. Essay. One of the group, Pavel Medvedev, a graduate in code switching law from Petrograd University, became rector of the Vitebsk Proletarian University, editing the town's cultural journal Iskusstvo (Art) to which he and Voloshinov contributed articles, while Bakhtin and Pumpianskii both gave public lectures on a variety of philosophical and Essay Indian cultural topics, as seen in recently published student notes. Pumpianskii, it is known, never finished his studies at Petrograd university, while it is doubtful whether Bakhtin had any formal higher education at all despite his claims, now disproven, to have graduated from the same University in 1918.
It seems that Bakhtin attempted to gain acceptance in academic circles by adopting aspects of define his older brother's biography. Nikolai Bakhtin had a solid classical education from his German governess and graduated from Petrograd University, where he had been a pupil of the renowned classicist F.F. Zelinskii. Bakhtin had therefore been exposed to philosophical ideas since his youth. After Nikolai's departure for the Crimea, and and pestel analysis Mikhail's move to Nevel, it seems that Kagan took the place of his brother as unofficial mentor, having an important influence on Bakhtin's philosophy in a new and define code switching exciting cultural environment, although the two friends went their separate ways in 1921, the year Bakhtin married. Kagan, however, moved to take up a teaching position at the newly established provincial university in Orel in 1921. While there he published the only sustained piece of philosophy to be published by a member of the group before the late 1920s entitled Kak vozmozhna istoria (How Is History Possible) in 1922. Essay Food. The same year he produced an obituary of define Hermann Cohen in which he stressed the historical and sociological aspects of Cohen's philosophy and wrote other unpublished works. 1922 also saw the publication of Food Pumpianskii's paper Dostoevskii i antichnost? (Dostoyevsky and Antiquity), a theme that was to recur in Bakhtin's work for many years. While Bakhtin himself did not publish any substantial work until 1929, he was clearly working on matters related to Neo-Kantian philosophy and the problem of code authorship at this time. Bakhtin's earliest published work is the swot, two page Iskusstvo i otvetstvennost? (Art and Answerability) from 1919 and fragments of a larger project on moral philosophy written between 1920 and switching 1924, now usually referred to as K filosofii postupka (Towards a Philosophy of the Act).
Most of the group's significant work was produced after their move to Leningrad in 1924. It seems that there the Reflection Essay, group became acutely aware of the challenge posed by Saussurean linguistics and its development in the work of the switching, Formalists. Thus there emerges a new awareness of the importance of the philosophy of language in philosophy and poetics. The most significant work on the philosophy of language was published in the period 1926-1930 by Voloshinov: a series of articles and a book entitled Marksizm i filosofia iazyka (Marxism and who wrote the Philosophy of Language) (1929). Medvedev, who had been put in code charge of the archive of the symbolist poet Aleksandr Blok, participated in the vigorous discussions between Marxist and formalist literary theorists with a series of findley articles and a book, Formal?lnyi metod v literaturovedenii (The Formal Method in Literary Scholarship) (1928) and define the first book-length study of Blok's work. Voloshinov also published an Week Medical Essay, article and a book (1925, 1926) on the debate which raged around Freudianism at the time. Switching. In 1929 Bakhtin produced the first edition of his famous monograph Problemy tvorchestva Dostoevskogo (Problems of timothy Dostoyevsky's Work), but many other works dating from 1924-9 remained unpublished and usually unfinished. Among these was a critical essay on code switching, formalism called Problema soderzheniia i formy v slovesnom khudozhestvennom tvorchestve (The Problem of Content, Material and Form in Verbal Artistic Creation) (1924) and a book length study called Avtor i geroi v esteticheskoi deiatel?nosti (Author and Hero in Aesthetic Activity) (1924-7). Since the 1970s the works published under the names of Week Essay Voloshinov and Medvedev have often been ascribed to Bakhtin, who neither consented nor objected. A voluminous, ideologically motivated, often bad-tempered and define largely futile body of maxwell kane literature has grown up to switching contest the issue one way or another, but since there is no concrete evidence to Essay Indian Food suggest that the published authors were not responsible for the texts which bear their names, there seems no real case to answer. It seems much more likely that the materials were written as a result of lively group discussions around these issues, which group members wrote up according to their own perspectives afterwards.
There are clearly many philosophical, ideological and stylistic discrepancies which, despite the presence of certain parallels and code switching points of agreement, suggest these very different works were largely the work of different authors. In accordance with Bakhtin's own philosophy, it seems logical to treat them as rejoinders in ongoing dialogues between group members on the one hand and Federal Reform Essay between the switching, group and other contemporary thinkers on swot, the other. The sharp deterioration in the situation of unorthodox intellectuals in the Soviet Union at the end of 1928 effectively broke the Bakhtin circle up. Bakhtin, whose health had already begun to deteriorate, was arrested, presumably because of his connection with the define switching, St. Petersburg Religious-Philosophical society, and was sentenced to and pestel ten years on the Solovetskii Islands. After vigorous intercession by define switching, Bakhtin's friends, a favourable review of swot and pestel analysis his Dostoyevsky book by Commissar of code Enlightenment Lunacharskii and a personal appeal by Maksim Gor?kii, this was commuted to six years exile in Kazakhstan. With the Food, tightening of censorship at define code, the time, very little was published by Voloshinov, while Medvedev published a book on and pestel analysis, theories of authorship V laboratorii pisatelia (In the Laboratory of the define switching, Writer) in 1933 and a new version of the Formalism study, revised to fit in more closely with the ideological requirements of the time, in 1934. Medvedev was appointed full professor at the Leningrad Historico-Philological Institute but was arrested and disappeared during the terror of moll 1938. Voloshinov worked at the Herzen Pedagogical Institute in Leningrad until 1934 when he contracted tuberculosis. He died in a sanitorium two year later leaving unfinished a translation of the first volume of switching Ernst Cassirer's The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms , a book which is of considerable importance in the work of the circle. Kagan died of maxwell kane angina in 1937 after working as editor of an define code, encyclopedic atlas of energy resources in the Soviet Union for many years.
Pumpianskii pursued a successful career as Professor of Literature at Leningrad University, but published only short articles and introductions to works of Russian authors, most notably Turgenev. Sollertinskii joined the Leningrad Philharmonic in 1927 as a lecturer, but soon established himself as one of the leading Soviet musicologists, producing over two hundred articles, books and reviews. He died of a heart attack, probably resulting from the privations of the Leningrad blockade, in 1944. While in maxwell kane Kazakhstan Bakhtin began work on his now famous theory of the novel which resulted in the now famous articles Slovo v romane (Discourse in the Novel) (1934-5), Iz predystorii romannogo slovo (From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse) (1940), Epos i roman (Epic and Novel) (1941), Formy vremeni i khronotopa v romane (Forms of Time and Chronotope in the Novel) (1937-8). Between 1936 and 1938 he completed a book on the Bildungsroman and its significance in the history of realism which was lost when the publishing house at which the manuscript was lying awaiting publication was destroyed in the early days of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.
Voluminous, most still unpublished, preparatory material still exists, although part is lost, allegedly because Bakhtin used it for cigarette papers during the wartime paper shortage. Bakhtin's exceptional productiveness at this time is define further accentuated when one considers that one of his legs was amputated in February 1938. He had suffered from who wrote flanders inflammation of the bone marrow, osteomyelitis, for many years, which gave him a lot of pain, high temperatures, and often confined him to bed for weeks on end. This had been a factor in the appeals of his friends and acquaintances for clemency when he was internally exiled, a factor that may well have saved his life. This did not, however, prevent him from presenting a now famous doctoral thesis on Rabelais to the Gor?kii Institute of World Literature in code 1940. The work proved extremely controversial in the hostile ideological climate of the time and it was not until 1951 that Bakhtin was eventually granted the flanders, qualification of kandidat . It was not published in book form until 1965. The period between the completion of the code, Rabelais study and the second edition of the Dostoyevsky study in 1963 is perhaps the least well known of Bakhtin's life in terms of Reflection Week Medical Placement work produced.
This has been recently (1996) rectified with the publication of archival materials from this period, when Bakhtin was working as a lecturer at the Mordov Pedagogical Institute. The most substantial work dating from this period is Problema rechevykh zhanrov (The Problem of Speech Genres) which was most likely produced in response to the reorganisation of Soviet linguistics in the wake of Stalin's article Marksizm i voprosy iazykoznaniia (Marxism and Questions of Linguistics) of 1953. Many other fragments exist from this time, including notes for a planned article about define switching Maiakovskii and more methodological comments on the study of the novel. In the more liberal atmosphere of the so-called thaw following Khruschev's accession, Bakhtin's work on Dostoyevsky came to the attention of a group of younger scholars led by Vadim Kozhinov who, upon finding out that he was still alive, contacted Bakhtin and tried to convince him to republish the 1929 Dostoyevsky book. After some initial hesitation, Bakhtin responded by significantly expanding and fundamentally altering the overall project. It was accepted for publication in September 1963 and received a generally favourable reception. Publication of the Rabelais study, newly edited for Federal Welfare Reform Essay, purposes of acceptability (mainly the toning down of scatology and an analysis of a speech by Lenin) followed soon after.
As Bakhtin's health continued to decline, he was taken to hospital in define code Moscow in 1969 and in May 1970 he and his wife, who died a year later, were moved into a retirement home just outside Moscow. Bakhtin continued to work until just before his death in Placement 1975, producing work of a mainly methodological character. Since Bakhtin's death, several collections of his work have appeared in Russian and many translations have followed. English language translations have been appearing since 1968, although the quality of translation and systematicity of publication has been uneven. Up to ten different translators have published work by code switching, a writer whose terminology is very specific, often rendering key concepts in a variety of different ways. This has exacerbated problems of interpretation and questions of theoretical heritage, especially since there is a quite sharp distinction between works written before and after the 1929 Dostoyevsky study. Another problem has been the questions of authorship of the Bakhtin circle and the extent to which a Marxist vocabulary in the works of Voloshinov and Medvedev should be taken at face value.
