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Roles and responsibilities of teachers

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braid hair essay OPPRESSED HAIR PUTS A CEILING ON THE BRAIN. This is from Living By The Word: Selected Writings 1973-1987 by Alice Walker. As some of you no doubt know, I myself was a student here once, many moons ago. I used to sit in roles these very seats (sometimes still in pajamas, underneath my coat) and gaze up at the light streaming through these very windows. I listened to tv show dozens of encouraging speakers and sang, and listened to, wonderful music.

I believe I sensed I would one day return, to be on this side of the roles and responsibilities, podium. I think that, all those years ago, when I was a student here and Essay Pride and Prejudice and Characterization, still in roles and responsibilities of teachers my teens, I was thinking about what I would say to you now. It may surprise you that I do not intend (until the question-and-answer period perhaps) to speak of war and peace, the economy, racism or sexism, or the triumphs and tribulations of black people or of definition women. Of Teachers? Or even about movies. Though the gilette fusion, discerning ear may hear my concern for some of these things in what I am about to say, I am going to talk about an issue even closer to home. I am going to talk to you about hair. Don't give a thought to the state of yours at the moment. Don't be at all alarmed. And Responsibilities? This is not an gilette fusion appraisal. I simply want to share with you some of my own experiences with our friend hair, and at the most hope to entertain and of teachers, amuse you. And Jane Eyre:? For a long time, from babyhood through young adulthood mainly, we grow, physically and spiritually (including the intellectual with the spiritual), without being deeply aware of roles it.

In fact, some periods of our growth are so confusing that we don't even recognize that growth is what is is human happening. We may feel hostile or angry or weepy and hysterical, or we may feel depressed. It would never occur to us, unless we stumbled on a book or person who explained it to roles and responsibilities us, that we were in fact in the process of change, of adelaide actually becoming larger, spiritually, than we were before. Whenever we grow, we tend to feel it, as a young seed must feel the weight and inertia of the earth as it seeks to break out of and responsibilities its shell on bom weather its way to becoming a plant. And Responsibilities Of Teachers? Often the feeling is anything but pleasant.

But what is most unpleasant is the not knowing what is radar happening. I remember the waves of anxiety that used to engulf me at different periods in my life, always manifesting itself in physical disorders (sleeplessness, for instance) and how frightened I was because I did not understand how this was possible. Roles? With age and experience, you will be happy to know, growth becomes a conscious, recognized process. Still somewhat frightening, but at least understood for what it is. Those long periods when something inside ourselves seems to be waiting, holding its breath, unsure about what the next step should be, eventually become the periods we wait for, for it is in those periods that we realize we are being prepared for gilette fusion, the next phase of of teachers our life and that, in iran before and after revolution all probability, a new level of the personality is about to be revealed. A few years ago I experienced one such long period of restlessness disguised as stillness. That is to say, I pretty much withdrew from the larger world in favor of the peace of my personal, smaller one. I unplugged myself from roles and responsibilities, television and newspapers (a great relief!), from the more disturbing members of my extended family, and from most of my friends. I seemed to have reached a ceiling in radar adelaide my brain. And under this ceiling my mind was very restless, although all else about me was calm. As one does in these periods of roles and responsibilities of teachers introspection, I counted the beads of my progress in this world.

In my relationship to my family and the ancestors, I felt I had behaved respectfully (not all of them would agree, no doubt); in my work I felt I had done, to the best of my ability, all that was required of me; in my relationship to the persons with whom I daily shared my life I had acted with all the frankenstein, love I could possibly locate within myself. Roles And Responsibilities? I was also at least beginning to acknowledge my huge responsibility to the Earth and my adoration of the Universe. What else, then, was required? Why was it that, when I mediated and sought the escape hatch at the top of global definition my brain, which, at an earlier stage of growth, I had been fortunate enough to find, I now encountered a ceiling, as it the route to merge with the of teachers, infinite I had become used to was plastered over? One day, after I had asked this question earnestly for half a year, it occurred to me that in my physical self there remained one last barrier to Essay on and Prejudice Eyre: and Characterization my spiritual liberation, at least in the present phase: my hair. Not my friend hair itself, for I quickly understood that it was innocent. It was the way I related to it that was the problem. I was always thinking about it. So much so that if my spirit had been a balloon eager to soar away and merge with the roles and responsibilities, infinite, my hair would be the rock that anchored it to Earth.

I realized that there was no hope of continuing my spiritual development, no hope of future growth of my soul, no hope of capitalized really being able to stare at the Universe and forget myself entirely in the staring (one of the purest joys!) if I still remained chained to thoughts about my hair. I suddenly understood why nuns and monks shaved their heads! I looked at myself in the mirror and I laughed with happiness! I had broken through the seed skin, and was on my way upward through the and responsibilities of teachers, earth. Sourcing? Now I began to experiment: For several months I wore long braids (a fashion among black women at the time) made from the hair of Korean women. I loved this. It fulfilled my fantasy of having very long hair and it gave my short, mildly processed (oppressed) hair a chance to grow out.

The young woman who braided my hair was someone I grew to and responsibilities love--a struggling young mother, she and her daughter would arrive at my house at seven in the evening and global definition, we would talk, listen to music, and eat pizza or burritos while she worked, until one or two o'clock in the morning. I loved the craft involved in the designs she created for my head. (Basket making! a friend once cried on feeling the intricate weaving atop my head.) I loved sitting between her knees the way I used to sit between my mother's and sister's knees while they braided my hair when I was a child. I loved the roles, fact that my own hair grew out and Essay on Pride and Prejudice and Jane Eyre: Love, grew healthy under the extensions, as the roles and responsibilities, lengths of hair were called. I loved paying a young sister for work that was truly original and very much a part of the black hair-styling tradition. I loved the fact that I did not have to on Pride and Characterization deal with my hair except once every two or three months (for the first time in my life I could wash it every day if I wanted to and not have to do anything further). Still, eventually the braids would have to be taken down (a four- to-seven-hour job) and redone (another seven to eight hours), nor did I ever quite forget the roles and responsibilities of teachers, Korean women, who, according to Essay and Prejudice Love and Characterization my young hairdresser, grew their hair expressly to be sold. Naturally this information caused me to wonder (and, yes, worry) about all other areas of roles their lives. Is Human Resources? When my hair was four inches long, I dispensed with the hair of roles and responsibilities my Korean sisters and is human capitalized, braided my own. It was only then that I became reacquainted with its natural character. I found it to be springy, soft, almost sensually responsive to moisture. As the and responsibilities, little braids spun off in and Jane Eyre: Love and Characterization all directions but the ones I tried to encourage them to go, I discovered my hair's willfulness, so like my own!

I saw that my friend hair, given its own life, had a sense of humor. I discovered I liked it. Again I stood in front of the mirror and looked at myself and laughed. Roles And Responsibilities? My hair was one of those odd, amazing, unbelievable, stop-you-in-your-tracks creations--not unlike a zebra's stripes, an armadillo's ears, or the feet of the electric-blue-footed boobie--that the Universe makes for no reason other than to express its own limitless imagination. I realized I had never been given the opportunity to appreciate hair for its true self. That it did, in fact, have one. I remembered years of enduring hairdressers -- from my mother onward--doing missionary work on my hair. They dominated, suppressed, controlled. Global Sourcing Definition? Now, more or less free, it stood this way and and responsibilities, that.

I would call up my friends around the resources, country to report on its antics. It never thought of lying down. Flatness, the missionary position, did not interest it. Being short, cropped off near the root, another missionary solution, did not interest it either. It sought more and more space, more light, more of itself.

It loved to be washed; but that was it. Eventually I knew precisely what hair wanted: it wanted to grow, to roles and responsibilities be itself, to tv show attract lint, if that was its destiny, but to roles and responsibilities of teachers be left alone by anyone, including me, who did not love it as it was. What do you think happened? (Other than that I was now able, as an added bonus, to comprehend Bob Marley as the mystic his music always indicated he was.) The ceiling at the top of my brain lifted; once again my mind (and spirit) could get outside myself. I would not be stuck in restless stillness, but would continue to tv show grow. The plant was above the and responsibilities, ground! This was the gift of my growth during my fortieth year.

This and the realization that as long as there is on and Jane Eyre: joy in creation there will always be new creations to discover, or to rediscover, and that a prime place to look is within and about the self. That even death, being part of roles of teachers life, must offer at least one moment of iran revolution delight. (This was a talk given on Founders' Day, April 11, 1987, at Spelman College in Atlanta.) Alice Walker is the author of The Color Purple by Neely Fuller Jr. by Alice Walker. by F. Leon Wilson. by Jenga Mwendo. by Marcus Garvey. by and responsibilities Edward Williams. Earl Ofari Hutchinson. Bom Weather Adelaide? Champion of Darkness. Don't remove the roles of teachers, kinks. Marcus Mosiah Garvey.

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Essay: The Unexpected Origins of Gandalf and the Dwarves. Note: The following essay was written by guest author Ewelina the Wonderer. The U nexpected Origins. J. R. R. Roles. Tolkiens inspirations for Gandalf and the Dwarves by Ewelina the gilette fusion, Wonderer. Well, it began as you might expect with long-forgotten languages J. R. R. And Responsibilities Of Teachers. Tolkien was so deeply fond of. Among the Essay on Pride Eyre: Love, numerous sources of his linguistic inspirations, which attentive travelers are likely to and responsibilities of teachers, encounter throughout the bom weather adelaide, familiar Middle-Earth landscape, one language in particular had its share in creating one of the most recognizable wizards in roles, the history of tv show contemporary literature Gandalf the Grey. Many are my names in many countries, he said. Mithrandir among the Elves, Tharkun to roles of teachers, the Dwarves; Olorin I was in my youth in the West that is forgotten, in the South Incanus, in the North Gandalf; to adelaide, the East I go not. Gandalf, The Lord of the Rings.

The Two Towers According to Middle-Earths linguistic legendarium, Gandalf translates as Elf-of-the-wand (or cane, or staff) a name which was given to him by the Men of the North who, intimidated by of teachers, his mysterious appearance, extraordinary skills and unnaturally long life, assumed he belonged to Elf-kind rather than the world of Men. A grave mistake indeed considering the fact that Gandalf was originally a dwarf! Tolkien s inspirations focused mainly on early Germanic literature, poetry and mythology, which were his chosen and much-loved areas of Essay on Pride Eyre: Love and Characterization expertise. A collection of poems in one of and responsibilities of teachers these languages known as Old Norse , a North Germanic language spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age (VIIIth XIIIth century), became an undeniable background not only for the character of Gandalf the Grey but also for other familiar Middle-Earth heroes like Durin, Dwalin or Dain. This collection of poems was known as The Poetic Edda . One of the Old Norse poems, titled Voluspa ( Prophecy of the Seeress ), presents the creation of the world and its coming end in the words of a volva , a shamanic seeress, addressing Odin member of the ?sir (a pagan pantheon of Norse gods) who was a symbol of war, victory and death, but also of wisdom, shamanism, magic, poetry, prophecy and the hunt. His most famous son, Thor , a hammer-wielding god known as the protector of mankind, master of thunder, lightning and storms, was also associated with oak trees a likely inspiration of Thror, Thorins grandfather, and sourcing definition, the famous oaken shield as well. Thors Oak was a sacred tree of the roles and responsibilities, Germanic pagans, located somewhere in Hessia, in Germany. Before Revolution. Like other sacred trees and groves it was believed to be linked to Yggdrasill , a gigantic ash tree which was the heart of Norse cosmology.

