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Essay Johnny Cash: The Man in Black

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bruce noble resume Special Achievement Award--cash award of $1,000 in recognition of exceptional performance during 2010 appraisal period. Award approved January 10, 2011. In Black? Special Achievement Award--cash award of $3,000 in recognition of success in terry malloy, building positive relationships with the Cash:, City of harlem hughes, Sulphur, Oklahoma. Award approved October 2009. The Man? United States Department of the Interior Honor Award for Superior Service. Terry Malloy? Recognition for acting superintendent assignment at Essay Cash:, Big Bend NP. Free Korea Sex? Award approved September 1, 2007. Cash: In Black? Special Achievement Award--cash award of $3,000 in recognition of success in hobbes equality, building positive relationships with the City of Skagway, Alaska. Award approved December 2001. STAR Award--cash award of $1,500 in recognition of leadership role in coordinating the development of the park’s self-study document in the process of renewing the accreditation of the park’s curatorial program by the American Association of Museums. Award approved September 1999.

STAR Award--cash award of $1,500 in recognition for leadership role in hosting the annual meeting of the Society for Historians of the Early American Republic in Harpers Ferry. Award approved September 1998. STAR Award--cash award of $1,500 in recognition of Johnny Cash: in Black, contributions toward the installation of over $1 million worth of museum exhibits in a series of harlem hughes, recently. rehabilitated historic buildings. Award approved September 1997. Time Off Award--32 hours of annual leave in recognition of contributions to two flood recovery efforts in 1996. Award approved March 1997. Special Act Service Award--cash award of Essay Johnny Cash: The Man in Black, $1125 in recognition of us history, contributions to flood recovery efforts in 1996. Award approved March 1997. Essay Cash: The Man In Black? Performance Award--cash award of $1085 in recognition of exceptional performance during 1995 appraisal period. Award approved March 1996.

Elected to Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society upon completion of bachelor's degree in May of 1980. SELECTED WRITING EXPERIENCE : Book Review. The Making of free korea sex, Harpers Ferry National Historical Park: A Devil, Two Rivers, and a Dream by Teresa S. Moyer and Paul A. Shackel in The Public Historian (Volume 30, No. 3, Summer 2008): pp. Johnny? 103-105. Book Review. Free Korea Sex? The Nature of Gold: An Environmental History of the Klondike Gold Rush by Kathryn Morse in Environmental History (Vol. 9, No.

2, April 2004). Book Review. Essay The Man In Black? The Wild East: A Biography of the Great Smoky Mountains by Margaret Lynn Brown in Environmental History (Vol. 6, No. 3, July 2001): pp. 490-492. Book Chapter. At Historical Parks: Balancing a Multitude of Interests, in Public History: Essays from the Field , James B. Gardner and Peter S. LaPaglia, eds., (Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company, 1999): pp. 279-294. A Legacy of Distrust: The Mesa Verde Boundary Controversy, Colorado Heritage (Summer 1995): pp.

32-42. Book Review. The Undying Past of Shenandoah National Park by Darwin Lambert in Environmental History (Volume 18, No. 2, Summer 1994): pp. 107-109. Terry Malloy? A Frenchman in Wyoming: the The Man in Black, South Pass Mining Misadventures of Emile Granier, Annals of Wyoming (Volume 65, No. 4, Winter 1993-94): pp. 48-61. Thirst for free korea sex, History: A Review, Historic Preservation Forum (Volume 5, No.

6, 1991): pp. 29-31. National Parks in the Eastern United States: The Mammoth Cave Experience, George Wright Society Forum (Volume 8, No. 6, 1991): pp. 38-42.

The Mammoth Cave National Park Planning Project: Cooperative SHPO- Federal Agency Cultural Resource Management, CRM Bulletin (Volume 13, No. 6, 1990): pp. 9-11. Three Perspectives on Preservation Planning, CRM Bulletin (Volume 13, No. 5, 1990): pp. 5-6, 17. A National Register Perspective: Evaluating Historic Mining Resources, CRM Bulletin (Volume 12, No. 2, 1989): pp. Essay Cash: The Man In Black? 1-4. Book Review. The Medicine Bows: Wyoming's Mountain Country by Scott Thybony, Robert G. Rosenberg, and hobbes equality, Elizabeth Mullet Rosenberg in Annals of.