Those, for example, who argue Bakhtin was the author of these works also tend to argue that the vocabulary is mere window dressing to facilitate publication, while those who support the authenticity of the original publications also tend to take the Marxist arguments seriously. As a result writers about Bakhtin have tended to choose one period of Bakhtin's career and treat it as definitive, a practice which has produced a variety of divergent versions of Bakhtinian thought. The recent appearance of the first volume of maxwell kane a collected works in Russian might help to overcome the problems which have dogged Bakhtin studies. The work of the Bakhtin Circle should be regarded as a philosophy of culture. Questions which seem to be of very specific relevance, such as the modality of author-hero relations, actually involve questions of a much more general nature encompassing the value-laden relations between subject and object, subjects and other subjects. The phenomenological arguments presented by the young Bakhtin are directed against the abstractions of rationalist philosophy and define switching contemporary positivism. He draws much of his conceptual structure from the work of the Marburg School (most notably Hermann Cohen (1842-1918), Paul Natorp (1854-1924) and Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950)) and German phenomenologists such as Max Scheler (1874-1928) and Heinrich Rickert (1863-1936).
However, it is maxwell kane particularly difficult to code trace the precise influence of these writers because Bakhtin was notoriously inconsistent in crediting his sources and war by timothy findley was not averse to copying whole passages which he had translated from German into Russian in his works without reference to the original. This has led many commentators either to guess at influences on the young Bakhtin or to credit him with the invention of a philosophical vocabulary almost from nothing. However, recent archival work by code switching, Brian Poole has uncovered notebooks in which Bakhtin made copious notes from various German idealist philosophers which give us a better idea both of the sources of his ideas and the originality of the philosophical work which resulted from his fusion of disparate ideas. The ideas of the Marburg School were undoubtedly filtered to swot analysis Bakhtin through the works of Matvei Kagan on his return from Germany at the end of the First World War. In his obituary of Cohen Kagan stressed the religious, messianic aspects of the former's philosophy, which emerges in his later work. For the late Cohen, the unity of objective being, as an unending large process of the unity of code being and findley concept demands the unending small unity of the define code switching, singular individuum.
The whole problem of religion is contained in the problem of the individuum as in the question of God. The continual relationship between the individuum and God is the absolute element of subjectivity and is the unity of monotheism. The individual does not combine with God but continually relates to God. Timothy. This has social significance, for religion grows out of define code ethics: the religion of the unity of humanity is Reflection Week Placement Essay monotheism. Religion is everywhere, in all regions of culture. Religion itself is switching philosophy. Problems of intersubjectivity must be related to Welfare Reform Essay questions of define historical development: in our opinion, the problem of individual relationships, the problem of subjective consciousness, ontological subjectivity can be based on Reflection Medical Essay, the pathos of the individual condition of the struggle of the historical life of culture, the define code, person and humanity.
Kagan stresses the parallels between Cohen's ethics and the traditions of Russian populism, a factor which recurs later in Bakhtin's career when the novel becomes linked with a populist political process. (M. Kagan, German Kogen , 1922) The unity of the individual is dependent on maxwell kane, the unity of the switching, people and this is in turn dependent on the unity of God. Whatever the difficulties of tracing his more immediate precursors, there is no doubt that Bakhtin's philosophical project maintained a fundamental connection with the traditions of Enlightenment aesthetics and maxwell kane with Kantianism in particular. As for Kant, the aesthetic is distinguished by its disinterestedness, the uncoupling of purposiveness from representation of the end. Where Kant concentrated on define switching, aesthetic judgement, however, Bakhtin was interested in aesthetic activity which can help to timothy establish a mode of reciprocal intersubjective relationships necessary to produce an intimate unity of individuals whose specificity is in no way endangered. This project, which remains constant throughout his work, adopts various forms. The aesthetic is the realm where now detached from the open event of being and define code switching finalized by virtue of the author's exteriority ( vnenakhodimost? ), the value-laden essence of the hero's deed is manifested. If the hero's activity were not objectified by the author then he or she would remain in some perpetual stream of timothy findley consciousness, completely oblivious to the wider significance of those deeds. However, in order to visualise the meaningful nature of those deeds, the define code switching, author must also have an insight into the subjective world of the hero, his or her horizon, sphere of views and interests ( krugozor ). Only the appropriate mode of empathy and objectification can produce the sort of productive whole Bakhtin envisages. Several problems arise from this model.
The first is that Bakhtin seems to maxwell kane want to use the author-hero model as a reciprocal principle within society and as a model of define code relations in literary composition. In the first model authors and heroes change their roles constantly, the unique perspective of each subject allows the objectification of others except oneself, who is objectified by war by findley, others. Define Code. Although the concept hardly appears in the early works, from 1928 onwards dialogue becomes the model of such interactions: one gains an awareness of one's own place within the whole through dialogue, which helps to bestow an awareness on others at the same time. Maxwell Kane. This is a very pleasant model as long as relationships remain equal. Yet the define switching, author-hero model also assumes a fundamental inequality in that the hero of a work can never have a reciprocal vantage point from which to objectify the author and thus the creator. Reform Essay. There is a crucial difference between a person-to-person and a person-to-God relationship which Bakhtin's model seems to define obscure. Furthermore, Bakhtin's model of the unique perspective of each author/hero, which is drawn from the on Six Medical Essay, Kantian model of an individual consciousness bearing a-priori categories encountering and giving form to the manifold of code switching sense impressions, is seriously compromised when one admits a socio-linguistic dimension into maxwell kane, the equation.
This happens in Voloshinov's 1926 article on define, discourse in life and Welfare Reform poetry. Code Switching. The alternative adopted by Voloshinov foregrounds the intonational dimension of language which manifests the Federal Reform, unique evaluative connections between subject and object. Language enmeshed within everyday practical activity is extracted, or liberated, from its connection with the open event of being by the author who then reflects upon it, from his or her own unique vantage point, manifesting its total intonational meaning. Code. The hero's language is alien to the author and therefore ripe for objectification; the crucial category is the latter's exteriority. Stress on this intonational dimension allows the encounter of the moll flanders, two consciousnesses to be spoken about in define switching phenomenological rather than linguistic terms and therefore allows Bakhtin to counter what he calls theoreticism, the tendency to consider the inner meaning of an action and its historical specificity in isolation from each other. This might include Hegel's tendency to view the particular incident as meaningful only as an instance of the Reflection Week, unfolding of reason, Husserl's sublation of inter-subjective relations in transcendental subjectivity or the positivistic assumption that categorisation of a phenomenon is switching sufficient to explain that phenomenon. The distinctively Bakhtinian approach to language only really begins to emerge in Voloshinov's 1926 essay Slovo v zhizni i slovo v poezii: k voprosam sotsiologicheskoi poetiki (Discourse in Life and Discourse in Welfare Reform Essay Poetry: Questions of Sociological Poetics), written during his postgraduate studies at switching, the Institute of Material, Artistic and Verbal Culture in Leningrad where L.P. Maxwell Kane. Iakubinskii, the pioneer of the define switching, study of dialogic speech, was among his advisers.
This work, which has been seen as the earliest example of Reflection Week Medical Placement pragmatics by more than one commentator, is the first work of the circle to define be presented as an timothy, explicitly Marxist text. The author attempts to define the aesthetic as a specific form of social interaction characterised by its completion by the creation of the artistic work and by its continual recreations in cocreative perception and switching it does not require any other objectifications. In the artistic work unspoken social evaluations are condensed and determine artistic form. The deeper structural features of maxwell kane a particular social interaction are made manifest in a successful artistic work; as Voloshinov puts it, form should be a convincing evaluation of the content ( Bakhtin School Papers ed. Shukman, Colchester 1983 p.9, 19, 20). The early Bakhtinian phenomenology is now recast in terms of discursive interaction, with a specifically sociological frame of reference. Another of define switching Voloshinov's projects was a critical response to Reflection on Six Week Essay incipient psychoanalysis and contemporary attempts to attempt a fusion of Marxism and Freudianism.
In 1927 he published his first book called Freidizm: Kriticheskii ocherk (Freudianism a Critical Sketch), which continued the theme of an earlier article from 1925 Po tu storonu sotsial?nogo (Just Beyond the Social) in which Freud was accused of a biological reductionism and subjectivism quite alien to the spirit of Marxism. Leaning upon a sociological analysis of language and culture, Voloshinov stresses that intersubjectivity precedes subjectivity as such and code that all meaning production and thus repression of meanings are socio-ideological rather than individual and biological as Freud supposed. It must be noted, however, that Voloshinov does not pay any attention to Freud's later work on Essay, cultural phenomena and thus presents a rather one-sided view of contemporary psychology. Furthermore, Freudianism is treated as a manifestation of bourgeois decay very much in the spirit of the later Lukacs. This indicates a turning towards a more Hegelian approach to questions of cultural and philosophical development, while the recasting of the define switching, Freudian superego in terms of the repression of unofficial ideologies by an official ideology anticipates one of the Placement Essay, central themes that would occupy Bakhtin in the 1930s and 1940s. 3. The Concluding Works of the define, Bakhtin Circle: 1928-1929. In the late 1920s the sociological and linguistic turn signalled by findley, Voloshinov's article on discourse had begun to form into a distinct school of thought in which language was the index of social relations and embodiment of ideological worldview.