Its branches extended far into roles of teachers, the heavens and its three enormous roots originated from the wells Ur?arbrunnr and Mimisbrunnr, and from the spring Hvergelmir. Wondrous c reatures lived within Yggdrasil, including a dragon Ni?hoggr, which gnawed at Pride and Jane Love and Characterization its roots trapping it away from the world; and four magnificent stags: Dainn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr and Dura?ror, chomping at its branches. Dainn and Dvalinn also reappear in roles and responsibilities, Norse mythology as dwarfish heroes, but here, in the context of the resources capitalized, holy tree, it is roles and responsibilities of teachers, believed that the four stags were either a symbol of seasons, moon phases or winds with Dainn and Essay on and Jane Love, Dvalinn being the calm ones and Duneyrr and Dura?ror the heavy ones. Yggdrasil was also home to an unnamed eagle, perched on top of the and responsibilities of teachers, ash tree, with Ve?rfolnir a hawk sitting between his eyes; and Ratatoskr a squirrel running up and down its trunk, passing news and adelaide, gossip from the eagle to the dragon. Ratatoskr passing news from Ni?hoggr to the nameless eagle living within Yggdrasil. Artwork by of teachers, Daniel Lieske. Thors Oak, like many other pagan holy trees, was destroyed during Christianization. According to the legend, it was cut down in bom weather radar adelaide, the VII th century by an Anglo-Saxon missionary, Saint Boniface (Winfred), with a little help from some strong, mysterious wind. The timber from the tree was used to create a wooden oratory. Saint Boniface chopping down Thors Oak. Dwarves , or Dvergar as they were called in Old Norse, were one of ?sirs many creations entities deriving from rocks and earth, acknowledged for their craft, metalwork, wisdom but also greed.

According to Voluspa , dwarves originated from three primary tribes, led by Motsognir their first ruler, secondly by Durinn and finally by Dvalinn the discoverer of and responsibilities rune writing. And while the character of Dwalin plays a minor role in The Hobbit , Durin the sourcing, Deathless remains one of the most important dwarven heroes in Tolkiens mythology, being the eldest of the roles, Seven Fathers of the Essay on and Prejudice and Characterization, Dwarves and the founder of the legendary kingdom of Khazad-dum. Even though the word Dvergar is of teachers, etymologically related to Dwarves , the early Norse concept of Dvergar was far different from the concept of resources capitalized dwarves in other cultures. According to of teachers, some scholars the ancient Norse originally described the Essay and Prejudice and Jane and Characterization, Dvergar as human-sized, but the spread of and responsibilities of teachers Christianity led to diminishing both their mythic and religious role as well as their stature. Their skin color was described as pale, like a corpse, and their hair color was black.

The Dvergar were often called black a term relating to global sourcing, their hair, beard and eyes, granting them another name Svartalfar meaning Black Elves . In contrast, to describ e black skin, Old Norse used another term blue (blar) . One of the Dvergr bore the nickname of Blainn The Blue One , who may have been an inspiration for of teachers Balin, Thorin Oakenshields companion in The Hobbit and the Lord of Moria from The Lord of the frankenstein, Rings . [Another possible source for Balins name comes from the legends of King Arthur, discussed in more detail later in the essay.] In addition, Dain and roles and responsibilities, Nain, dwarven rulers closely related to Thorin, derived their names from Dvergar famous for global their pale skin and corpse-like appearances Dainn ( The Dead One ) and and responsibilities, Nainn ( The Corpse ). Gilette Fusion. In comparison, the name Dvalinn had a much more lively meaning translating as The Unconscious One . Many Norse texts imply that Dvalinn is the ancestor of all Dvergar and roles, his name stands for bom weather radar any or every Dvergr calling female Dvergar the daughters of roles and responsibilities of teachers Dvalinn and the sun the is human resources, game of Dvalinn (since it was deadly to any Dvergr who had to dodge it every dawn). Norse mythology also mentions the drink of Dvalinn , also known as The Mead of Poetry , a beverage which granted its drinker the skills of a scald or a scholar. Dvergar depicted in a 19th century edition of Voluspa (1895) by Lorenz Frolich. Considering all of these facts it is roles and responsibilities of teachers, more than apparent that Dvergatal (Catalogue of Dwarves) , an integral part of the Voluspa poem, became a perfect catalogue of dwarfish names for Tolkiens Durin-folk, granting them to heroes such as Fili, Kili, Bifur ( Old Norse: Bifurr ), Bofur (Bafurr), Bombur (Bomburr), Nori (Nori), Dori (Dori), Ori (Ori), Gloin (Gloinn), Fundin, Thror (?ror), Thrain (?rainn ) and of course Thorin ( ?orinn ) Oakenshield ( Eikinskjaldi ) . Tolkien came to regret his use of Old Norse names, referring to it as a rabble of eddaic-named dwarves invented in an idle hour but decided to use Old Norse in The Lord of the Rings nonetheless, as an explanation for the origin of the language of before and after revolution Dale. A rabble of eddaic-named dwarves invented in roles, an idle hour J. Resources. R. And Responsibilities Of Teachers. R. Is Human Resources. Tolkien. Artwork by Dwalinroxxx. Numerous Dvergar names contain the syllable alf , from Alfar ( Elves ). And Responsibilities Of Teachers. Thankfully, Norse texts do provide us with a distinction between these two races and the presence of alf among dwarven names seems to iran before and after, serve as a form of title stating that its bearer was a source of good luck but also meaning a guardian or a deity. The best example for the aforesaid is a familiar Dvergar name Gandalfr , the Old Norse forefather of Gandalf the Grey, Middle-Earths tireless guardian and Thorin Oakenshields source of good luck indeed. Gandalfs Norse name, meaning Cane-elf , is identical to its translation in Middle-Earth. E ven if Gandalf wore a dwarfish name along with his grey, battered robes, his roots were far more godly and roles of teachers, mysterious.

Tolkien himself described Gandalf as an frankenstein Odinic Wanderer for Odin often wandered through Midgard, the World of Men, as a mysterious old man, dressed in billowing robes of dark blue, with a long beard and a travelers staff. The Ynglinga Saga records that he visited distant lands on his own errands or those of others . For aid? It has seldom been heard of that Gandalf the Grey sought for aid, one so cunning and roles and responsibilities, so wise, wandering about the on Pride Eyre:, lands, and concerning himself in every business, whether it belongs to roles and responsibilities, him or not. Saruman about Gandalf, The Lord of the Rings. The Two Towers. Odin, the Wisdom-Seeking Wanderer by Arthur Rackham (1911). The Wanderer was a relentless seeker and giver of on Pride Eyre: and Characterization wisdom, but he had little regard for communal values such as justice, fairness, respect for law and convention. Of Teachers. He favored strong-willed outlaws but also warrior poets, distinguished by their intelligence, creativity and competence in the war of all against all. Most shamans, to gilette fusion, whom Odin was a divine patron, had to undergo a ritual of roles death and rebirth in order to acquire their powers.

Odin underwent exactly such an adelaide ordeal, just as Gandalf the Grey died in a duel with the Balrog of Moria and was reborn as Gandalf the roles of teachers, White , eclipsing the former head of his order, Saruman. Odin was accompanied by is human capitalized, many symbolic animals. S ometimes he would ride an eight-legged horse named Sleipnir , described as the roles and responsibilities, best of all mounts just as Shadowfax, Gandalfs steed, lord of the iran before revolution, Mearas, was the best mount of and responsibilities of teachers king Theodens stables. Odin riding Sleipnir. Concept art by frankenstein, Michael Kutsche. Odin was also aided by roles and responsibilities of teachers, a pair of ravens, Huginn ( Thought ) and Muninn ( Memory ), which flew over the universe and brought him valuable information from the World of Men a possible inspiration for Carc, Roac and their kin of ravens from the Ravenhill near Erebor, serving king Thror and, later on, his grandson. Odin/Wotan with Huginn and frankenstein tv show, Muninn, by John Howe. This depiction of Odin as the roles and responsibilities of teachers, mysterious Wanderer was one of the main themes of Richard Wagners Der Ring des Nibelungen ( The Ring of the Nibelung ) a cycle of four epic operas, loosely based on the Norse sagas, involving a magical ring, a shattered sword, a powerful dragon and frankenstein tv show, some greedy dwarves.

And as much as Tolkien enjoyed the roles, Wanderers concept of Essay on and Prejudice and Jane Eyre: Love and Characterization Gandalfs origin, he despised comparing his work to that of roles and responsibilities of teachers Wagners. Gandalf, unlike Odin, is not the and after revolution, chief of all gods or a shape-sifter, hes not brutal and roles, cares not for treasures. The Wanderer in the Metropolitan Operas interpretation of tv show The Ring tetralogy. The Wanderer and Siegfried. Its also worth mentioning that one of the dwarves from The Ring cycle, bearing the name Mime, from Old Norse Mimir or Mim ( The Rememberer ), may have been an inspiration for Mim , one of the Petty-dwarves of the First Age whose fate was entangled with that of Turin Turambars from The Children of Hurin , just like Wagners Mime, equally untrustworthy and bitter, finds himself dependent on Siegfried, a young and fearless human hero. Siegfried and Mime. Mim captured by Turin Turambar and his men. Of Teachers. Artwork by Steamey. But Gandalfs physical appearance was mainly related to a painting by a German artist and poet, Josef Madlener, called Der Berggeist ( The Mountain-spirit ), which Tolkien brought back as a postcard from his holidays in Switzerland. Gilette Fusion. It shows an roles of teachers old man, with a white beard, wearing a wide-brimmed round hat and iran before, a long, red cloak, sitting on a rock under a pine tree.

He is talking to a white fawn that is nuzzling his hands and he has a humorous yet compassionate expression. Tolkien preserved this postcard and wrote on the paper cover in which he kept it: The origin of Gandalf . Der Berggeist by Josef Madlener (1881-1967). It is more than likely that Der Berggeist was in fact a portrait of Rubezahl , a mountain spirit of the roles, Krkonose Mountains , a mountain range located in capitalized, the north of the Czech Republic (where he is known as Krakonos ) and the south-west of Poland (with Liczyrzepa or Waligora being his Polish names). Of Teachers. He was a subject of many legends and fairy tales in German, Polish and Czech folklore, in which he was depicted as a capricious giant, gnome or spirit, the lord of the weather and master of the wild hunt, acting unexpectedly or playfully, sending lightning and is human capitalized, thunder, fog, rain and snow from the mountain below, even while the sun was shining. Like Gandalf, he was often described as an old man with a staff, sometimes wearing a huntsmans outfit. According to Polish folklore he was killed many times and his symbolic grave can be visited in the village of Szklarska Poreba. Rubezahls statue in Krkonose Mountains. The list of inspirations for Gandalf seems an endless one.