Wyoming 58 (Fall 1986): pp. 55-56. Essay Cash:? Marking Wyoming's Oregon Trail, Overland Journal (Summer 1986): pp. 19-31. Book Review. Museum Masters: Their Museums and their Influence by Edward P. Alexander in Annals of Wyoming 56 (Fall 1984): p. 47. The Quest for Settlement in Early Wyoming, Annals of Wyoming 55 (Fall 1 983): pp.

19-24. Delivered a presentation titled “Chickasaw National Recreation Area and Cultural Resources on the Landscape” during Oklahoma’s 21 st Annual Statewide Preservation Conference at Quartz Mountain, OK on June 5, 2009. Organizer and Chair of a session titled “The Klondike Gold Rush and terry malloy, the Chilkoot Trail: Studying, Interpreting Managing an International Experience presented during the annual meeting of the National Council on Public History in Cash: The Man, Victoria, BC on hobbes equality, April 4, 2004. Delivered opening and Essay Cash: The Man in Black, closing remarks and served as Chair of the Discovery North conference, December 11, 2002 in Anchorage, AK. This was a one-day strategic planning and visioning conference held biennially for all National Park Service employees in Alaska. Served as Chair Commentator of hobbes equality, a session titled Heritage Exhibits, Plans and Impacts during the Essay Cash: The Man in Black, annual meeting of the National Council on Public History , April 30, 1999, Lowell, MA. Presented a paper in a session entitled Historians and the World Wide Web during the National Park Service Historians' Meeting in San Francisco, CA on. Presented a paper in a session entitled Controversial Interpretation during the 1996 Ranger Rendezvous in Corpus Christi, TX on November 6-7, 1996. National Parks in the East: The Mammoth Cave Experience, delivered during the annual meeting of the American Society for Environmental History held in Pittsburgh, PA on March 5, 1993.

National Parks in the East: The Mammoth Cave Experiment, delivered during the annual meeting of the Society for History in the Federal Government , Washington, DC, April 22, 1991. Mammoth Cave Inside-Out: Creative Uses of Historic Contexts to Evaluate Cultural Resource Significance Inside and Outside Federal Boundaries, d elivered during a National Park Service sponsored convention entitled Preservation Challenges for the 1990s: A Conference for Public Officials, June 5, 1990. A Frenchman in Wyoming: Story of the Granier Hydraulic Mining Project and The Quest for Settlement in harlem hughes, Early Wyoming, each paper delivered several times during 1986 following selection as member of Wyoming Council for the Humanities Speakers Bureau. Marking Wyoming's Oregon Trail, annual meeting of the Oregon-California Trails Association , Scotts Bluff, NE, August 16, 1985. Johnny The Man In Black? The Quest for hobbes equality, Settlement in Early Wyoming, University of Wyoming American Studies Conference , Laramie, WY, October 6, 1983. Conference. theme was The Great West: Imagination and Reality in a New America.

Main Street , Vice-President of Essay, Board of Directors, Sulphur, OK. Free Korea Sex? National Council on Public History , Serve on Editorial Board of the organization’s journal, The Public Historian.

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In Praise of Idleness by Bertrand Russell. Noted mathematician and philosopher Bertrand Russell tried to apply the clarity he admired in mathematical reasoning to the solution of problems in other fields, in particular ethics and politics. In this essay, first published in 1932, Russell argues in Cash: The Man in Black, favor of a four-hour working day. Consider whether his arguments for laziness deserve serious consideration today. Like most of my generation, I was brought up on the saying: 'Satan finds some mischief for nursing idle hands to Essay Johnny Cash: The Man in Black do.' Being a highly virtuous child, I believed all that I was told, and acquired a conscience which has kept me working hard down to the present moment. But although my conscience has controlled my actions, my opinions have undergone a revolution.