While Voloshinov's linguistic studies were undoubtedly crucial to this reorientation, one of the central influences on the group at the time was the work of Ernst Cassirer, whose ground-breaking Philosophy of Symbolic Forms (3 Vols) was published between 1923 and 1929. One of Voloshinov's unfinished projects, which he began while at University, was a translation of the first volume of Cassirer's work on language. This volume marked the culmination of Cassirer's move away from Marburg Neo-Kantianism to a Hegelian rectification of Kant. Adopting Hegel's dialectical orientation, evolutionary approach to human knowledge and existence and concentration of the totality of define human activities, Cassirer sought to overcome the exclusivity of the Kantian focus on mankind's rational thought processes. At the same time, however, Cassirer strove to resist the Hegelian subsumption of all realms of the human spirit into Reform Essay, the Absolute by switching, retaining the Kantian distinction between the moll flanders, languages of the define code, human spirit. To this end Cassirer drew upon Herder and von Humboldt's identification of thought and signification, viewing the symbolic function as the common element to all areas of knowledge, but which took a specific form in each of them. The truth, agreed Cassirer and Welfare Reform Essay Hegel, is whole, but the former understood this to mean that each of the perspectives offered by define switching, various symbolic forms is equally valid and must be progressively unfolded so as to fully articulate itself. Reflection Medical Placement. This formulation, as we shall see, had a far reaching effect on the later work of code Bakhtin, but there are signs of its influence almost immediately in the work of the group. In 1928 P.N. Medvedev published a book-length critique of Russian Formalism.
This work begins with a definition of literary scholarship as one branch of the study of ideologies, a study which embraces all areas of man's ideological creativity. Indian Food. Medvedev goes on to argue that while Marxism has established the basis of such a study, including its relationship to economic factors, the study of the distinctive features and qualitative individuality of define switching each of the branches of ideological creation -- science, art, ethics, religion, and maxwell kane so forth. -- is still in define the embryonic stage (p.3). Despite the replacement of symbolic forms with branches of ideological creation the continuity of approach is clear. Where Cassirer sought to Federal Reform examine the symbolic function as a factor which recurs in each basic cultural form but in no two takes exactly the same shape (vol. 1, p.84), Medvedev sought to investigate the sociological laws of development which can be found in each branch of ideological creation but which manifests itself in define code specific ways. This sociological adaption of Cassirer's work was to feature largely in Bakhtin's work from the 1930s and 1940s, where, as Poole has demonstrated, many unattributed passages from the Essay Indian, former's work appear in Russian translation within the body of the latter's work. Medvedev felt that the Formalists were correct in attempting to define the specific features of literary creation but fundamentally mistaken in define code switching the positivistic approach they took towards literary devices which tended to efface the ideological, meaning-bearing and who wrote moll flanders thus sociological aspect of literary form. In conclusion Medvedev recommended that the formalists be treated respectfully and seriously, even if their fundamental premises were erroneous. Marxist criticism, he argued, should value Formalism as an object of serious criticism through which the bases of the former can be clarified. While subjecting the Russian Formalists to intense criticism on the basis of define their partisan alliance with the Futurist movement and their sharing its tendency towards a nihilistic destruction of meaning, Medvedev particularly praised Western formalist art scholarship such as the work of Hildebrand, Wolfflin and Worringer. These theorists were important for the development of the Bakhtin circle because they treated changes of artistic forms and styles as changes of artistic volition, that is, having ideological significance.
Worringer saw art history to be marked by an alternation of naturalism (empathy) and abstraction (estrangement) which correlated to the harmony or otherwise in the relationship of man and his environment. While formal and evaluative aspects are not identical, they do tend to maintain a close affiliation and findley this, Medvedev concluded, can be applied to literary form as well as visual art. This particular chapter, along with some shorter extracts of the book were omitted from the second edition of the book published with the define code, title Formalizm I formalisty (Formalism and the Formalists) in 1934. By this time a tolerant attitude towards the and pestel analysis, Formalists or Western scholarship was not permitted, and thus an additional and extremely hostile chapter called The Collapse of define Formalism was included. Earlier writers on the Bakhtin Circle tended to ascribe the first edition to Bakhtin and the second to Medvedev, but it is clear that the body of the Essay, second edition is an expurgated version of the first. Medvedev's formulation was carried over into Bakhtin's now famous study Problemy tvorchestva Dostoevskogo (Problems of Dostoyevsky's Work) published in 1929. Here the great nineteenth-century novelist's own verbally affirmed and often reactionary ideology is downplayed in favour of define code his form-shaping ideology which is war by timothy seen to be imbued with a profoundly democratic spirit.
Bakhtin attacks those critics, such as Engelgardt, who characterised Dostoyevsky's creative method as Hegelian. In such a scheme two positions struggle for ascendancy but are transformed into a synthesis at the end; however, according to Bakhtin, there is no merging of voices into a final, authoritative voice as in the Hegelian absolute. Dostoyevsky does not present an abstract dialectic but an unmerged dialogue of code voices, each given equal rights. Welfare Reform Essay. Bakhtin follows the nineteenth-century German novelist and critic Otto Ludwig in terming this type of dialogue polyphonic dialogue, which allows Cassirer's insistence on a plurality of code switching cultural forms to maxwell kane be extended to a plurality of discourses in society and the novel. In the code, course of Dostoyevsky's novels, argues Bakhtin, very much in the spirit of Cassirer, the worldviews of Food Dostoyevsky's heroes unfold, presenting their own unique perspective upon define code switching the world.
The novelist does not, as is the case with Tolstoi, submerge all positions beneath a single authoritative perspective, but allows the voice of the narrator to reside beside the voices of the on Six Week Medical, characters, bestowing no greater authority on that voice than on any of the others. Voices intersect and interact, mutually illuminating their ideological structures, potentialities, biases and limitations. Bakhtin's early phenomenology is now translated into switching, discursive terms. Where Bakhtin was initially concerned with intersubjective relations and the modality of authorial and heroic interaction, this is now examined in terms of the way in which one language encounters another, reporting and who wrote moll flanders modifying the utterance by code, reaccentuating it. Modes of interaction range from analysis stylisation to explicit parody, which Bakhtin spends a considerable proportion of the book cataloguing. As only the later edition of the book (1963) has been published in English, there is a tendency to confuse the chronology of the emergence of switching Bakhtin's key concepts. It should be noted that there is timothy no reflection on carnival or on the Menippean Satire in define the first edition of the Dostoyevsky study.
These features only Essay Indian Food emerged in the next decade in relation to the history of the novel as a genre. The first edition of the Dostoyevsky study is a monograph on the work of the famous novelist in terms which in many respects embody the poetics of a significant portion of contemporary fellow-traveller writing. When considered in its historical context, the Dostoyevsky study can be seen as a sort of rearguard defence of liberality in the cultural arena against the encroachment of political control. The book was published on the eve of the define code switching, destructive RAPP dictatorship, when bellicose advocates of who wrote flanders proletarian culture were granted free reign by the newly victorious Stalinist leadership of the Soviet Communist Party. Formal experimentation and an inadequately tendentious narrative position was branded as reactionary, while Bakhtin's work defended the presentation of a plurality of perspectives free from monologic closure. The formal characteristics of a work were themselves of ideological significance, but the reactionary tendency was in the imposition of a unitary perspective on a varied community of define code switching opinion. The semiotic dimension of the new orientation of the Bakhtin Circle was developed at the same time by Voloshinov. In a series of articles between 1928 and 1930 punctuated by the appearance of the book-length Marksizm i filosofiia iazyka (Marxism and the Philosophy of Language) in 1929 (2nd edition 1930) Voloshinov published an analysis of the relationship between language and ideology unsurpassed for several decades. Voloshinov examines two contemporary accounts of language, what he calls abstract objectivism, whose leading exponent is Saussure, and individualistic subjectivism, developed from the timothy, work of Wilhelm von Humboldt by the romantic idealists Benedetto Croce (1866-1952) and define code Karl Vossler (1872-1942). Voloshinov argues that the two trends derive from rationalism and swot and pestel analysis romanticism respectively and share both the code switching, strengths and weaknesses of those movements.
While the former identifies the war by, systematic and social character of language it mistakes the define switching, system of self-identical forms for who wrote moll, the source of language usage in society; it abstracts language from the concrete historical context of its utilisation (Bakhtin's theoreticism); the part is define code examined at the expense of the whole; the individual linguistic element is treated as a thing at and pestel, the expense of the dynamics of code switching speech; a unity of word meaning is assumed to the neglect of the multiplicity of meaning and accent and language is treated as a ready-made system whose developments are aberrations. The latter trend is correct in viewing language as a continuous generative process and Week Essay asserting that this process is meaningful, but fundamentally wrong in identifying the laws of that creation with those of individual psychology, viewing the generative process as analogous with art and treating the system of signs as an inert crust of the creative process. These partial insights, Voloshinov argues that a stable system of linguistic signs is merely a scientific abstraction; the generative process of language is define switching implemented in the social-verbal interaction of speakers; the laws of language generation are sociological laws; although linguistic and artistic creativity do not coincide, this creativity must be understood in relation to the ideological meanings and values that fill language and that the structure of each concrete utterance is a sociological structure. Several commentators have noted how Voloshinov's approach to language anticipates many of the criticisms of linguistic philosophy levelled by present day Poststructuralists, but does so without invoking the relativism of much of the latter or the moll, nullity of Derrida's hors texte . Voloshinov firmly establishes the sign-bound nature of consciousness and switching the shifting nature of the language system, but instead of viewing the subject as fragmented by the reality of difference, he poses each utterance to be a microcosm of social conflict. This allows sociological structure and moll the plurality of discourse to be correlated according to a unitary historical development. In this sense Voloshinov's critique bears a strong resemblance to the Italian Communist leader Antonio Gramsci's account of code switching hegemony in his Prison Notebooks . Like Voloshinov and Bakhtin, Gramsci drew upon Indian the work of Croce and Vossler and Matteo Bartoli's Saussurean spatial linguistics, and combined it with a Hegelian reading of Marxism.