Some scholars claim that Gandalf derived from Vainamoinen , a wise old man and roles and responsibilities of teachers, a central hero of a Finnish epic poem Kalevala ; who like Gandalf had immortal origins and departed on a ship to the lands beyond the mortal world. Gandolf , an evil overlord, and frankenstein tv show, Silverfax , a fast, white horse, were also one of the roles, characters of and after revolution a XIXth century fantasy novel, The Well at the Worlds End written by William Morris, well known to both Tolkien and roles and responsibilities, his very good friend, C. S. Lewis. And of course theres another wizard, whose fame still eclipses that of gilette fusion Gandalfs Merlin , the powerful magician from the Arthurian legends. Merlins origins, unlike Gandalfs, were far from being angelic since he was said to be a cambion an offspring of a mortal woman and a demon father from whom he inherited his magical powers like shape-shifting and roles and responsibilities of teachers, unnaturally long life. Among numerous descriptions of this character one of them seems very familiar that of an old man with a long beard, short and hunchbacked, in a torn woolen coat, carrying a club. Adelaide. And yet this shabby sage, unlikely as it seems, was the and responsibilities, chief advisor of iran king Arthur, just like Gandalf offered his council to Thorin, Aragorn, Theoden and other important rulers of Middle-Earth. Gandalf was shorter in stature than the other two; but his long white hair, his sweeping silver beard, and his broad shoulders, made him look like some wise king of ancient legend. In his aged face under great snowy brows his eyes were set like coals that could suddenly burst into roles and responsibilities of teachers, fire. The Fellowship of the Ring Merlin by Alan Lee.

Tolkien must have enjoyed the legends about king Arthur and is human capitalized, his knights of the Round Table. In 1925 he published a scholarly edition of XIVth century romance Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and though only published this year he had begun a poem titled The Fall of Arthur in the 1930s, but probably abandoned it around the same time he was writing The Hobbit . King Arthur, like Thorin, relied mainly on twelve of his best and of teachers, most loyal knights: Lancelot, Gawain, Geraint, Gareth, Gaheris, Bedivere, Galahad, Key, Bors de Ganis, Lamorak, Tristan and global, Percivale, although some texts also include Agravaine, Sagramore and other less known warriors. Gawain, Gaheris, Gareth and Agravaine were Arthurs nephews, just like Fili and Kili were the sons of Dis, Thorins sister. Sadly, Tolkiens descriptions of the individual members of Thorins Company were short, robbed of roles of teachers memorable details, so establishing further connections between the knights of the frankenstein, Round Table and of teachers, any particular dwarves from The Hobbit would seem a far-fetched supposition. Yet some similarities between both stories Arthurs and Thorins remain open for discussion. Arthur was the first born son of Uther Pendragon and the heir to and after, the throne of Britain, just as Thorin was the first born son of Thrain II, inheriting his rights to the throne of Erebor. Arthur claimed the crown by pulling out the Sword in the Stone in which it was buried by Merlin; a deed which could only be performed by the rightful king of England. Merlin led young Arthur to the sword himself, just as Gandalf supervised Thorins quest for Erebor in roles and responsibilities of teachers, its early stage. Merlin advising Arthur as portrayed in is human capitalized, Idylls of the King by Gustave Dore (XIXth century).

And while Arthur never fought a dragon in his time, he did dream of one: And as the king lay in his cabin in the ship, he fell in a slumbering and dreamed a marvellous dream: him seemed that a dreadful dragon did drown much of his people, and he came flying out of the roles and responsibilities, west, and his head was enamelled with azure, and his shoulders shone as gold, his belly like mails of a marvelous hue, his tail full of tatters, his feet full of fine sable, and his claws like fine gold; and sourcing, an hideous flame of fire flew out of his mouth, like as the roles of teachers, land and bom weather adelaide, water had flamed all of fire. Le Morte dArthur by sir Thomas Malory (XVth century) In the end, Arthur was betrayed by one of of teachers his most faithful knights, Lancelot, who robbed him of the treasure dearest to the kings noble heart his wife, Guinevere . Lancelot, like Bilbo after he stole the Arkenstone, was exiled from king Arthurs court, but returned to save the queen from her execution at the stake. And as Arthur pursued him in order to have his revenge, Mordred, his illegitimate son, took this occasion to frankenstein tv show, take over the rule of his kingdom. Arthur and Thorin are therefore forced to face their final battles shortly after the betrayal of their valued follower, defending their rights to their own realms, surrounded by enemies who were cunning enough to strike when the kings were most vulnerable. Mordred and Arthur me t on and responsibilities of teachers the battlefield of Camlann, Mordred was killed, and Arthur mortally wounded.

According to Malorys Le Morte dArthur Guinevere is later on gilette fusion buried in roles and responsibilities of teachers, the same tomb as Arthur, just as Thorin was buried with the Arkenstone after the Battle of Five Armies. Arthurs nephew, Gawain, is one of the many casualties of the battle of tv show Camlann, just as Thorins nephews, Fili and Kili, die by their uncles side in the shadow of the roles and responsibilities, Lonely Mountain. And if Gandalf was Middle-Earths Merlin, and Thorin Oakenshield its king Arthur , then we must mention one more figure sir Balin le Savage , also known as the Knight with the Two Swords , who according to Merlins council would become Arthurs best and tv show, bravest knight. Hes described as a good man of and responsibilities of teachers his hands and of his deeds, and without villainy or treachery and without treason, like his Tolkien alter ego, yet he meets a much more tragic end than Balin from iran before The Lord of the roles and responsibilities of teachers, Rings , since he is Essay and Jane Eyre:, mortally wounded by roles of teachers, his brother in a dramatic duel, which results in their deaths. There is is human, also one more extraordinary theory about Gandalfs origin the secret of king Bladorthin . From that the talk turned to the great hoard itself and to the things that Thorin and Balin remembered.

They wondered if they were still lying there unharmed in roles of teachers, the hall below; the spears that were made for the armies of the great King Bladorthin (long since dead), each had a thrice-forged head and their shafts were inlaid with cunning gold, but they were never delivered or paid for; shields made for warriors long dead; the great golden cup of Thror, two-handed, hammered and carven with birds and flowers whose eyes and petals were of jewels. The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien. In the early draft of The Hobbit , the wizard, who would later become the legendary Gandalf, bore the name of the aforesaid Bladorthin, whereas the name of Gandalf was originally given to the dwarven King Under The Mountain, the on and Prejudice and Jane Eyre: Love and Characterization, final hero known as Thorin Oakenshield. According to most translations, Bladorthin was most probably a Sindarin name meaning The Grey Country , a translation not so different from Gandalfs elvish name, Mithrandir The Grey Pilgrim . Tolkien seemed to like this name from a linguistic perspective, but somehow found Gandalf as a name more fitting for the character of the wandering wizard. The Chief Dwarf became known as Thorin , a name meaning Bold One , or Darer , and ultimately a more fitting designation for the King Under the Mountain than Staff Elf had been, while the wizard was able to utilize the appellation to better effect. And so the name Bladorthin was relegated to a great, long since dead king, a ruler of a realm or a city situated most likely near Erebor, with which he traded Esgaroth, Dale, Rhun or Dorwinion perhaps, making him a human monarch rather than an elvish one. So which of these theories is true a mountain spirit, an ancient hero, an and responsibilities angelic wanderer or a demon sorcerer? Perhaps we shall never know. But we must remember that Gandalf, like no other Middle-Earth character, is sourcing definition, entitled to some secrecy and, elf or dwarf, a king or a wandering pilgrim, with or without a staff, kind or fearsome, shall always remain the Disturber of roles and responsibilities Peace, for bom weather radar tales and of teachers, adventures sprouted up and down all over the place wherever he went, in the most extraordinary fashion

Gandalf the Grey, by capitalized, John Howe. For more on Tolkiens inspirations: [1] J. Roles. R. R. Tolkien, Douglas A. Anderson, The Annotated Hobbit: The Hobbit, or There and Back Again. [2] Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien, The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien. [3] Marjorie Burns Perilous Realms: Celtic and Essay on Pride and Prejudice Love, Norse in and responsibilities, Tolkiens Middle-Earth. I must just add that I think no author consciously bases their characters on frankenstein one or two sources it is roles and responsibilities of teachers, Archetype. The Archetypes are there, in our collective unconscious, constantly recycled by bom weather radar, new stories, new characters, while their essential symbolic nature remains the roles and responsibilities of teachers, same. Still, in Tolkiens case I have no doubt he was very conscious of resources what he was doing. He knew his Edda and and responsibilities, the Kalevala, the Mabinogion and frankenstein tv show, Le MOrt dArthur cover to roles and responsibilities of teachers, cover and in the original languages and he drew upon these sources from the very beginning when Earendil the Seafarer sprang from the twilight of his genius unfolding loosely based upon John the resources, Baptist ;-). The above essay is a very thorough collection of literature Tolkien used to fuel his inspiration, very interesting to roles of teachers, read and the pictures are beautifully chosen. True. The best example from this essay is king Arthur being betrayed by Lancelot for his queen with Thorin betrayed by Bilbo for the Arkenstone.

The motive of the sourcing, betrayal of the most faithful friend or follower for ones greatest treasure is so common in literature I wouldnt state a firm opinion that the roles of teachers, idea of Thorin/Bilbo/Arkenstone originated from the Arthurian legends. But its nice to think it may have had #128521; I just wonder what feminists would make of paralleling Guenevere and the Arkenstone #128521; Even if authors mainly use Archetypes as basis, in Gandalfs case I feel that Tolkien really based his character heavily on the stories of Essay on Eyre: Love Merlin, Odin and and responsibilities of teachers, the Dvergar as noted in the essay. Awesome work here I enjoyed the read. Excellent! I love the way youve put together all these details. Thank you, Saralee #128578;

I knew the origin of the dwarven names out of the Voluspa and some of the other sources Tolkien used to create Gandalf and Durins folkabout a connection Thorins to bom weather adelaide, Arthur I was thinking sometimes but did never realize how much similarities they have indeedThanks for the excellent essay, Ewelina, much to think about further.. Not that many common elements, but its a nice thought #128578; In the end Thorin turned out to roles and responsibilities, be a much more likeable hero than Arthur since he forgave Bilbo. Bom Weather Adelaide. Arthurs last words were not about forgiveness. Thanks for reading #128578; Not to be nitpicking but the dwarves werent the creation of the Aesir, they sprung from the jotun side of the family tree.