I think that there is far too much work done in free korea sex, the world, that immense harm is caused by the belief that work is virtuous, and that what needs to be preached in modern industrial countries is quite different from what always has been preached. Everyone knows the story of the traveler in Naples who saw twelve beggars lying in the sun (it was before the days of Mussolini), and offered a lira to Cash: in Black the laziest of them. Eleven of them jumped up to claim it, so he gave it to the twelfth. this traveler was on the right lines. Terry Malloy? But in countries which do not enjoy Mediterranean sunshine idleness is more difficult, and a great public propaganda will be required to inaugurate it. I hope that, after reading the Johnny Cash: The Man following pages, the leaders of the YMCA will start a campaign to induce good young men to do nothing.

If so, I shall not have lived in vain. Before advancing my own arguments for laziness, I must dispose of one which I cannot accept. Whenever a person who already has enough to live on proposes to engage in some everyday kind of job, such as school-teaching or typing, he or she is nursing research, told that such conduct takes the bread out of other people's mouths, and is therefore wicked. If this argument were valid, it would only be necessary for Essay Cash: in Black us all to be idle in free korea sex, order that we should all have our mouths full of bread. What people who say such things forget is that what a man earns he usually spends, and in spending he gives employment. As long as a man spends his income, he puts just as much bread into people's mouths in Essay Cash:, spending as he takes out of other people's mouths in earning. The real villain, from this point of view, is the man who saves. If he merely puts his savings in a stocking, like the research proverbial French peasant, it is obvious that they do not give employment. Cash:? If he invests his savings, the matter is less obvious, and different cases arise. One of the commonest things to do with savings is to lend them to some Government. Free Korea Sex? In view of the fact that the Essay Johnny Cash: The Man bulk of the public expenditure of most civilized Governments consists in payment for past wars or preparation for future wars, the man who lends his money to a Government is in the same position as the bad men in Shakespeare who hire murderers.

The net result of the x accomplish man's economical habits is to increase the armed forces of the State to Johnny in Black which he lends his savings. Obviously it would be better if he spent the money, even if he spent it in drink or gambling. But, I shall be told, the x accomplish case is quite different when savings are invested in industrial enterprises. When such enterprises succeed, and produce something useful, this may be conceded. In these days, however, no one will deny that most enterprises fail. That means that a large amount of human labor, which might have been devoted to producing something that could be enjoyed, was expended on producing machines which, when produced, lay idle and Cash: The Man, did no good to anyone. The man who invests his savings in a concern that goes bankrupt is therefore injuring others as well as himself. If he spent his money, say, in giving parties for his friends, they (we may hope) would get pleasure, and so would all those upon whom he spent money, such as the butcher, the baker, and research, the bootlegger.

But if he spends it (let us say) upon laying down rails for surface card in some place where surface cars turn out not to Essay Johnny Cash: be wanted, he has diverted a mass of labor into channels where it gives pleasure to no one. Nevertheless, when he becomes poor through failure of his investment he will be regarded as a victim of undeserved misfortune, whereas the gay spendthrift, who has spent his money philanthropically, will be despised as a fool and a frivolous person. All this is only preliminary. I want to free korea sex say, in all seriousness, that a great deal of harm is Johnny Cash: The Man in Black, being done in the modern world by belief in the virtuousness of work, and that the research articles road to happiness and prosperity lies in an organized diminution of work. First of Essay Johnny The Man in Black all: what is work?

Work is of two kinds: first, altering the position of matter at terry malloy or near the Cash: The Man earth's surface relatively to other such matter; second, telling other people to do so. The first kind is unpleasant and ill paid; the monopoly us history second is pleasant and highly paid. Johnny The Man In Black? The second kind is capable of indefinite extension: there are not only those who give orders, but those who give advice as to what orders should be given. Usually two opposite kinds of x accomplish advice are given simultaneously by two organized bodies of Essay Johnny Cash: The Man in Black men; this is called politics. The skill required for this kind of work is not knowledge of the subjects as to which advice is what x accomplish, given, but knowledge of the art of persuasive speaking and writing, i.e. of advertising.

Throughout Europe, though not in America, there is a third class of men, more respected than either of the classes of workers. There are men who, through ownership of land, are able to Essay Johnny The Man make others pay for the privilege of being allowed to exist and to work. These landowners are idle, and I might therefore be expected to praise them. Harlem Hughes? Unfortunately, their idleness is Johnny The Man in Black, only rendered possible by the industry of what others; indeed their desire for Johnny in Black comfortable idleness is harlem hughes, historically the source of the whole gospel of work. The last thing they have ever wished is that others should follow their example. Continued from page one.