As we have seen, however, Voloshinov was heavily influenced by the work of Cassirer, whose admiration for the work of von Humboldt, the founder of generative linguistics, was substantial. Switching. Voloshinov's critique thus tended towards the romantic pole of language study rather than taking up the equidistant position he claimed in his study. This can be seen in the tendency to see social groups as collective subjects rather than institutionally defined collectives and such assertions as those which suggest the meaning of a word is totally determined by moll, its context. What Voloshinov effectively does is to supplement Humboldt's recognition of individual and national linguistic variability with a sociological dimension. Define Switching. Humboldt's inner-form of language is war by recast as the relationality of discourse, dialogism . Abandoning the Marxist distinction between base and define switching superstructure, Voloshinov follows Cassirer and Hegel in maxwell kane seeing the variety of linguistic forms as expressions of a single essence. It is significant that Gramsci, who adopted a consistently pragmatist epistemology followed the same course and define code switching emerged with startlingly similar formulations. This suggests that the relations between the work of the Bakhtin school and Marxism are ones which are complex and worthy of close scrutiny. Those who have tried to set up a Chinese wall between the two tendencies or who have tried to identify them, have consistently failed to do justice to this philosophical dialogue. Some have even gone so far as to see the who wrote, work of the group as fundamentally anti-Hegelian, a charge which collapses as soon as one traces the use of terminology in the works from the late 1920s. 4. Bakhtin and the Theory of the Novel: 1933-1941. The shift in Bakhtin's thought from switching Kant towards Hegel is nowhere clearer than in his central works on the novel.
This can be seen in the new centrality Bakhtin grants to the history of literature to which Kant had been largely indifferent. As if to Indian stress his indebtedness to German idealism, Bakhtin adopts all of the characteristics of the novel as a genre catalogued by Goethe, Schlegel and Hegel with little modification and define traces how the essence of the genre appears over a course of time. The development of the maxwell kane, novel is described in code switching a way distinctly reminiscent of Cassirer's symbolic forms which unfold to present their unique view of the world which is itself a modified version of Hegel's characterisation of the Phenomenology of maxwell kane Spirit as the representation of define code appearing knowledge. At the same time, however, the novel adopts many of the features of the role of Hegel's philosophy in its Cassireran guise as the philosophy of culture. Such a philosophy, argued Cassirer, does not attempt to go behind the various image worlds created by the human spirit but to understand and elucidate their basic formative principle ( The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms vol. 1, Language p.113).
The novel, according to the scheme developed by Bakhtin, elucidates this principle with regard both to other literary genres and socio-ideological discourses. The old idealist formulation of the novel's imperative that it be a full and Essay Indian comprehensive reflection of its era is reformulated as the novel must represent all the ideological voices of its era. all the era's languages that have any claim to being significant (411). The novel is a symbolic form, but a specific one in which the basic formative principle of define code switching symbolic forms becomes visible. The socially stratified national language, heteroglossia in itself, becomes heteroglossia for-itself rather as thought perceives itself as its own object at the climax of Hegel's Phenomenology . The novel, for Bakhtin, uncovers the war by timothy findley, formative principle of discourse, its relationality, dialogism, without presenting some final absolute language of define switching truth such as that which constitutes Hegelian conceptualism. The novel develops into something akin to a visio intellectualis of the sort Cassirer found in the work of Nicholas Cusanus.
This is a whole which includes all various viewpoints in its accidentiality and necessity, the thing seen and the manner and direction of the seeing (Cassirer The Individual and the Cosmos in Renaissance Philosophy 1963, p.32). No individual perspective is adequate to the whole in itself, for only the concrete totality of perspectives can present the whole: Languages of heteroglossia, like mirrors that face each other, each of which in its own way reflects a little piece, a tiny corner of the world, force us to guess at and grasp behind their inter-reflecting aspects for a world that is broader, more multi-levelled and multi-horizoned than would be available to one language, one mirror. (Bakhtin Voprosy literatury i estetiki pp.225-26) While this aspect of Bakhtin's theory of the novel is most likely based on the philosophy of Cassirer, who developed his work as a defence of liberal values in the context of an increasingly chauvinistic atmosphere in Weimar Germany, a different political slant becomes markedly more apparent in Bakhtin's work of the 1930s. The novelist now becomes the heir of an anti-authoritarian popular cultural strategy to deflate the pretensions of the official language and ideology and maxwell kane institute a popular-collective learning process. The antecedent of this strategy is not German bourgeois liberalism but Russian populism ( narodnichestvo ). Define Code. Thus the dialectic of mythical and critical symbolic forms which Cassirer outlined in his philosophy now becomes fused with a dialectic of official and popular socio-cultural forces. On one side stand the forces of cultural centralisation and stabilisation: the official strata, unitary language, the literary canon and so on. On the other side stands the decentralising influence of popular culture: popular festivity and collective ridicule, literary parody, and the anti-canonic novel. Food. The rise of the novel is correlated with the code switching, collapse of antique unity and the breaking down of cultural boundaries.
Where the official culture developed a canon of poetic genres which posited a rarified language in opposition to the common spoken language, presented a monolithically serious worldview and epic accounts of a golden age and heroic beginnings, the novel parodies these features, ridiculing the official culture's claims to universal validity and Indian the ossified conventionality of canonic forms and language. The novel is thus a literary expression of a whole socio-cultural process, but this process is rather too broad to define switching be incorporated under the label Bakhtin gives to it without considerable problems with regard to conceptual accuracy. The adjective poetic becomes shorthand for the whole complex of maxwell kane institutional and cultural forms which can be included on the side of officialdom. Thus poetic denotes both a type of discourse used in define switching artistic texts and a hierarchical relation between discourses which constitutes the hegemonic relationships of an unequal society. Correspondingly, novelistic describes both the character of a genre, multi-accented artistic discourse, and an anti-authoritarian relationship between discourses. Another pair of terms which is often used interchangeably with these two is monologic and dialogic . The former denotes a mono-accentual type of discourse and an authoritarian stance towards another discourse. The latter describes a multi-accentual discourse, the relationality of discourse, and an orientation on a monologic discourse which seeks to reveal the ideological structure lurking behind surface appearances. The ground between formal and political terms shifts before the reader, who is constantly reminded of the moll, institutional co-ordinates for define code, all discursive phenomena but is never presented with a sociological account of those co-ordinates. This might be explained both by the ideological restrictions placed on any writer in Stalin's Russia and by the idealist frame of and pestel Bakhtin's own theory.
This ambiguity has allowed very different interpretations of define code switching Bakhtin's work to on Six Week be drawn, ranging from a tendency to reduce the whole argument to one of artistic forms, leading to a liberalistic formal criticism and attempts to correlate Bakhtin's argument with the institutional forms of modern capitalist society. Bakhtin's work has thus become a battleground between (mainly American) liberal academics and (mainly British) anti-Stalinist Marxists. In its classical phase, Russian populism was, according to Walicki, opposed to the abstract intellectualism of those revolutionaries who tried to teach the peasants, to impose on them the ideals of Western socialism, instead of learning what were their real needs and acting in the name of such interests and ideals of switching which the peasants had already become aware. Yet it also suggested an opposition to those Second International Marxists who argued that capitalism was an unavoidable stage in the development of Russia ( The Controversy Over Capitalism 1989 p.3). Analysis. In one sense, then, it was a political ideology compatible with Third International Marxism, but in another it sought to reverse the hegemony of intellectuals over the people. Bakhtin's poet is code a hegemonic intellectual whose language relates in Essay an authoritative fashion to the discourse of the masses, while the novelist aims to code switching break and indeed reverse that hegemonic relationship. In Bakhtin's formulation, the locus of Federal Essay critical forces of culture is the code, people , while the mythological forces of culture emerge from the official stratum. Many of the central works on the novel were at least partially written in response to the theory of the novel developed by Georg Lukacs. Bakhtin had begun to translate Lukacs' Theory of the Novel in the 1920s but abandoned the project upon learning that Lukacs no longer liked the book but in the 1930s, when Lukacs accommodated to the Stalin regime and essentially became a right Hegelian , his theory of the novel became canonical. Bakhtin agreed with Lukacs that the novel represented the essence of the analysis, age and that irony constituted a central factor of the novelistic method, but rejected the latter's assertion that unless the novel revealed the thread of rationality running through a seemingly anarchic world, that is, presented an authoritative perspective, the author had succumbed to switching bourgeois decadence.
Modernist formal experimentation and the dominance of parody in modernist literature Lukacs found to maxwell kane be a reflection of bourgeois decay, while Bakhtin strove to code switching reveal its popular-democratic roots. The novel should not be seen as a compensation for swot, the restlessness of contemporary society, uncovering the assured road to progress, but the embodiment of the dynamic forces that could shape society in code switching a popular-democratic fashion. Thus where Lukacs championed epic closure, Bakhtin highlighted novelistic openendedness; where Lukacs advocated a strong narrative presence, Bakhtin advocated the maximalisation of multilingual intersection and the testing of Federal Welfare Essay discourse. Bakhtin takes a left Hegelian stance against Lukacs; dialogism becomes analogous to Hegel's Geist , both describing the switching, social whole and standing in judgement over those eras in which the dialogic imperative is not realised. 5. Carnival, History And Popular Culture: Rabelais, Goethe And Dostoyevsky As Philosophers. The high point of war by timothy findley Bakhtin's populism can be seen in code switching his now famous 1965 study of Rabelais and the heavily revised second edition of the 1929 Dostoyevsky book (1963).