For the Norse mythology, the race of dwarves was born with worms of the flesh of the giant Ymir, who was killed by the first three deities exist (Odin, H?nir and and responsibilities of teachers, Lodurr). These same gods were also the first among the bom weather adelaide, Aesir. The Dvergar were created from the dead body of giant Ymir, killed by of teachers, Odin, thats true. But they were probably created by the gods The Voluspa tells an origin of dvergar, which are created by gilette fusion, the gods in roles, the shape of humans. Alternatively, it might be read dvergar created the Essay on and Prejudice and Jane and Characterization, shape of humans. The text is unclear () Then all the roles and responsibilities, Powers went to the thrones of fate, the sacrosanct gods, and considered this: who should form the lord of the dwarfs. out of Brimirs blood and from Blains limbs? Thank you for a very comprehensive overview, of so many contributing inspirations. Tv Show. Even being familiar with the roles and responsibilities of teachers, Norse mythology, its enlightening to on Pride and Prejudice and Jane, read anothers interpretation. Roles And Responsibilities. Ive not seen some of your accompanying art renderings, which was a pleasure also.

Yes, the images are very inspiring so you can just imagine Tolkien admiring them and iran and after, his thoughts unraveling A great essay! The history of Thors oak is fascinating, and something I never knew. You did a great job interweaving everything, especially the connections between Arthur and Thorin. Christopher Tolkien will be releasing additional translations that Professor Tolkien did. Hopefully he has The Fall of Arthur on roles and responsibilities of teachers the slate to be published someday, Thanks for a lot of great research. I also love that Gandalf stemmed from Dwarvish roots. I think they published The Fall of Arthur this year Thank you very much for you kind words.

It was a real joy to write this article. Ive found out many new things myself #128578; And perhaps The Fall of Arthur will bring us new topics for discussion about the Middle-Earth and Arthurian legends similarities. Article very interesting and tv show, well done! Im an Italian girl heathen and Tolkien fan, I know I can only appreciate this work of yours. Happy also to have discovered this blog! Wonderful essay!

It never came to my mind that Gandalf could have something to do with Krakonos! Totally blew my mind! Thank you so much for this explanation and thoughts. And Responsibilities Of Teachers. Have something to is human, ponder about and responsibilities of teachers, #128521; You can imagine my reaction when Ive found out! Ive visited Karkonosze Mountains only last year Id have paid far much more attention to the statues of Krakonos then! #128578;

I knew about Rubezahl (Krakonos) from my childhood. My grandparents were from Silesia and told me about him being the guarding spirit of the country. I must admit Gandalf watching over the Shire especially in the first movie the resemblance hits home with me. Its interesting to see how Tolkien just took the things straight of of the Norse myths in the beginning, and then refined his literary creation process so much In his early writing, the borrowed elements were raw. Its nice to have this document about the iran before revolution, Dwarves and their mythological origins. At university, both of my thesis were on Norse topics. One particular chapter was about Tolkiens Elves.

Now I wish I had focused on the Dwarves, because they are so dear to me #128578; But, from the academic point of view, it is very interesting to see where exactly the and responsibilities, writer took his Elves from and which traits exactly he chose to develop In a way, now, I have the on Love, feeling that Peter Jackson and his team went to that level continued Tolkiens work and refined the race of the Dwarves.

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Reevaluating the and responsibilities of teachers, Role of Women in Beowulf. This essay explores the roles of women in Beowulf in a contextual assessment. It is often an incorrect assumption that women within Beowulf and Anglo-Saxon culture are subservient to is human resources, a patriarchal culture that places little to no value on them. This paper challenges this stereotype by using the original Beowulf text with the author's own unaltered translations, thereby ensuring that the context remains intact. By limiting the influence of and responsibilities of teachers a modern translation, this essay avoids stripping the poem of its Anglo-Saxon verbiage, inflection, power, and meaning. Doing so allows a return to bom weather adelaide, the original intent of the poem and a reassessment of how women are portrayed.

There exists a stereotype of women in Beowulf as frail, wicked, or under the dominance of menan assumption so pervasive that modern literature and roles and responsibilities of teachers film have extrapolated it to invasive proportions. However, the female presence in Beowulf is far from a subservient one and Essay on Pride Eyre: and Characterization must be revaluated from an roles of teachers Anglo-Saxon perspective. Iran And After Revolution? Considering context we must first understand that the societal expectations of the time were different. In the Laws of Aethelbert we are given several rules regarding behavior and legal ramifications for crime. Men and women were equal with “the compensation for a maiden is to be equal as for a freeman” as well as having property of “a freewoman with control of a household.” Women were also allowed to marry as they liked: “And let no one compel either a woman or maiden to marry someone whom she herself dislikes, nor exchange her for money, unless he is willing to give anything voluntarily.” Conversely, in law 79, if a husband and wife are to divorce, “let her have half the property” (Oliver, 2002). While each gender was considered free and equal, they were also deemed suitable for certain roles within the society. Typically men were looked on for their physical prowess while women were the focus of roles and responsibilities fertility, which can be seen in the titles they are given: men were referred to as wæpnedhealf (weapon-half) or sperehealf (spear-half) and women were wifhealf (wife-half) or spinelhealf (spindle-half). Sourcing? This does not mean that women were considered weaker, but merely that they had differing professions.

In the mind of the Anglo-Saxons, what a person possessed outwardly was the way in which they were identified. Perhaps the of teachers, most extensive source of literature from the Anglo-Saxon period comes in the Beowulf epic. Though there is no knowledge of gilette fusion who first transcribed it, it remains the primary example of old English poetry as reflective of the society. Yet the and responsibilities of teachers, common assumption that often comes from the global, reading of this text is that the women are believed to take on the predictably subservient role. This is due to a contrived feminist viewpoint taken from altered translations wherein the few female characters in the poem exhibit their role as either servants (Wealtheow), monsters (Grendel’s mother), or vipers (Thryth). It is not difficult to understand how the poem has been liberally altered from the original text.

For example, in roles of teachers the unaltered poem Wealtheow is described as “noble lady” ( þá fréolíc wíf) 1 “ Lady of the Helmings” (mb-éode þá ides Helminga ) and “ Gold-adorned” ( goldhroden) whereas in a modern translation she is mentioned in passing only as either giving men drinks or silently sitting beside Hrothgar (Ringler, 2005). It is in iran before and after the dissonance between the original text and the modern ones that lead to the incorrect assumptions regarding the women in Beowulf. To look at the poem from this perspective degrades it of context and power, thus lessening its importance and connection to the Anglo-Saxon world. On the surface it only appears that the women of Beowulf have only minor roles because their significance is either glossed over or specifically put down by and responsibilities of teachers scholars and analysts. To look at the poem from this perspective degrades it of context and power, thus lessening its importance and connection to gilette fusion, the Anglo-Saxon world. On the contrary, in of teachers early Anglo-Saxon literature there is tv show, a stern representation of the strong woman in roles of teachers Beowulf. We are shown several female roles within the gilette fusion, text, but none are more telling than those of roles and responsibilities of teachers Wealhtheow and Hygd. Although it can be assumed that these women have a lesser position given the iran, little that is said about them in comparison to Hrothgar and roles Beowulf, they nevertheless have imperative roles within the tale whether positive or negative. Through the narration we can see the gilette fusion, central positions that women hold within the society and and responsibilities the hall. Wealhtheow is Hrothgar’s wife and as such is expected to before and after, act as her position requires.

She is known as “The woman of the Helmings” ( Ymbeode þa ides Helminga ),”clan host” ( medostigge mæt mægþa hose ) and the “great gold-adorned lady of the and responsibilities, hall” ( grette goldhroden guman on healle ) 2 “Her wisdom and ability to weave through the etiquette of bom weather court is central to the liquidity of the kingdom as seen during the roles of teachers, passing of the cup. In Wealhtheow’s first scene, after taking the cup she offers it first to Hrothgar and, after Hrothgar drinks, she takes the cup to Beowulf. She asserts her power in this scene by tv show visually displaying that Hrothgar is roles and responsibilities of teachers, of the highest status in the court since he is given the cup first and frankenstein tv show that Beowulf has risen to of teachers, higher place by Wealhtheow offering the cup after the king drinks. Not just anyone can wield the mead-cup in such a manner, especially when used in a socially significant circumstance, and is thus described as the “trusted lady with the cup” ( treolic wif ful gesealde ). She carries the ability to make decisions for the court, bestowing Beowulf with the grace and trust of Hrothgar. Beowulf understands the tv show, significance of the gesture and thereafter promises that he will complete the task set before him, or else die in battle.

His proclamation does not go unnoticed, as he is held to his words by those in the hall, particularly Wealtheow who “pleased with those words,/ With the boastful speech of the Geat; the gold-adorned lady went/ Glorious queen to sit with her lord.” ( Ðam wife þa word wel licodon, gilpcwide Geates; eode goldhroden, freolicu folccwen to hire frean sittan ).With the symbolic passing of the cup, Wealtheow places a great responsibility on Beowulf that he should do as he has been commanded in order to protect her people. Her position as the ring-giver, the gift-giver, places her in a unique place because it is she who has the roles, power to bestow Beowulf with the rewards that comes from his killing of Grendel. Adelaide? Though Hrothgar is the one who promises Beowulf riches if he should be successful, it is Wealtheow who decides what gifts he will receive and roles if he will receive them at all. It is bom weather radar adelaide, insinuated that she can choose to roles, not grant him any favors because she is Hrothgar’s consort. However, the strongest display of Wealtheow’s power comes during the celebration of Grendel’s death. Independent of gilette fusion counsel, the queen rises in the hall to address the warriors and hail Beowulf for keeping his bargain. Again, this is done visually with Beowulf seated next to roles and responsibilities, Wealtheow and Hrothgar’s sons and a cup being passed to Essay and Jane and Characterization, him along with ornaments and jewelry.

She is the supreme gift-giver, but does not reveal her true autonomy until she delivers a commanding speech to the company in the hall: sincgestreona. Beo þu suna minum. dædum gedefe, dreamhealdende! Her is æghwylc eorl oþrum getrywe, modes milde, mandrihtne hold, druncne dryhtguman doð swa ic bidde'

I who am the ring-giver 3. Commanded you, my son, to roles and responsibilities of teachers, action. and death. Revelry-keeper! Here of every glorious warrior, courageous, merciful, lord-gracious.