The former had been composed as Bakhtin's doctoral dissertation which had been written in the late 1930s but was only prepared for publication when he emerged from obscurity in the 1960s. Tvorchestvo Fransua Rable i narodnaia kul?tura srednevekov?ia i renessansa (The work of Francois Rabelais and the Popular Culture of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance) is a remarkable work. Bakhtin concentrates on the collapse of the strict hierarchies of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance by looking at the way in which ancient modes of Reflection on Six Week Medical Essay living and code switching working collectively, in accordance with the rhythms of nature, re-emerge in the forms of popular culture opposed to official culture. In Problemy poetiki Dostoevskogo (Problems of Dostoyevsky's Poetics) Bakhtin summarises the essence of the question thus: It could be said (with certain reservations, of course) that a person of the Middle Ages lived, as it were, two lives : one that was the official life, monolithically serious and gloomy, subjugated to a strict hierarchical order, full of terror, dogmatism, reverence and piety; the Reflection on Six Week Medical Placement, other was the life of the carnival square , free and unrestricted, full of ambivalent laughter, blasphemy, the profanation of everything sacred, full of define switching debasing and obscenities, familiar contact with everyone and maxwell kane everything. Both these lives were legitimate, but separated by code switching, strict temporal boundaries. (p.129-30) The activities of the Week Placement Essay, carnival square: collective ridicule of officialdom, inversion of define switching hierarchy, violations of decorum and moll proportion, celebration of bodily excess and so on embody, for Bakhtin, an implicit popular conception of the define switching, world. This conception is not, however, able to flanders become ideologically elaborated until the radical laughter of the square entered into the world of define code great literature (Rabelais p.96). The novel of Rabelais is seen as the epitome of this process of breaking down the rigid, hierarchical world of the Middle Ages and the birth of the modern era. Rabelais is much more than a novelist for Bakhtin: his work embodies a whole new philosophy of history, in which the world is viewed in the process of becoming. The grotesque is the image of this becoming, the boundaries between person and person, person and thing, are erased as the individual merges with the people and the whole cosmos.
As the individual body is transcended, the biological body is negated and swot and pestel the body of historical, progressing mankind moves to the centre of the system of images. In the carnival focus on death and define code rebirth the individual body dies, but the body of the people lives and grows, biological life ends but historical life continues. The carnivalesque becomes a set of image-borne strategies for destabilising the official worldview. In a recently published article written for inclusion in the Soviet Literaturnaia entsiklopediia (Literary Encyclopaedia) in Essay Indian Food 1940, Bakhtin defines the satirical attitude as the image-borne negation of contemporary actuality as inadequacy, which contains within itself a positive moment in which an improved actuality is affirmed. Define Switching. This affirmed actuality is the historical necessity implicit in contemporary actuality and which is implied by the grotesque image. The grotesque, argues Bakhtin, discloses the potentiality of an entirely different world, of another order, another way of life. It leads man out of the confines of the apparent (false) unity, of the indisputable and stable (Rabelais p.48). The grotesque image of the body, as an image which reveals incomplete metamorphosis no longer represents itself, it represents what Hegel called the universal dialectic of life. The Renaissance birth of the historical world led to maxwell kane a new development in the Enlightenment. Where Rabelais was presented as the define code switching, high point of Renaissance literary and philosophical development, the Enlightenment reaches one of its high points in the work of Goethe. The process dispersing the residue of otherworldly cohesion and mythical unity was completed at this time, helping reality to gather itself together and moll condense into the visible whole of a new world ( Speech Genres and Other Late Essays p.45).
The Enlightenment, argues Bakhtin in define code switching a section which draws heavily on Cassirer (the corresponding passage is The Philosophy of the Enlightenment p.197), should no longer be considered an a-historical era, but an epoch of great awakening of a sense of time, above all . in Indian nature and human life (p.26). But, argues Bakhtin this process of preparing for the disclosure of historical time took place more rapidly, completely, and profoundly in literary creativity than in the abstract philosophical, ideological views of Enlightenment thinkers (p.26). Goethe's imagination was fundamentally chronotopic , he visualised time in space: Time and space merge . into an inseparable unity . a definite and absolutely concrete locality serves at the starting point for the creative imagination. this is define code switching a piece of who wrote moll human history, historical time condensed into space. Therefore the plot (sum of depicted events) and the characters . are like those creative forces that formulated and humanised this landscape, they made it a speaking vestige of the movement of history (historical time), and, to a certain degree, predetermined its subsequent course as well, or like those creative forces a given locality needs in order to organise and continue the historical process embodied in it. Code. (p.49) Goethe wanted to bring together and unite the present, past and future with the ring of necessity (p.39), to Reflection on Six Medical Placement Essay make the present creative. Like Rabelais, Goethe was as much a philosopher as a writer. The same pattern of analysis shapes the 1963 version of the Dostoyevsky study.
Here Dostoyevsky is no longer treated, as in the 1929 version, as a totally original innovator, but as the heir to a tradition rooted in popular culture. Switching. The novelist stood poised at the threshold of swot and pestel a new era, as the code, rigidly hierarchical Russian Empire was poised to give way to the catastrophic arrival of capitalist anarchy and ultimately revolution. Dostoyevsky thus intersected with the threshold poetics of carnival at a different stage in its development, he sought to Essay present the define code, voices of his era in a pure simultaneity unrivalled since Dante. In contradistinction to that of Goethe this chronotope was one of Essay Indian Food visualising relations in terms of space not time and code this leads to a philosophical bent that is maxwell kane distinctly messianic: Only such things as can conceivably be linked at a single point in time are essential and are incorporated into define switching, Dostoevskii's world; such things can be carried over into eternity, for in eternity, according to Dostoevskii, all is simultaneous, everything coexists. Thus there is no causality in Dostoevskii's novels, no genesis, no explanations based on the past, on the influences of the environment or of upbringing and so forth. Every act a character commits is in the present, and in this sense is not predetermined; it is conceived of and represented by the author as free. (p.29)
The roots of such a conception lie in carnival and, according to Bakhtin, in the carnivalised philosophical dialogues that constituted the Menippean Satire. This philosophico-literary genre reaches a new stage in Dostoyevsky's work, where the Reflection Medical Placement, roots of the novel as a genre stands out particularly clearly. Define Code Switching. One of swot analysis those roots was the Socratic Dialogue, which was overwhelmed by the monologic Aristotelian treatise, but which continued to lead a subterranean life in the non-canonical minor satirical genres and then became a constitutive element of the novel form and, implicitly, literary modernism. This accounts for its philosophical importance. In his last years Bakhtin returned to define code switching the methodological questions that had preoccupied his earlier years, though now with a rather different perspective. Who Wrote Moll. This began with his work on speech genres in the 1950s, though apart from this study, did not yield any sustained texts until the 1970s. Bakhtin now began to stress the dialogic character of define code switching all study in the human sciences, the fact that one needs to deal with another I who can speak for and about his or herself in a fundamentally different way than with an inanimate and voiceless object. Welfare Essay. To this end he sought to differentiate his position from that of incipient Soviet structuralism, which adopted the abstract objectivist approach to language and the constitution of the subject. Bakhtin's approach to define subjectivity is Reform dialogic, referring to the exchange of utterances rather than narrowly linguistic, and this extends to the analysis of texts which are always intertextual, meeting and illuminating each other. Just as texts have genres, definite and relatively stable typical forms of construction of the define code switching, whole so too does speech. Thus the boundaries between complex genres such as those commonly regarded as literary and other less formalised genres should be seen as porous and flexible, allowing a dialogue of genres as well as styles.
The work of the Bakhtin circle is multifaceted and extremely pertinent to contemporary philosophical concerns. Yet their work moves beyond philosophy narrowly defined to encompass anthropology, literary studies, historiography and political theory. The vicissitudes of intellectual life in the Soviet Union have complicated assessment of the who wrote, work of the circle, as has the way in which the define switching, works have been published and translated in recent years. On top of this, the works of the group have been read into a theoretical position framed by present-day concerns over poststructuralism and the fate of the Essay Food, subject in modern philosophy. A proper historical assessment of the work of the Bakhtin Circle will be much aided by the publication of Bakhtin's Complete Works which will appear over the next few years.
This will hopefully be followed by a harmonised English translation which will facilitate an informed assessment in the English speaking world.
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Code switching Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary
Retail Resume: Sample and Complete Guide [+20 Examples] You're about to get a job in code switching, retail. One where you rub elbows with fun people. Spark off them. One with great perks like full health benefits. Or a concierge service for doing oil changes while you work. You want that retail job.
But between you and maxwell kane it, like CeCe Drake in define code, Pretty Little Liars , stands a wall of retail resumes 300 high. How will you get past that wall? You'll do it with a resume for retail that makes you stand out like a jumbotron. A retail resume example that gets attention. How to maxwell kane, write a basic retail resume.
The best format for define code, a retail clerk resume. The best way to write skills and keywords on Essay, a resume for retail. Here's a sample resume for retail made using our resume builder. Want to save time and switching have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder.
It’s fast and easy to swot, use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and define create your resume here. What's the Best Format for swot, a Retail Resume? Picture a retail manager. Her name's Megan, and she's hiring. She's sitting in her office, wading through a sea of retail resumes.
Nice potted philodendron. One thing that makes it easier? Errors. Typos, poor formatting, spelling mistakes, and bad grammar. She gets to toss all those resumes in the rejects pile. Make it to the next level by choosing the code best format for a retail resume. Pick a trusted layout like the reverse-chronological format. It puts your best accomplishments up front. That's important, because Megan spends just six seconds looking at Food each resume. Use clear, legible fonts, big headings, and white space to give Megan's eyes a rest. Finally, save your retail clerk resume as a PDF.
PDFs don't change from switching one computer to the next . Pro Tip: Check the job posting to see if PDF retail resumes are prohibited. Some Applicant Tracking Systems have a hard time with PDF resumes. How to Write a Resume Summary or Resume Objective. How can you get the hiring manager to spend more than a few seconds looking at Federal your retail resume? You can do it with a top notch resume summary or resume objective. A resume summary is for anyone with shelves full of define experience. A resume objective works for timothy, applicants that need restocking. See, most resumes say the same thing: I've got people skills. I'm experienced.
Hire me. Instead, wake that manager. Shake her. Use specifics. Add details that engage her interest fast . See the luxury retail resume examples below:
Enthusiastic retail clerk with 3+ years experience. Define Code Switching? Seeking to who wrote flanders, boost REI KPIs through proven skills in define, sales and maxwell kane customer loyalty. Switching? Maintained 93% positive customer reviews and 21% above average repeat customer scores. Run own YouTube product knowledge channel with 1,500 views a month. Retail clerk with 3 years experience, seeking retail job. Skilled in sales, customer loyalty, and product knowledge.
See the difference? The first retail resume sample shows you are a skilled surgeon behind that register. On Six Essay? The second seats you on a throne of code switching lies. Now. Maxwell Kane? What if you don't have that kind of switching experience? In that case, write an objective statement for your retail associate resume.
Two Entry Level Retail Resume Objective Examples. Do you lack experience? Does your basic retail resume look like an empty shelf? We'll fix that, starting with a resume objective statement. Objective statements work for Reflection on Six Week Medical, entry-level retail workers, or anybody seeking a new niche. Hard-working retail associate, skilled in POS tech and define switching inventory management. Seeking to increase sales and customer loyalty at Chiller Outfitters. Built volunteer retail experience at Goodwill as cashier and restocker, receiving management commendation for excellent customer communication. Entry-level retail associate with BA from Indian Williams College.
Seeking real world experience in retail. Define Code Switching? No experience yet but I'm very energetic. That second retail clothing resume example makes you look like a standee. The first one gets the hiring manager's attention. Maxwell Kane? Why? Because it shows you can do retail duties, even though you haven't had a real-world retail job yet. Pro Tip: A couple days of volunteer experience looks great on a resume. See the next section for define code switching, tips on how to war by timothy, get it.
How to Describe Your Retail Experience. Is experience important on a retail resume? Only if you want the switching best retail jobs. You know. The ones with flex scheduling, onsite medical, and deep discounts for employees. To get those jobs, write a retail clerk resume that wakes up the Indian hiring manager like a date with Elf. Tailor your experience to the job description. If you do, you'll stop being generic cornflakes and code switching turn into the HR manager's best friend. List your most recent job near the top of your retail resume. Add 4-6 bullet points that show accomplishments. How to Describe a Retail Job on maxwell kane, a Resume.
Fulfilled all retail clerk duties in a high-end sales outlet. Switching? Handled customer-service including POS, sales, and inventory management. Maintained high-level product knowledge. Received 95% positive marks for conveying product features and who wrote moll benefits, as reported in customer surveys. Define? Built customer loyalty through fostering stronger relationships. Federal Welfare Essay? Retained average repeat-customer scores 21% higher than other associates. Used expert level communications skills to zero in on true customer needs.
Overall 93% positive ratings from customers in define code switching, post-sales surveys. Retail clerk at high-end sales outlet. Handled all day-to-day customer service retail duties. Ran POS system. Welfare Essay? Conducted daily sales. Big difference, right?
With that first example, you could get a job selling magic wands at Ollivander's. But what about a retail associate resume with no experience ? How to Write a Retail Resume with no Experience. Here are two tips to stuff an empty resume like a Black Friday circular. First: Troll your past non-retail jobs to dig up hidden retail gems. Second: volunteer or take a temporary retail job. But I need money now. Define Switching? I don't have time to Essay, volunteer. You don't have to spend months, or even a full week.
Just a day or two will do. Hey, presto! Instant retail resume experience. Two Retail Resume Samples (No Experience) July 2017 - August 2017. Served as retail associate in thriving Goodwill outlet. Switching? Managed all retail duties, including cashier work, restocking, and customer communication. Assisted with sorting and inventorying donations.
Improved efficiency of Essay donations processing by 55% over define code switching other current associates. Maintained zero errors with the POS system. Maxwell Kane? Commended by management for excellent customer communication. Ran cashier position. Define? Cashed out Reflection Essay register daily. Interacted with over 200 customers per switching, day. Self-Employed College Student. Interacted with several customers per weekend.
Frequently upsold customers to hedge trimming and leaf raking. Retail Experience: None yet, but I'm a very fast learner. Other Experience: Waited tables, mowed lawns. Poof. That first retail resume sample could get you behind the moll register in the gift shop at Asgard. Yet it wasn't hard to build. You already had retail experience from define switching previous jobs even if you had little to no store experience. And you did that volunteer gig in a few days' time. Pro Tip: Retail clerk and retail associate are two keywords managers search for. Use the one that's listed in the job description in your resume. Now that you know how to maxwell kane, put experience on define code switching, a retail salesman resume, pep it up with action words.
Need some? See our guide: +80 Examples of swot analysis Resume Action Words for Every Profession Is Your Education Section Cashing Out? It Might Be. The best thing about a career in retail? No one cares about your education.
Right? If you have one, use it to make your already good retail resume shine. It doesn't really matter if it's high school or college. The real gold's in the details. Pursued a passion for define code, sociology coursework. Excelled in four years of maxwell kane Spanish classes. Placed secon d in define code, the W.S.C. Public Speaking Contest. As different as Sears and Sephora, right? The first sample shows actual useful retail training.
But it wasn't any harder to make. Need an example to follow? Use the sample retail resume at the top of this article. Pro Tip: Don't have a college degree? Find accomplishments from timothy findley high school that prove you have the skills shown in the job description. How to Put Skills on a Resume for a Retail Employee.
Remember our hiring manager, Megan? She's looking for skills on every retail resume she reads. But not just any skills. How can you know what skills to put on switching, a resume for retail? First, search the maxwell kane job description. Then, find more skills in define code, other job offers online.
Finally, use our list of retail skills below. Pro Tip: Try to find out what POS system the hiring store uses. Reform? Some POS systems, like Shopify, post free online tutorials . In half an hour of online viewing, you can add some nice flair to your retail resume. The Real Secret to Putting Retail Skills on a Resume. Ready for switching, the real magic? Don't just list your skills. Prove them in Welfare Essay, your experience and education sections. Let's take a sample retail resume job description. It values management skills , building customer loyalty , and increasing sales figures . Fulfilled daily retail manager duties , including scheduling, inventory management, problem solving, and taking disciplinary action. Code Switching? Increased sales figures by 75% over previous manager through better application of corporate devised promotions. Built customer loyalty through better deployment of customer rewards programs through all retail clerks.
Increased repeat business 23%. Bam. With a professional retail resume like that, you could get a job running The Magic Box from war by Buffy the Vampire Slayer . Pro Tip: Once you've proven your skills in your experience section, do it in your education section too. Define? Even listing a passion for public speaking classes counts. How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume. Imagine you're a retail resume. You're in maxwell kane, a pile of 300+ others, just like you. The only way to do that is by code looking different. One great way is swot and pestel analysis other sections.
You know: hobbies, interests, activities, and volunteer work. Things that aren't work experience, education, or skills. But there's a special way to define code switching, do it. You don't want to Indian Food, add generic info. That's like using camouflage when you want neon. Retail Resume Sample Other Sections.
Basic First Aid CPR RiseUp Retail Industry Fundamentals Certification. Review products in own YouTube Channel. Define Code? Get 1,500 views/month. Avid listener, The Advanced Selling Podcast. Regular reader of books about Indian Food sales. Organized a charity snowboard event for the local animal shelter. (2016) Help out once a month at the Summerville Food Pantry. Avid whitewater kayaker.
Write and define switching publish short fiction stories. Poof. You just went from mannequin to manager material. Pro Tip: Are special retail certifications worth it? Don't agonize if you don't have one. That said, a certification proves you take retail seriously enough to put in extra effort. Here's the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. Ready?
Here it comes: Nobody reads cover letters anymore. The truth is 40% of Federal Reform Essay hiring managers still consider cover letters mandatory. In other words, you need to write one for each and every retail resume you send. Don't be frightened. Retail cover letters are short and easy. The best cover letters for code, retail jobs call the hiring manager by name. They say one detail you like about the Federal Essay company. They say two details about you that will help the company. (Pick the best wins from your retail resume.)
They close with a call to action, like, I'd love to talk more with you about your needs. Pro Tip: After you send in your retail associate resume and cover letter, follow up! A well-timed thank-you email can remind the hiring manager to take another look at your resume. How to Add Contact Info to code switching, Your Resume. Do you really need help adding contact info to a basic retail resume? You already know to add your: Full Name Updated Phone Number Professional Email Address. Karen Welihan, firstname.lastname@example.org - 857-869-2379. Use a professional email address. Findley? No RetailGirlDawnOfTheDead47798@yahoo.com.
Then, think about Megan, our hiring manager. Let's say she likes your perfect retail resume for sales assistants. She wants to define switching, know more about you. Give her a way. Add your LinkedIn profile, Twitter handle, or other online hangouts. Pro Tip: Is your Facebook profile clean enough for a hiring manager to see? Do some spring cleaning, with our guide to cleaning up your online presence . A Sample Retail Resume Job Description. Here's a sample job description for Reflection on Six Week Medical Essay, a retail resume. Why am I showing you this? Because I want you to think, as you read it, What are the keywords I'll hit in my resume?
How will I tailor my own skills and accomplishments to code switching, fit? As a Shindlee's Retail Clerk, you'll bring magic to our customers. Shindlee's sales clerks provide outstanding customer service, exceed sales goals, and share superior product knowledge with customers. Properly use proprietary POS system technology. Determine customer needs based on effective communication.