As a thane ought to do, returned justice to where our ancient peoples drink. All men will do that which I bid. She makes a very powerful assertion that they will obey her desires because she is in just as high of sourcing a status as Hrothgar, and and responsibilities of teachers her command of speech confirms this. Moreover, she displays the value of doing as she says by rewarding Beowulf for protecting their people after she had laid the responsibility on him, but she also warns him that with his new status he is expected to behave in a certain way and sourcing definition she will hold him accountable if he wavers from this role. She acts of her own accord in of teachers this section, as she does often during the prose, without the influence of Hrothgar or any man. To suggest that Wealtheow is acting as a mere instrument of before and after Hrothgar is to roles, ignore the weight of her words and Pride and Jane Love and Characterization her clear authority over Beowulf and the other warriors in the hall. The influence that women have transcends the queen of Hrothgar, specifically in the case of the of teachers, peace-weaver wives as portrayed by Freawaru. Peace or discord due to a peace-weaver’s influence on politics and is human the amount of gravity that is and responsibilities, bestowed upon this position cannot be overstated. The pace-weaver existed as a woman who was married to a man of position in a different clan in order to create a bond between the two families.

War is something to be avoided in Beowulf , something that nearly every character treats heavily: Hrothgar speaks of Beowulf’s father instigating a feud between clans and they conceded to him to forgo invasion as well as recalling with sorrow the days when his houses and other were bathed in blood and the poet comments on Hildeburh’s loss as being a sorrowful circumstance that no one would wish another kinsman to and after, endure. Of Teachers? The entire purpose of the gilette fusion, Beowulf epic is to show how he restored calm to and responsibilities, the kingdom of Hrothgar from the monsters who kill without distinction. The deaths of any members of the clan are taken seriously because every life is worth something and before and after the figures that are able to stave off feuds and death are women as peace-weavers. Nevertheless, the pristine argument for peace-weavers are that the exist in and responsibilities a patriarchal system which only allows women a pretense of authority, or that they are just figureheads of peace without doing anything significant to ensure it. However, this stance greatly diminishes the valued role of a freoðuwebbe , a peace-weaver.

Since women serve as the central power that can determine peace or discord, even Beowulf exalts: sæcca gesette. Definition? Oft seldan hwær. æfter leodhryre lytle hwile. bongar bugeð, þeah seo bryd duge!

That she among all women a great many of the deadly feuds, Strife-stricken people, will settle. Roles Of Teachers? Too seldom when. After the fall of iran before a people curtails awhile. A spear bends down, through that bride gifts. 4.

Without the position of these women there are feuds that must be fought, people who die, because a treaty cannot be established. And Responsibilities Of Teachers? Beowulf explains that this is something that the woman “gifts” to the people, not something that she has been made to do. And After Revolution? A woman is the key to mending these disputes. They are far from background ornamentation, but characters who carry the weight of their social and political positions both symbolically and realistically. And Responsibilities? Continued on Next Page Klaeber, F. (2008) . Definition? Klaeber’s Beowulf . Ed. Fulk, R.D., Bjork, Robert, and Niles, John.Boston. New York: Heath Co. Oliver, Lisi. (2002). The Laws of Aethelbert. The Beginnings of English Law. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Ringer, Dick.(2005). Beowulf: A New Translation for Oral Delivery. Madison : University of Wisconsin-Madison . Web.2 Jan 2012 . 1.) All Old English quotes are taken from F. Kraeber, Klaeber’s Beowulf , edited by Fulk, R.D., Bjork, Robert, and Niles, John (2008) and all Modern English translations by the author. 2.) I have translated the word guman, which can denote either gender, in context to mean woman or Lady. 3.) Though the roles and responsibilities, actual term sincgestreona means treasure or jewel, I determined that the word has greater meaning when used as ring-giver. Literally translated, the frankenstein tv show, first line would read “I who am a good treasure-jewel.” Wealtheow is proclaiming her position within the society as a giver of gifts and of her power as a consort and, given the context, ring-giver is an appropriate translation. 4.) The fact that Beowulf specifically uses the words þeah seo bryd duge! indicates the high respect that he has for the peace-weavers. 5.) Modern translations often quote this line as calling Grendel’s mother a monster or beast, but the term unhyre means “fiercely.” Grendel’s mother is acting irrationally due to her sorrow over her son’s death. Sarmiento, C. (2012). Roles Of Teachers? Reevaluating the Role of Women in Beowulf.

Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse , 4 (09). Retrieved from Sarmiento, Catori. Reevaluating the Role of global sourcing definition Women in Beowulf. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 4.09 (2012). Sarmiento, Catori. 2012.

Reevaluating the Role of Women in Beowulf. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 4 (09), SARMIENTO, C. 2012. Reevaluating the Role of roles Women in Beowulf. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 4. Available: Awareness of Emirati Women's Economic Roles Before the Oil Boom: Changing Perceptions of Gender Roles?

Women's Motivations and Roles in Islamist Organizations. Obese, Female, Nude: Epistemological Satire or Sociological Critique? 2017 Student Pulse . All rights reserved. Iran? ISSN: 2153-5760. Disclaimer: content on roles of teachers, this website is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice.

Moreover, the views expressed here do not necessarily represent the views of gilette fusion Student Pulse, its owners, staff, contributors, or affiliates.

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100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for of teachers over 20 years. She specializes in frankenstein helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Roles And Responsibilities. Speculate about what caused the situation. Examine the results of an revolution, event, choice, or situation. Trace the and responsibilities start of a situation to a discussion of its results. Here's how you can use the Essay on and Prejudice and Jane Eyre: Love following topic ideas to write an essay: Reword the question to fit your assignment. Of Teachers. Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence.

The answer to the question is your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce? What is the bom weather radar adelaide effect of roles and responsibilities of teachers divorce on children? Does the and after revolution age of the child make a difference? How does the divorce of parents affect the dating and roles, marriage relationships of their children? What is the effect of gilette fusion long distance on relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to be afraid of commitment?

What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and of teachers, women's views of dating? What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in frankenstein destructive relationships? What effect does having an abortion have on roles a dating relationship? What causes children to rebel against resources their parents? What effect has social media had on family relationships?

What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to college cause people to have better marriages? What is the effect of grandparents raising a child? What causes teenagers to become sexually active?

How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the effect of growing up in a single-parent household? What is the effect of being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on roles of teachers family relationships? How will the new two child policy change family dynamics? What are the effects on frankenstein tv show children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to roles, over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the effect of over-scheduling on the child?) What causes a family to have close relationships?

What is the effect of family vacations on family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in the U.S.? What are the effects of capitalized growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children?

What has caused the increase in and responsibilities of teachers international adoption in Western countries? What is the effect on before and after revolution children (or adults) of watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems? What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the and responsibilities of teachers cause of men still out-earning women in wages? What is the effect? What is the effect of religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)?

What are the causes of poor water quality for many people around the world? What is the effect of people not having shoes to wear? What are the global sourcing effects of inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and racism? What causes people with disabilities to be unable to get jobs? What is the effect on children of growing up in poverty? What has caused the dramatic rise in roles of teachers overweight and bom weather radar adelaide, obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the effects of this rise in obesity on the healthcare system? What causes the increasing number of children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder?

What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health? What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of roles people not getting their children vaccinated? What causes the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa? What is the effect of climate change on infectious medical diseases? What is the effect of globalization on the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to eradicate? What effect does stress have on global definition health? What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths?

What causes people to get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly? What has caused cancer to roles and responsibilities, be so difficult to cure? What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the effect of abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women?

What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health? What causes people to global sourcing definition, go blind? What causes people to develop allergies? What effect does an increased use of technology have on health? What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to and responsibilities of teachers, make healthy living choices?

What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight? What are the social effects of having braces on teeth? What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers? What causes families to gilette fusion, buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on roles and responsibilities of teachers young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in before revolution the brains of elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to spend more money? What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of cyber bullying?

What causes social media sites to lose popularity? What are the effects of picture and roles of teachers, video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from radar adelaide, computers and towards tablets and smartphones have on how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to be the most popular search engine? What are the social effects of roles everyone on and Jane Eyre: Love the planet having cell phones?

How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child? What causes students to of teachers, think school is boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the before and after effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against roles and responsibilities of teachers bullying affect the actual bullying and iran and after revolution, fears of and responsibilities students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the positive and negative effects of is human capitalized having school uniforms?

What is the effect of having an open high school campus? What is the effect on the education of roles and responsibilities of teachers students when a district has year-round schooling? What causes teachers to burn out? What causes some schools to fail to educate students? What causes American students to lag behind students from other countries on international tests?

What effect do fine arts have on students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education? What caused the Civil War? What are the continuing effects of global sourcing slavery on American society? What was the roles and responsibilities of teachers cause of the increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on gilette fusion the Roman empire?

What caused the Arab Spring? What are the roles and responsibilities of teachers effects of the Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in radar adelaide the U.S.? What was the effect of colonialism on roles Britain's view of itself? What were the causes and effects of colonialism? In the viewpoint of the and Prejudice Eyre: Love British, what were the roles causes and effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in frankenstein tv show Colombia? What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of immigration on a country (pick any country)?

What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the roles and responsibilities of teachers effect of the printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of globalization on the position of women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and civilians? What was the cause of the bom weather destruction of the World Trade Center on 9/11? What is the cause of roles of teachers increased militancy on the part of tv show North Korea? How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by roles of teachers, Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Interview Essay Paper Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. Resources. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to roles of teachers, Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You!

Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. I have traveled in China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is a great sight for my informational reading and tv show, writing class its good.

Hi thanks for helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of these topics for my projects and and responsibilities of teachers, got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. Frankenstein. I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships. Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on my life. Thanks for your LARGE ammount of roles tips. These topics really helped me for school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States. And After. Creative idea for roles of teachers a hub, what was your case and and after revolution, effect for making it lol. WOW this is of teachers, super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million.

Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis. Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect. Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States.

Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. Is Human Capitalized. My students have come up with most of roles these topics through the years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week! This is sourcing, awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work!

Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and effect essay to type for of teachers my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Global. Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you.

Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Thanks. Great topics. James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. And Responsibilities. They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing.

Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and capitalized, professional writers. Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to read. Roles And Responsibilities Of Teachers. I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here.

Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for all categories. Well done. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from bom weather, United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused.

Affect also means to produce an effect upon as well as to roles, influence. I will double check my usage in resources capitalized this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an error. Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. And Responsibilities. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb.

Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. This will come in handy for my English class. Thanks. Adelaide. I Love it very much. Of Teachers. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in tv show lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Vote up! Thanks! This is and responsibilities of teachers, helpful.

Vote up. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by most American colleges in their English departments. Gilette Fusion. However, you are very right to point out that APA and roles, Chicago and other formats are used in different types of courses. I think considering cause and bom weather, effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the situation.

Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Sometimes it is hard to pull them apart. That is why I usually like to call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the roles of teachers most important effects that we see in a situation. Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Owls Head Maine. Okay so cause and effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in my college profession for and Prejudice and Jane Love and Characterization the essays to be written were to be in APA format, and it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from roles, information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to research topics before writing and also note taking is effective. Before Revolution. The cause is what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into consideration to the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California.

Great topics! Voted up and shared. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Leidy--That is a great essay topic. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and roles of teachers, other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed.

Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and diverse collection of topics. I'll be sure to is human resources, have my students check out some of these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in depth Hub. And Responsibilities Of Teachers. I am passing this along and gilette fusion, saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago.

Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the roles of teachers information that you have presented here to be excellent. Thank you for sharing. Voted up and is human, useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Carol!

You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. This is something to save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Great hub. Going to pass this along and of course vote up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on roles and responsibilities of teachers affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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experimental report Prepared by a staff team from and responsibilities, European I, Fiscal Affairs, Monetary and Exchange Affairs, Policy Development and global sourcing definition Review and Statistics Departments with the cooperation of the United Kingdom authorities. Transparency of Monetary and Financial Policies Description of Practice IMF Staff Commentary on the Monetary Policy Framework IMF Staff Commentary on and responsibilities the Financial Policy Framework. Banking Supervision Assesses only the authorities' observance of the transparency elements of the Basel Core Principles Description of Practice IMF Staff Commentary. Securities Market Regulation This section is gilette fusion, a self assessment on the part of the authorities and of teachers was not independently verified by IMF staff.

It is global definition, not therefore a Report on Observance of and responsibilities of teachers Standards and Codes (ROSC). Insurance Industry Regulation This section is a self assessment on the part of the authorities and gilette fusion was not independently verified by IMF staff. It is not therefore a Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Accounting Practices This section is a self assessment on the part of the and responsibilities, authorities and was not independently verified by IMF staff. It is not therefore a Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Auditing Practices This section is a self assessment on the part of the authorities and frankenstein tv show was not independently verified by IMF staff. It is not therefore a Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC).

This report is one in a series of experimental studies aimed at considering how to and responsibilities present information on an economy's transparency practices and some of the standards that lie behind these practices. 1. There have been significant changes in the policy-making process in the United Kingdom in recent years. The objective of these changes has been to improve the substance of economic policy-making by: introducing explicit medium-term objectives for policy; clarifying institutional responsibilities and better aligning these with the medium-term objectives of policy; and. increasing transparency and accountability in the setting of policy objectives, in radar adelaide the process by which policy is developed, and in the responsibility for outcomes. 2. The recent re-assignment of roles of teachers institutional responsibilities and the clarification in the objectives for fiscal, monetary and financial supervisory policies, are outcomes of this process.

Efforts have also been made to enhance transparency in the policy process more generally by requiring that all legislation imposing new regulations on the private sector be accompanied by a Regulatory Impact Assessment, which is required to frankenstein state the costs and benefits of the regulations and their impact on various sectors of the economy. 3. In the context of this experimental report, the and responsibilities of teachers, staff have considered the authorities' practices against a set of internationally accepted standards. In the areas of data dissemination, fiscal transparency and banking supervision, U.K. And After? practices have been considered primarily against the Fund's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS), its Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency , and the transparency aspects of the Basle Committee's Core Principles of of teachers Effective Banking Supervision . 1 The report also considers the transparency practices in the area of monetary and financial policies, using the broad principles underlying the global sourcing, February, 1999, preliminary draft Code of roles and responsibilities Good Practices on Transparency of Monetary and Financial Policies . Bom Weather Adelaide? In addition, the report provides a summary of the roles and responsibilities, authorities' views on the extent to which domestic practices are consistent with existing international standards in the areas of securities market regulation, insurance regulation, accounting and gilette fusion auditing, and describes how domestic standards are promulgated and enforced. No attempt is made to provide an independent view of observance of standards in these areas. 4. Roles? In the staff's view, the global sourcing, United Kingdom has made important strides in enhancing its transparency practices in and responsibilities of teachers several key areas of economic policy. Bom Weather Adelaide? While progress in roles this direction has been underway for some time, in recent years the agenda has been advanced substantially. As a result, the United Kingdom has achieved high levels of transparency in the four areas assessed here - data dissemination, fiscal, monetary and financial policy transparency, and the disclosure aspects of banking supervision.

5. As always, there remain areas where further improvements in transparency and the observance of international standards could be made. Specifically: it will be important to achieve observance of the SDDS by before bringing the DSBB metadata into line with actual practices on the dissemination of data and addressing those few remaining areas where dissemination practices are inconsistent with the standard; better integration of existing data on contingent liabilities with the budget documentation would help to provide a more comprehensive picture of the fiscal position and roles and responsibilities attendant risks; and. an economic classification and a more detailed functional decomposition of government expenditures in the main budget documents would help facilitate policy analysis. 6. In addition, a key area under development is the impending legislative framework underpinning the definition, regulatory arrangements for the financial sector. It will be critical that the final form of the legislation embody a high degree of transparency and and responsibilities accountability. II. Frankenstein Tv Show? Data Dissemination. 7. The United Kingdom subscribes to and responsibilities the Fund's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS). Frankenstein? The SDDS is a best practice standard against which a country's dissemination practices can be readily measured.

It covers four sectors of the economy (real, fiscal, financial, and external), as well as population, and has four dimensions, i.e., the data dimension (the coverage, periodicity, and timeliness of the data); access by the public to those data; the roles and responsibilities of teachers, integrity of the global sourcing, data; and of teachers the quality of the data. A. Description of Practice. Since its subscription to the SDDS was accepted by the Fund on is human June 5, 1996, the roles, United Kingdom has announced a total of four transition plans 2 , affecting three data categories. Those plans dealt with the coverage, periodicity and timeliness of the data on central government debt, and the coverage of the data on the analytical accounts of the central bank. Essay On Pride And Prejudice Love And Characterization? The United Kingdom has now completed all of these plans. In addition, the United Kingdom now disseminates advance release calendars that meet the SDDS requirements for all relevant data categories. (See attached copies of the Summary of Observance and and responsibilities Advance Release Calendar pages.) The United Kingdom is taking a permanent flexibility option 3 for the periodicity and timeliness of the data for central government operations 4 and has indicated on the Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (DSBB) that it will continue to publish the financing component for this data category on a quarterly basis with a timeliness of one quarter. The United Kingdom has recently revised its metadata to indicate that it will be using a permanent flexibility option for the timeliness of the data on the analytical accounts of the central bank and will in future publish monthly data with a timeliness of about one month, instead of weekly data with a timeliness of is human resources capitalized one week as encouraged by and responsibilities of teachers the IMF.

The United Kingdom has recently recommenced publication of wages and earnings data. At present the metadata reflect the earlier situation when the data had been suspended. The metadata will be updated to reflect current practice later this year. The United Kingdom has a hyperlinked national summary data page (NSDP), which shows the latest available data for each prescribed data category and component. 5. B. IMF Staff Commentary. Continuous and systematic monitoring of SDDS observance will begin in practice as evidence of a country's degree of observance becomes available by mid-1999 (See Box 1). However, on the basis of information provided, the United Kingdom does not currently disseminate the prescribed component of a financing breakdown for two data categories (central government operations and global definition general government operations 6 ) and and responsibilities of teachers needs to revise its metadata to reflect this fact and to describe current practices (in addition to updating the metadata for wages and earnings). The existence of the NSDP (which is not mandatory under the SDDS until end-1999) contributes to enhanced transparency. However, data for the prescribed components of the analytical accounts of the central bank, and data on the breakdown of debt by maturity, are not shown on the NSDP. In addition, the central government debt data are more than six months out of date.

The authorities have advised that work will be undertaken later this year to publish timely data for gilette fusion, these components. Subscription to the SDDS is voluntary. Countries that subscribe to the SDDS undertook to observe the Standard fully by the implementation deadlines which come into effect during 1999. 1. Staff monitoring of observance of the SDDS is and responsibilities, limited to the coverage, periodicity and timeliness of the and after, data and to the dissemination of roles advance release calendars (ARCs), information about resources, which is given on the Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (DSBB). In addition, the DSBB provides information (metadata) on a country's practices for the following aspects of transparency: simultaneous release of the data; laws governing the compilation and release of the data; access to the data by other government officials prior to roles of teachers release; ministerial commentary accompanying the release of the data; revision policy; and advance notice of major changes in methodology. Staff have not undertaken an global definition assessment of the quality of the data disseminated under the SDDS. Of Teachers? The SDDS was designed to assist users to make their own assessment of data quality by providing information on the DSBB on the dissemination of documentation of methodology and the publication of more detailed data which provide an assurance of the reasonableness of the data.

In addition, Summary Methodologies designed to shed light on data quality, and using a standard format for radar, all countries for each data category, will be disseminated on the DSBB in the future. III. Fiscal Transparency. 8. This section provides an assessment of fiscal management practices in United Kingdom against the requirements of the IMF Code of Good Practices on Fiscal TransparencyDeclaration on Principles . Roles Of Teachers? The authorities have completed the fiscal transparency questionnaire and gilette fusion self-evaluation report prepared by the IMF staff. 7 The assessment has two parts. The first part is a description of roles practices, prepared by the IMF staff on the basis of the questionnaire response and the self-evaluation report.

The second part is an capitalized IMF staff commentary on fiscal transparency in the United Kingdom. A. Description of and responsibilities Practice. 9. Resources Capitalized? Clarity of Roles and Responsibilities: The definition of the government and the public sector follows the SNA, with more detailed guidance provided by the European System of Accounts (ESA95). All new regulations are subjected to a published Regulatory Impact Statement, and there is a fast-track procedure to repeal unwarranted regulations. Arrangements for devolution to assemblies in Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales are almost complete, and are to include a clear legislative and administrative framework for the allocation of fiscal responsibilities to each assembly. The Bank of of teachers England has operational independence, there are no other significant public financial institutions, and nonfinancial public enterprises operate on a commercial basis (with the costs of noncommercial activities being compensated for and reflected in the budget). A strong framework for fiscal management is bom weather adelaide, provided by the Code of and responsibilities of teachers Fiscal Stability (CFS), which was implemented in 1998. The CFS requires the Pride Love, government to set out how fiscal and debt management policy will be formulated and implemented. The Inland Revenue Department publishes a wide range of guidance material for taxpayers and there is a Taxpayers' Charter. The behavior of public servants is governed by and responsibilities the Civil Service Code. 10.

Public Availability of Information: The CFS requires the government to produce a Pre-Budget Report (PBR), an Economic and Fiscal Strategy Report (EFSR), a Financial Statement and Budget Report (FSBR), and a Debt Management Report (DMR). The FSBR provides comprehensive coverage of the public sector. While it does not include statements of contingent liabilities, tax expenditures, and quasi-fiscal activities, the first two are reported elsewhere and quasi-fiscal activities are not significant. The above reports are published according to a regular cycle. 11. Open Budget Preparation, Execution, and Reporting: The EFSR provides the broad macroeconomic framework for the budget, and it is intended to include illustrative projections for Essay and Prejudice and Jane Love, 10 years ahead beginning from the next budget. Fiscal policy is guided by two rulesthe golden rule and the debt rulewhich are clearly explained. 8 The preferred summary indicator of the fiscal position is the public sector current balance, which will be used to assess performance against the golden rule. The preferred summary indicator of fiscal stance is roles of teachers, public sector net borrowing. Work is in gilette fusion progress to develop generational accounts, and the CFS requires the government to move to accrual accounting in the context of a more general shift to resource accounting and budgeting. And Responsibilities Of Teachers? The presentation of fiscal data is consistent with ESA95, but the main budget documents report data at a high level of aggregation.

Accounting procedures and principles follow GAAP. Resource accounting will be guided by a recently-completed Resource Accounting Manual. 12. Independent Assurances of Integrity: The National Audit Office is independent. Macroeconomic assumptions are open to independent scrutiny, indeed the entire Treasury model is required by law to sourcing definition be published.

The Office of National Statistics has technical independence and and responsibilities ways are being sought to further strengthen its position. The United Kingdom is currently working toward full observance of SDDS requirements for fiscal data. B. IMF Staff Commentary. The United Kingdom has achieved a very high level of fiscal transparency. The requirements of the Code are met in almost all respects and exceeded in many. The various provisions of the Pride and Characterization, CFS described above have made a major contribution in this regard. While regular information on roles and responsibilities contingent liabilities is already published, transparency could be further enhanced if such information could be better integrated into the budget documents. Similarly, given that Departmental Reports are not published until a number of weeks after the annual Budget, the transparency of the main budget documents could be further improved by providing a more detailed breakdown of government expenditure (including the main economic and functional categories of spending) in gilette fusion the PBR and the FSBR. 13. In the context of strengthening the roles of teachers, architecture of the international monetary system, the Interim Committee, in its April and October 1998 communiqus, called on the Fund to develop a code of transparency practices for monetary and financial policies, in cooperation with appropriate institutions.

The Fund, in consultation with others, has prepared a draft Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies . 9. 14. The following considers the revolution, transparency practices of U.K. monetary and financial policy frameworks as they relate to the broad principles underlying the Fund's draft Code based on information provided by, and roles of teachers discussions with, the authorities at the time of the 1998 Article IV Consultation. 15. Clarity of roles and responsibilities: Recent changes to institutional arrangements have contributed to enhanced clarity of roles and a clearer assignment of responsibilities although some uncertainties remain pending the outcome of the legislative process. Essay Pride And Prejudice And Jane Love? The Bank of England Act 1998 , clearly defines the roles and responsibilities, Bank's operational responsibility for monetary policy. The Act also transfers the BoE's supervisory responsibilities to iran before the newly formed Financial Services Authority (FSA). While already functioning, the legal basis for roles, the FSA will remain uncertain until the gilette fusion, passage of the roles, Financial Services and Markets Bill (to be introduced into Parliament later this year).

On the basis of the draft bill, the FSA will incorporate the functions of nine separate authorities. Bom Weather Radar? The draft Bill sets out clear statutory objectives for the FSA in pursuing its regulatory functions. The May 1998 Memorandum of Understanding between the BoE, the FSA and the Treasury should help ensure effective working arrangements between the institutions. 16. Open process for formulating and and responsibilities reporting of frankenstein tv show monetary and financial policies: The BoE's Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), the policy making body, meets monthly with minutes of roles of teachers meetings being published within two weeks. These minutes and the BoE's Inflation Report provide effective vehicles for communication. Tv Show? The draft Bill requires the and responsibilities, FSA to consult on (and publish cost/benefit analyses of) all new rules and for these to be published. Gilette Fusion? The FSA may also be required to publish policies in other areas such as enforcement procedures and roles and responsibilities penalties. 17. Public availability of on and Prejudice Eyre: and Characterization information: The Bank produces regular press releases on statistics, MPC decisions and roles of teachers other Bank issues and its balance sheet is is human resources capitalized, released as part of its Annual Report. U.K. official holdings of foreign currency and gold are published monthly in consultation with the and responsibilities, Treasury.

The Bank and the FSA both have a public web site. The FSA is required to publish and consult on Pride and Prejudice and Jane Eyre: its budget and fees proposals. 18. Accountability and assurance of integrity by the central bank and financial supervisory agency: The Chancellor of the Exchequer, who is accountable to Parliament, has overall responsibility for the monetary policy framework and sets the inflation target. The Bank sets interest rates to achieve the target. The Governor of the Bank and other members of the MPC regularly appear before the House of Commons' Treasury Select Committee. The MPC is accountable for significant divergences of inflation from its target through an open letter system. 11 The draft Bill would require the FSA to report annually on performance against the statutory objectives. And Responsibilities Of Teachers? Other accountability provisions in the draft Bill include non-executive members of the FSA Board being required to report on the efficiency of its operations; the consultation arrangements required on global sourcing definition new rules; the formation of roles and responsibilities consumer and practitioner panels; and scope for the Treasury to commission periodic value for money audits.

Senior members of the FSA will also be expected to appear before Parliamentary committees. B. IMF Staff Commentary on the Monetary Policy Framework. The new monetary policy framework is highly transparent with respect to all four principles underlying the draft Code. The frank style and the short time lag in the publication of the MPC minutes provides for gilette fusion, an effective transmission of and responsibilities of teachers information on the MPC decision-making process. Reducing the time lag on the publication of the Minutes is commendable and should be continued. The open letter system is a recent innovation and it will be important to see how it operates in practice. The remit of the MPC is clear - to set interest rates to ensure the Government's inflation target is met - and bom weather the MPC has operational freedom to go about this task. Roles Of Teachers? All this is consistent with the draft Code. Gilette Fusion? Transparency could be further enhanced if the Inflation Report were to incorporate some of the qualitative flavor of the MPC minutes, for example, by indicating how the forecast had been developed, where there were major differences among the MPC members regarding economic assumptions, the prospects and the perceived risks. The legislative basis for the FSA's role is under consideration at this time and the transparency of financial policies will need to roles and responsibilities of teachers be reviewed against the legislation enacted. It will be important in the forthcoming legislation, and the regulations that flow from it, to ensure that the regulatory and supervisory activities of the FSA are transparent and accountable.

The draft legislation provides an indication of the elements that may be included. While the capacity of Ministers to dismiss the FSA Board is part of the general political accountability framework, and these powers are constrained through administrative law and is human capitalized access to appeals mechanisms, transparency would be enhanced if the general grounds on which the roles and responsibilities, Government may dismiss the Board were to be publicized more widely. (See also Section V. Banking Supervision.) 19. Tv Show? The Basle Committee on Banking Supervision (Basle Committee) prepared the Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision (Core Principles) in order to and responsibilities of teachers strengthen national financial market supervision and capitalized stability. Roles Of Teachers? 12 Intended to serve as a basic reference and minimum standards for supervisory and other public authorities in countries generally and internationally, the Core Principles address the major dimensions of banking sector supervision: preconditions for effective supervision; licensing process and approval for changes in structure; prudential regulations and requirements; methods of ongoing banking supervision; information requirements; formal powers of supervisors; and, cross-border banking. 20.

An assessment of U.K. practices against the full set of 25 Basle Core Principles is outside the scope of this study. Instead, this section focuses on the transparency aspects of the Core Principles. The staff's commentary is based on resources capitalized consideration of a questionnaire completed by the authorities and discussion with the authorities at roles the time of the 1998 Article IV Consultation. 21. The Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA) has been established to bring together in one agency responsibility for the authorization and supervision of all providers of financial services 14 It can autonomously issue prudential regulations under powers delegated to it by Parliament. The draft Financial Services and Markets Bill (to be introduced into Parliament later this year) will develop and further clarify these powers.

The income of the FSA comes from the institutions it supervises. 22. Legal framework: An effective legal basis for financial sector regulation and super- vision already exists in the United Kingdom, relevant laws and regulations are effectively implemented, and the legal framework does not hinder the conclusion or enforcement of loan contracts. Sourcing? The UK approach can be characterized as allowing a considerable degree of discretion to the supervisory authorities. Roles? The passage of the draft Bill will create a single regulatory authority with a consistent set of objectives, duties and powers.

By eliminating the scope for gaps and overlap, this Bill should further increase the effectiveness of existing arrangements. Under the on Pride and Prejudice and Jane Eyre: Love, present and proposed arrangements, should certain prudential standards be breached, the FSA must by law consider what action to and responsibilities of teachers take to Pride and Prejudice and Jane and Characterization remedy or mitigate the roles and responsibilities of teachers, situation but, in most cases, the law gives the and after, FSA considerable freedom to ensure that the response fits the need. In order to ensure accountability for these powers, the new legislative framework will require widespread consultation on regulations and detailed guidelines. And Responsibilities? In addition, the laws and regulations provide to affected parties the right of referral against supervisory decisions to an independent tribunal. For now, the FSA is operating under the legislation of its predecessor institutions. 23. Frankenstein? Accounting and disclosure aspects: External audits of annual financial statements of all companies, including financial institutions, are required by the U.K. Companies Act; however, this requirement does not apply to banks incorporated outside the United Kingdom which are subject to the legal requirements ruling in of teachers the country where they are registered. Resources? The appointment of a bank's external auditor does not require supervisory approval, but the appointment of its reporting accountants (usually the same firm) does.

The external auditor is obliged to inform the FSA of matters relevant to effective supervision or the auditor's ability to issue a clean opinion. 24. Compliance with U.K. accounting standards is and responsibilities, required. 15 Regular publication of balance sheets, profit and loss statement, notes to the account, and is human auditor's statement is required by U.K. Roles? law. All public companies are required to issued consolidated annual financial statements. B. IMF Staff Commentary. While existing supervisory practices in the areas outlined above already appear consistent with the disclosure aspects of the Basle Core Principles, the picture can be expected to become somewhat sharper once the current period of regulatory transition is resolved, in particular with the passage of legislation underpinning the FSA.

Given the considerable discretion that the resources capitalized, law allows the FSA, it will be important for the new arrangements to provide sufficient accountability to ensure that the discretion is used appropriately. This includes arrangements for consultation with interested parties on policies and regulations, as well as opportunities for those affected by roles and responsibilities of teachers the FSA's decisions to have adequate redress to an independent tribunal and iran revolution ultimately to the courts. 25. The Financial Services Act 1986 establishes the framework for and responsibilities, regulation of investment business. While this Act vests in the Treasury overall responsibility for iran before revolution, ensuring its implementation, it also provides for delegation of most operational responsibilities, and the majority of of teachers these now rest with the Financial Services Authority (FSA). 26.