Build and communicate expert knowledge of store products. Meet daily sales goals. Pro Tip: To save time, build a couple bare bones retail resume templates you can tweak to fit each job description. The up-front work will pay off big. Want more tips to fit your retail management resume to the job like a custom-crafted sales pitch? See our guide: 6 Tips on Essay Indian, How to Tailor Your Resume to define switching, a Job Description (Examples) Even with example retail resumes, making your own tailored version isn't easy. Start with the retail job description.
Highlight all the skills and duties in maxwell kane, it. This is a must for retail manager resumes and retail sales associate resumes alike. Prove you can walk the talk by salting those skills throughout your retail sales resumes. Put them in your experience and education sections. Add other sections to your retail resume, like hobbies and define switching interests. Other sections make you stand out like a clerk from the Emerald City's Wash Brush Up Co.
Got questions or tips about how to make a great retail resume? Give us a shout in analysis, the comments section! Tom Gerencer is a founder and former owner of MediaNortheast Video Production and Training Without Boredom. A full-time writer in define, the fields of Essay Indian personal finance and define code career advice, Tom lives in West Virginia with his wife Kathy, two children and who wrote moll a couple of ornery dogs.
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An Essay on The Landlady by Roald Dahl. Code? prepared readers well for the end of the story. He used hints such as. describing the outside of the bed and breakfast, giving details of the. entry and the bedroom, and also telling the readers about the living. foreshadowing. Federal Reform Essay? The sign was described to be distinctive. It was. portrayed to be luring the boy inside. Dahl used the opening of the. door as a hint also.
He explained that the woman debouched the door. open, which would foreshadow that she was abnormal. The woman also had. the events to come. The bed had a hot water bottle in it. This was. meant to make the define, lady seem like she was waiting for someone soon, since the bottle was still warm to keep the bed heated. There was. also the guest book that had only two other entries. On Six Week Medical Placement Essay? One was Chris. Muholland and the other was Gregory Temple.
These names sounded. familiar to the boy and led to his curiosity of who they were. When. the boy remembered where he saw the names before, which was in the. newspaper claiming they were missing, it revealed that the men were in. the bed and breakfast before they went missing. This made the reader. believe that something was discerning about the situation. room. He described a dog and a parrot first. It turned out the. Define Switching? animals were stuffed, and the lady taxidermies them herself.
At this. Moll? point in code switching, the story, the maxwell kane, hints are coming together that not everything. is adequate about the place. Her hands were said to be pale, as if. they might be lifeless. Dahl used this to explain that she might have. gotten discoloration in her hands from using chemicals in her “work” that she does. Code Switching? The tea was finally used as a clue. The lady gave the. boy some tea that tasted of bitter almonds. The use of this. information declared that something was in the tea The Character of the Hitchhiker in The Hitchhiker by Roald Dahl. However Dahl makes the character more fascinating and unique. Analysis? Further on in the story, the hitchhiker began to unwrap. His personality and define switching thoughts began to unfold.
I noticed the moll flanders, hitchhiker had strong opinions. The hitchhiker thinks his highly skilled job is define switching more important than any other, ?crummy jobs?. In my opinion I would say he must have a ?crummy job?, because he is the one who is a hitchhiker. He also said ? all car makers are liars? and ?there?s a lot of Essay Indian Food bad writers around?. I admired Lamb to the Slaughter By Roald Dahl Essay. My first impressions of Patrick Maloney, the husband, were not as I expected them to be. From what I saw of the wife I expected Patrick to switching, be a kind gentle man who loves every second with his wife, only to Essay Food, find out he is not.
As soon as he gets in is to the chair and switching drinking a glass of whiskey “…Then she walked over and made the drinks, a strongish one for him, a weak one for herself; and soon she was back again in her chair with the sewing, and he in the other, opposite…” This gives the Lamb to Reflection Medical, the Slaughter by Roald Dahl Essay. The next several paragraphs prove just how much Mary loved her husband and explain why She loved to define, luxuriate in the presence of this man. However, the more reasons Mary gives for loving her husband and the more attempts she makes to please him it becomes clearer and clearer that something is wrong - Patrick is avoiding conversation and is becoming increasingly more irritated with Mary for her attempts to please to him. When Mr. Malloney cannot bear another moment of the findley, fuss that has been created The Speckled Band by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Lamb To The Slaughter by Roald Dahl. stone' and 'a picture of ruin' to show the age of the mansion. Code? In this story, the who wrote moll, setting is define very important as it creates the suspense and atmosphere for the reader to keep reading on.
They expect something malicious in return. On the other hand Dahl uses phrases such as 'The room was warm and clean', 'the curtains drawn' and 'Fresh ice cubes' to create a warm domestic feeling, which works in harmony with the image of Mrs. Maloney and her feelings toward her husband. On Six Week? This causes the reader to The Speckled Band by Arthur Conan Doyle and code Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl. described. The manor of Stoke Moran is the kind of place that you would expect to be the setting of Federal Essay a murder mystery, the code, Maloney residence is not. The setting for flanders, the story is a warm 1950's family home, belonging to Mr and Mrs Patrick Maloney. Dahl starts the story with a short description of the setting. 'The room was warm and define code clean, the curtains drawn, the two table lamps alight, hers and the one by the empty chair opposite.' This description is not the typical setting for this type of publicus ? public). Consequently the on Six Week Medical Placement, republic was similar with Greek demokratia. At the beginning only aristocrats or patricians were allowed to participate at the governing act, but after much struggle the common people [ .] also gained entry (Dahl, 1998: 13). Only male patricians, later lower castes as well, were able to govern, meaning that women, same as in Athens, were denied any political rights.
Starting as a city-state, the Roman Republic conquered territories far beyond its initial borders The Veiled Lodger by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and The Lamb To The Slaughter by Roald Dahl. Maloney enquires, 'tired, darling?' he replies, 'yes. Define Code? I'm tired.' These short retorts show anxiety and anger. After much enquiry about dinner plans, a one-sided conversation with Mrs. Maloney, and a very agitated and snappy Mr Maloney, he finally decides to and pestel, take aggression with his wife, 'Sit down. just sit down'. Mrs. Maloney now makes herself appear vulnerable by code switching lowering herself cautiously into a chair, Still being her pleasing self, Mrs Maloney listens to her husband, he tells her, very The Evolution of the who wrote moll flanders, Modern Woman as seen in Roald Dahl#x27;s #x27;Witches#x27; and becomes very weak, however still manages to recover and take her grandson on vacation.
In addition to define code switching, this, the grandmother can certainly come across as stubborn, In the end, the doctor had his way about the holiday, but not about the cigars (Dahl, pg. 51), here, one sees how the grandmother refuses to stop smoking cigars even though the doctor had warned her that it may be hazardous to her health, especially since she is still recovering form her illness. An extremely will powered woman is How Dahl Uses Humor in his Books Boy and Georges Marvellous Medicine to Manipulate the Reader#x27;s Perception of Events that Occur. it’s unbelievable.” (Dahl et al., 2013). Roald Dahl is well known for someone who loves to use humour in his story books to make children and even grownups laugh until their tummies heart. In the following essay there is going to be looked at how Dahl uses humour in his books Boy and Federal Welfare Reform Essay Georges Marvellous Medicine to code switching, manipulate the reader’s perception of maxwell kane events that occur. You can write about anything for children as long as you’ve got humour (Dahl et al., 2014) In Boy, Dahl makes use of humour to Atmosphere and code switching Tension in The Speckled Band by Air Arthur Conan Doyle and Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl. On Six Placement? The story begins with Sherlock waking up Watson and explaining of a women in define code switching, need of their help. They arrive downstairs to greet a women named Helen Stoner.
She begins to explain her worries about her fiery stepfather who she believes murdered her sister. She begins to explain the of her family and talks of swot and pestel analysis her close relationship with her sister, Sherlock arranges a visit to Helen's home to try to get to the bottom of define code her sisters murder. She left. Maxwell Kane? Soon after Sherlock
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Code Switching Definition and Examples in Language - ThoughtCo
Free German Essays on Family: Meine Familie. Did your German teacher tell you to define code write about Reflection Week Placement, your family, but you have just no idea how to do that? Well, you are lucky because you have me! I am a German native and happy to help you. I have written some example essays about families for code, you. I have seen many children at school struggling to writing in proper German.
Here is your chance to make it better and to impress your teacher. Wether you need to copy some sentences or use my examples as an inspiration, it is your choice. The examples that I show you below are structured like this: First, you find an Indian, example of a short essay in German. It shows you how you can describe your own family. Define. Since every family is different, I wrote some more examples for you to chose from. After the German part follows a part in italics where I tell you in English what the German text is about. After the examples of short essays, you will find a list of German key words and conjugated verbs that I provided for you so that you do not have to look it up a dictionary. Timothy. My aim is to provide a time effective aid for define code, your German homework. Any questions about the texts? Just ask! And please excuse any mistakes in maxwell kane, my English, as I am still learning too.
Do you live with your Mum, Dad, and define with your brother or sister? Then use this text to describe your family in your German essay: Wir sind eine ganz normale Familie. And Pestel. Ich wohne zusammen mit meinen Eltern, meiner kleinen Schwester Lisa und unserer Katze Mick. Meine Gro?eltern wohnen im gleichen Dorf wie wir. Oma Francis arbeitet noch. Code Switching. Sie ist Krankenschwester. Die Anderen sind schon in findley, Rente. Code. Oma Lydia nimmt sich viel Zeit fur mich und geht haufig mit mir Kleider oder Schuhe kaufen. Leider will meine kleine Schwester dann auch immer mit.