The Financial Services and Markets Bill, issued in draft and to be introduced to Parliament later this year, proposes to consolidate the power and responsibilities of the FSA by amalgamating banking, insurance and investment business regulation under its authority as a single regulator. 27. The FSA is directly accountable to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, but the Chairman and other senior representatives will also appear, as required, before the Treasury Committee of the House of Commons. Attitude to international standards and cooperation. 28. The FSA endorsed the International Organization of Securities Commissions' (IOSCO) standards, Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation and Cross-Border Offerings and Initial Listings by Foreign Issuers , in September 1998 17 . 29. Investment business regulation is already required to be carried out in the UK to the level of these standards. However, checking that this is the case, and making necessary adjustments where appropriate, is one of the is human resources capitalized, FSA's priority areas for and responsibilities of teachers, 1999 (FSA is a member of IOSCO's implementation task force). The standard on Cross-Border Offerings will be implemented by amending the Listing Rules of the London Stock Exchange as appropriate. Documents prepared to the IOSCO standard will still be pre-vetted by the London Stock Exchange in the normal manner.

30. The FSA has arrangements for regulatory cooperation both within the United Kingdom and with foreign regulatory authorities. It has endorsed the principal international information-sharing agreements and resolutions, and signed Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) with many foreign counterparts. The U.K. authorities administer legal powers to obtain information on a compulsory basis for foreign regulators when there is no breach of rule or law in bom weather adelaide the United Kingdom. 31. The proposed Financial Services and Markets Bill will set up a single statutory regulator, the Financial Services Authority, which will be responsible for the regulation of banking, insurance and investment business. The FSA will replace the current self-regulatory organizations.

32. On the markets side, the new Bill will continue to provide for the recognition and exemption of roles and responsibilities of teachers clearing houses and investment exchanges (such as the gilette fusion, London Stock Exchange) provided they meet a number of statutory requirements. 33. The Bill also introduces a new civil regime for dealing with unacceptable market conduct, such as price manipulation and the misuse of privileged information. This regime will complement, not replace, the roles of teachers, existing criminal offences of insider dealing and market manipulation.

Its aim is to protect the Essay on and Jane Eyre: Love, efficiency and integrity of roles and responsibilities of teachers markets. The FSA will be given powers to investigate and impose administrative fines on those whose conduct has fallen short of the required standards. The draft Bill will contain broad provisions defining what constitutes unacceptable conduct and will be supplemented by a more detailed code of market conduct which the FSA will be required to produce. 34. The current framework for regulation of insurance companies is established by Essay on and Characterization the Insurance Companies Act 1982 . While this Act vests in the Treasury overall responsibility for supervision of insurance activities, most day-to-day operational responsibilities have been delegated to the Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA). 35. As noted above, the Financial Services and Markets Bill, to be introduced into Parliament later this year, would amalgamate authority for banking, insurance and investment regulation and supervision under the power and responsibilities of the FSA. 36.

The FSA is directly accountable to the Chancellor, but the Chairman and and responsibilities of teachers other senior representatives also appear, as required, before the Treasury Committee of the House of Commons. Observance of international principles and standards in insurance regulation. 37. During 1998, the United Kingdom conducted a self-assessment of its observance of the International Association of Insurance Supervisors' (IAIS) Insurance Supervisory Principles (September 1997). The U.K. authorities reported that its practices were in substantial compliance with all the relevant principles. 38. Frankenstein? The U.K. authorities also seek to comply with the provisions of the IAIS' Principles Applicable to roles of teachers the Supervision of International Insurers and Insurance groups and their Cross-Border Establishments (September 1997). 19 However, the authorities consider that it will be some time before insurance supervisors, with their current emphasis on solo supervision, exchange information internationally at the same level and on the same frequency as other financial regulators. 39. The United Kingdom endorses the principles outlined in the IAIS' Supervisory Standard on Licensing (October 1998), and considers that its application goes beyond the standard's requirement in a number of areas, for example, in relation to the assessment of the capital required for a license. These licensing requirements are also applied to pure re-insurers.

40. The United Kingdom takes a different approach to tv show verifying data and information than set out in the IAIS' Supervisory Standard on On-Site Inspection (October 1998). Although the U.K. supervisory authority has the power to roles and responsibilities of teachers require on-site inspections, such inspections are not a regular part of the day-to-day prudential supervision of insurance companies (although the monitoring of the market conduct of life insurers can involve on-site inspection). Insurance companies are required to provide an annual audited return to the supervisory authority, which is separate from the accounts to shareholders but is similarly placed on public record. The return contains information on global definition the business carried on, assets and liabilities, the reinsurance program and the profits and losses incurred. In addition, the appointed actuary of a life insurance company is also required to produce a report. These documents are subject to roles and responsibilities of teachers close scrutiny by the supervisory authority, whose knowledge of regulated companies is supplemented by a regular visit program. 41. The United Kingdom considers that it fully complies with the IAIS' Supervisory Standard on Derivatives (October 1998), which sets out risk management controls for insurers active in derivatives and a reporting framework that can be applied across a full range of on Pride and Jane Eyre: Love potential derivative activities. The standard recognizes that supervisory approaches to derivatives are evolving in response to developments on the market and provides guidance to supervisors in assessing how insurers control risks in and responsibilities of teachers derivatives. 42.

The IAIS has also issued Guidance on and Prejudice Eyre: and Characterization Insurance Regulation and Supervision for and responsibilities, Emerging Market Economies (September 1997) and a model memorandum of understanding (MOU) designed to facilitate co-operation and the exchange of information between regulatory bodies. The guidance paper is not directly applicable in frankenstein the case of the United Kingdom. With regard to the development of information exchange, the U.K. authorities are considering MOU with jurisdictions in which U.K. insurers are particularly active. Setting accounting standards in the United Kingdom. 43. Accounting standards are set by the Accounting Standards Board (ASB) , an independent body that became operational in 1990; these standards are known as Financial Reporting Standards (FRSs).

21 The ASB is also developing a Statement of Principles for Financial Reporting to provide a framework in which standards can be established. 44. The accounting and disclosure requirements of accounting standards, together with those of the Companies Acts, the Stock Exchange Listing Rules (for listed companies), and other statements from the roles of teachers, ASB and other professional bodies form the main components of what is Essay Pride and Jane Love and Characterization, known as U.K. Generally Accepted Accounting Practice (GAAP). The ASB's policy towards international accounting standard setting. 45. The ASB's accounting standards (FRSs) are the United Kingdom's vehicle for implementing International Accounting Standards (IASs). 22 The ASB's policy is to depart from the international consensus only when particular legal and fiscal problems dictate such a course, or when it believes that an and responsibilities of teachers independent U.K. standard may point the way to an eventual improvement in international standard.

In practice, the ASB plays a role in the development of IASs. 23. 46. The ASB considers that in some respects its FRSs go beyond the requirements of the IAS, including in the following areas: dealing with off-balance sheet finance (FRS5 Reporting the Substance of Transactions ); accounting for associates: the U.K. standard (but not IAS) requires disclosure of detailed information about significant associates; accounting for joint ventures: the U.K. standard does not permit proportional consolidation, whereas IAS does; acquisition accounting-goodwill: IAS allows certain provisions to be made, if part of the acquisition plan, the U.K. standard does not. Other differences arise on such issues as treatment of goodwill, pensions and deferred tax. 24. 47. The IAS also has one specific standard on revenue recognition for which there is sourcing definition, no equivalent U.K. standard.

However, this difference is and responsibilities of teachers, unlikely to be material as requirements for revenue recognition are contained in other U.K. standards. Promulgation and enforcement of standards. 48. Under the U.K. Bom Weather Radar? Companies Act, the accounting requirements of which are largely based on the EU Fourth and Seventh Company Law Directives, annual accounts are required to give a true and fair view. In turn, compliance with ASB accounting standards is roles and responsibilities of teachers, required as part of the achievement of is human capitalized such a view.

25 While not themselves law, accounting standards are underpinned by statute and have the effect of the force of law. 49. To assist its work in developing standards, the ASB has established an roles and responsibilities Urgent Issues Task Force (UITF).The main purpose of the UITF is to assist the ASB in areas where an accounting standard or Companies Act provision exists, but where unsatisfactory or conflicting interpretations have developed or seem likely to develop. 50. Adelaide? Enforcement of standards occurs through the U.K. Financial Reporting Review Panel, which is authorized by the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry to roles and responsibilities examine material departures from the accounting requirements of the Companies Act, including departures from the requirements of accounting standards.

The Panel does not routinely review annual accounts for compliance, but rather relies on matters being brought to its attention. Setting auditing standards in the UK. 51. And Jane Eyre: Love? Auditing standards are established by the Auditing Practices Board (APB) . Roles Of Teachers? The APB was established in 1991, as a committee of the Consultative Committee of Accountancy Bodies (CCAB), whose members are the main accountancy bodies in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. 27 28. 52. The role of the APB is gilette fusion, not explicitly recognized in legislation and its pronouncements do not have any statutory authority.

However, the Companies Act 1989 requires that the recognized supervisory bodies 29 must have rules and practices as to the technical standards to be applied in roles of teachers company audit work and that these must be adhered to by registered auditors. 53. The accountancy bodies, which are members of the CCAB, have undertaken to adopt and promulgate all auditing standards and guidance issued by the APB as requirements for gilette fusion, their members. Failure to follow a requirement established by the APB can result in disciplinary action by the professional body to roles of teachers which the tv show, auditor belongs. Non-compliance by a registered auditor with an APB requirement in the course of an roles of teachers audit may lead to radar regulatory action and, in extreme cases, withdrawal of registration to act as a company auditor. Responsibility for regulatory action, including withdrawal of eligibility to act as a company auditor, rests with the Recognized Supervisory Bodies. 54. Pronouncements of the roles, APB are of several types:

Statements of Auditing Standards (SASs) contain basic principles and essential procedures with which auditors are required to comply in the conduct of capitalized any audit of financial statements. (SASs also include explanatory and other material designed to assist auditors in and responsibilities of teachers interpreting and applying the standards.) Practice Notes are issued to assist in applying auditing standards of frankenstein general nature to particular circumstances and industries, and Bulletins provide guidance on roles and responsibilities emerging issues. Both of these are persuasive rather than prescriptive in nature; they are intended to Essay on Eyre: and Characterization be indicative of good practice. Relationship between SASs and international standards. 55. Roles Of Teachers? The APB's terms of reference provide for it to maintain close links with the International Auditing Practices Committee (IAPC) 30 , the auditing profession in Europe and throughout the world. The APB represents the United Kingdom on the IAPC. 56. It is an objective of the APB that its SASs are consistent with the IAPC's International Standards on definition Auditing (ISAs); however, this is not an absolute constraint and the APB assesses the roles and responsibilities of teachers, appropriateness of each ISA in and Prejudice Eyre: the context of the United Kingdom and of teachers the Republic of Ireland.

Each SAS either states that compliance with it ensures compliance in all material respects with the relevant ISA or gives a short explanation of differences. 57. The APB has benchmarked its standards against ISAs. Of the 192 separate requirements of the ISAs, SASs were judged to be compliant with 155. In the APB's view, most of the 37 exceptions reflect points of emphasis rather than substance, and in some cases variations reflected a different approach it consciously adopted to bom weather adelaide achieve the same objective as the ISAs.