Mein Vater arbeitet bei einer Bank und fahrt am Wochenende gern mit seinem Motorrad. Das findet meine Mutter nicht so gut, da sie meint, dass Motorradfahren so gefahrlich ist. Sie sagt, dass ich und meine Schwester auf keinen Fall mitfahren durfen. Mein Vater versteht das nicht, aber er will sich auch nicht streiten. Nachstes Jahr wollen wir in ein gro?eres Haus ziehen, weil meine Eltern noch ein Baby bekommen. Ich hoffe, dass wir nicht zu weit weg ziehen, da alle meine Freunde hier in der Nahe wohnen. Meine Tante Clara, die Schwester meiner Mutter, wohnt sogar genau gegenuber. Meine Cousine Barbara kommt deshalb haufig zu Besuch. Here is what the swot text is about (this is not a 1-to-1 translation!): We are a very normal family. I live with my parents, my little sister, and our cat Mick.
My grandparents live in the same village where we live. Grandma Francis still works. Code. She is a nurse. Maxwell Kane. The others are already retired. Define Code. Grandma Lydia spends a lot of time with me, and we often go shopping together to look for Reflection on Six Week Placement Essay, clothes or shoes. Unfortunately, my little sister wants to come with us as well. My father works in define code, a bank and likes to maxwell kane ride his motorbike on the weekend. My mother does not like that because she thinks it is switching, very dangerous. Essay Indian Food. She says we are never allowed to ride with him on the bike.
My father doesn't understand why, but he doesn't want to argue with her. Next year, we are going to define code move into a bigger house because my parents will have another baby. I hope we are not moving too far because all of my friends are here. My aunt Clara even lives opposite to us. Therefore, my cousin Barbara often visits us. If you have a big family, this example may help you with your German essay: Meine Familie ist sehr gro?.
Ich habe zwei Schwestern, einen Bruder, drei Tanten, einen Onkel und sechs Cousins. Meine gro?e Schwester hat lange blonde Haare und hei?t Laura und eine kleine Schwester hei?t Miranda und ist dunkelhaarig. Mein Bruder hei?t Fred und tragt eine Brille. Ich verstehe mich gut mit meiner kleinen Schwester und meinem Bruder. Mit meiner gro?en Schwester streite ich mich oft um den Computer. Mein Vater arbeitet zwar viel, aber am Wochenende hilft er uns immer bei den Hausaufgaben.
Meine Mutter backt gerne Torten. Ihre Schokotorten mag ich besonders gerne. Swot And Pestel. In den Ferien besuchen wir haufig meine Gro?eltern, da sie leider so weit entfernt wohnen. Code Switching. Meine anderen Gro?eltern, die Eltern meiner Mutter wohnen eine Stra?e weiter. Das finde ich schon, da wir uns oft sehen konnen. Welfare. Au?erdem haben sie eine su?e Perserkatze, mit der ich immer spiele.
Wenn uns meine Cousins besuchen kommen, unternehmen wir meist etwas Besonderes. Letztes Wochenende waren wir alle zusammen im Zoo. Define Code. Das war lustig, da mein Cousin Ben Angst vor Schlangen hatte. Who Wrote Moll Flanders. Ich mag meine Familie! My family is very big. I have got two sisters, one brother, three aunts, one uncle, and six cousins. My older sister has long blond hair, and her name is switching, Laura. Essay Indian Food. My little sister is define code switching, called Miranda and has dark hair.
My brother's name is Fred and wears glasses. I get along well with my little sister and my brother. But I argue a lot with my older sister about the computer. Although my father works a lot, he always helps us with homework on the weekend. On Six Week Medical. My mother likes to bake cakes. I especially like her chocolate cake. Switching. During the holidays, we often visit my grandparents because they live so far from us. My other grandparents, the parents of my mother, live on the street next to ours.
I like that because that way we can see each other a lot. In addition to that, they have a cute Persian cat I always play with. When my cousins visit us, we always do something special together. Last weekend, we went to the zoo together. Reform Essay. That was fun because my cousin Ben was afraid of the code switching snake.
I like my family! If you are living with only maxwell kane, one parent, check out code switching, this text: Meine Familie ist sehr klein. Ich lebe zusammen mit meiner Mutter und meinem Bruder. Tanten oder Onkel habe ich nicht.
Meinen Vater sehe ich nur in den Sommerferien, da er weit weg wohnt. Meine Oma wohnt gleich nebenan. Sie kummert sich nachmittags um mich und meinen Bruder, wenn meine Mutter arbeiten muss. Meine Oma ist schon in Rente. Sie hat fruher mal bei der Post gearbeitet. Mein Opa und meine anderen Gro?eltern sind leider schon gestorben.
Mein Bruder hei?t Patrick und ist sehr gut in der Schule. Maxwell Kane. Er ist sehr gro? und schlank und hat blonde Locken. Define Code Switching. Meine Freundin findet ihn su?. Das verstehe ich gar nicht. Ich mag es aber nicht, wenn er laut Musik hort und es gerade meine Lieblingssendung im Fernsehen gibt. Dafur geht er immer mit unserem Hund Gassi, so dass ich das nicht tun muss. War By Findley. Ich wunschte, ich hatte noch eine Schwester, die mir helfen konnte, meine Haare zu frisieren, oder mit der ich die Kleider tauschen konnte. Ich hoffe nur, dass meine Mutter nicht noch mal heiratet.
My family is very small. I live with my mother and my brother. I have no aunts or uncles. I only see my father during the code summer holiday because he lives far away. Findley. My grandma lives next door. She looks after me and my brother when my mother has to work. Define Code. My grandma is already retired. Maxwell Kane. She used to work at a post office. My grandpa and my other grandparents are already dead.
My brother's name is Patrick, and switching he is maxwell kane, doing very well at school. He is very tall and slim, and has curly blond hair. Switching. My friend thinks he is on Six Week Placement, cute. I cannot understand that at all. But I do not like it when he listens to code loud music when my favorite tv show is on. On the other hand, he always walks the dog so that I don't need to do that. Reform. I wish I had a sister who would help me style my hair or who I could swap clothes with.
I do hope that my mother is not going to marry again. The Audio Version of the define Essay A Small Family Ready made German essay examples on a character and Reflection on Six Placement Essay appearance description to switching use straight away. Guidance of how to structure your essay. Maxwell Kane. With English translation.
German Books for Children Can Help You to Achieve Your First Goals Easily. This is one of my favorite books. If you like it yourself, why not try and switching read it in German. Who Wrote. It is not too long and would be adequate for switching, intermediate learners. If you have your English version at home, you can also cross reference. Maxwell Kane. Just read a paragraph in English, and then the same in German. Reading This Book Is a Must if You Want to Get to Know the German Culture. Janosch is an important part of define switching German literature and who wrote culture.
Janosh books are written for define code switching, children, but adults love them too. The stories teach children about friendship, values, dreams, and how colorful this world is. As a student of the German language, you should start with literature like this. It will not be too hard for you if you are not a complete beginner, and you will gain an understanding what shapes the understanding of a German child. Example Four: Living With Grandparents.
Do you live with your grandparents? Then check out this example if it suits you: Ich wohne bei meinen Gro?eltern, da meine Eltern gestorben sind, als ich noch ein Baby war. Who Wrote. Wir wohnen in einem gro?en Haus, und ich habe ein riesiges Zimmer mit meinem eigenen Balkon. Im Sommer mache ich dort immer meine Hausaufgaben. Define Code Switching. Meine Gro?eltern sind ganz lieb zu mir. Mein Opa hilft mir immer, mein Fahrrad zu reparieren und meine Oma ladt meine Freunde oft zum Essen ein. Ich habe auch noch einen Onkel, der manchmal am Wochenende vorbeikommt und Architekt ist. Momentan arbeitet er jedoch in Japan fur drei Monate.
Wir passen solange auf seinen Hund auf, und er hat mir versprochen, mir eine Uberraschung aus Japan mitzubringen. Eine Frau hat mein Onkel nicht. Swot Analysis. Meine Oma sagt immer, er sei mit seiner Arbeit verheiratet. Dann gibt es noch Tante Miriam, die eigentlich keine richtige Tante ist, sondern die beste Freundin meiner Oma. Die beiden kennen sich aber schon so lange, dass sie inzwischen auch zur Familie gehort. Tante Miriam hat viele Enkelkinder und manchmal treffen wir uns alle zusammen im Park.
Dann machen wir ein gro?es Picknick und haben ganz viel Spa?. And here is what the text is about (Remember, this isn't a 1-to-1 translation!): I live with my grandparents because my parents died when I was a baby. We live in a big house, and switching I have a huge room with my own balcony. Swot And Pestel Analysis. In the define summertime, I do my homework there. Swot. My grandparents are very nice to me.
My grandpa always helps me repair my bike, and code my grandma often invites my friends for dinner. Reform. I also have an uncle who comes around for the weekend from time to time, and he is an switching, architect. Flanders. At the moment, he is working in Japan for three months, and we are looking after his dog. But he promised me to bring a surprise back from Japan. My uncle has no wife. Define Switching. My grandma always says he is married to his job. Then there is aunt Miriam who is not a real aunt actually but the maxwell kane best friend of my grandma. Since they have known each other for such a long time, she became a member of our family. Aunt Miriam has lots of grandchildren, and define sometimes we all meet in and pestel, the park.
Then we have a great picnic and much fun! My Audio Version of the code Essay Living with Grandparents These Are the Keywords of All the German Essays Above. Writing about you school is totally easy - with the help of Week Medical Placement Essay this hub. Define. Learn how to write about positives and negatives at your school in splendid German! FREE German essay on Federal Reform drugs - Drogen. In part 9 of my series of German essays we talk about drug abuse, consequences and what your teacher wants you to code write in your essay. Also covering cigarettes and alcohol. Free German Essay on My Holidays: Meine Ferien. by bongawonga 8.
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