In times of Johnny Cash: in Black famine there was no surplus; the warriors and harlem hughes, priests, however, still secured as much as at other times, with the result that many of the workers died of hunger. Essay Johnny The Man In Black? This system persisted in Russia until 1917 [1], and nursing articles, still persists in the East; in England, in spite of the Industrial Revolution, it remained in Essay The Man, full force throughout the Napoleonic wars, and harlem hughes, until a hundred years ago, when the new class of manufacturers acquired power. In America, the system came to an end with the Revolution, except in Essay Cash: in Black, the South, where it persisted until the Civil War. A system which lasted so long and ended so recently has naturally left a profound impress upon men's thoughts and opinions. Much that we take for granted about the desirability of work is research, derived from this system, and, being pre-industrial, is not adapted to the modern world. Modern technique has made it possible for Johnny leisure, within limits, to be not the prerogative of small privileged classes, but a right evenly distributed throughout the community.

The morality of work is the morality of slaves, and the modern world has no need of slavery. It is obvious that, in primitive communities, peasants, left to themselves, would not have parted with the slender surplus upon which the warriors and priests subsisted, but would have either produced less or consumed more. At first, sheer force compelled them to produce and part with the surplus. Gradually, however, it was found possible to induce many of them to what did malcolm x accomplish accept an ethic according to which it was their duty to work hard, although part of their work went to support others in Johnny Cash:, idleness. By this means the amount of compulsion required was lessened, and the expenses of government were diminished. To this day, 99 per cent of British wage-earners would be genuinely shocked if it were proposed that the King should not have a larger income than a working man. The conception of duty, speaking historically, has been a means used by the holders of power to induce others to hobbes equality live for the interests of their masters rather than for their own. Of course the holders of power conceal this fact from themselves by managing to Essay Cash: in Black believe that their interests are identical with the larger interests of humanity. Sometimes this is true; Athenian slave-owners, for instance, employed part of terry malloy their leisure in making a permanent contribution to civilization which would have been impossible under a just economic system.

Leisure is essential to civilization, and in former times leisure for the few was only rendered possible by the labors of the many. But their labors were valuable, not because work is good, but because leisure is good. And with modern technique it would be possible to distribute leisure justly without injury to civilization. Modern technique has made it possible to diminish enormously the amount of labor required to secure the necessaries of life for everyone. Essay? This was made obvious during the war. At that time all the men in the armed forces, and all the men and women engaged in the production of munitions, all the men and women engaged in spying, war propaganda, or Government offices connected with the war, were withdrawn from productive occupations. In spite of this, the general level of well-being among unskilled wage-earners on harlem hughes, the side of the Allies was higher than before or since. The significance of this fact was concealed by finance: borrowing made it appear as if the future was nourishing the present. But that, of course, would have been impossible; a man cannot eat a loaf of bread that does not yet exist.

The war showed conclusively that, by the scientific organization of production, it is possible to keep modern populations in fair comfort on Johnny in Black, a small part of the working capacity of the modern world. If, at the end of the war, the scientific organization, which had been created in order to liberate men for fighting and hobbes equality, munition work, had been preserved, and the hours of the week had been cut down to four, all would have been well. Instead of that the Essay Johnny The Man in Black old chaos was restored, those whose work was demanded were made to work long hours, and the rest were left to nursing starve as unemployed. Why? Because work is a duty, and a man should not receive wages in proportion to what he has produced, but in proportion to his virtue as exemplified by his industry.

This is the morality of the Slave State, applied in circumstances totally unlike those in which it arose. No wonder the result has been disastrous. Essay Cash: In Black? Let us take an illustration. Suppose that, at a given moment, a certain number of people are engaged in the manufacture of pins. Us History? They make as many pins as the world needs, working (say) eight hours a day.

Someone makes an invention by which the same number of men can make twice as many pins: pins are already so cheap that hardly any more will be bought at a lower price. In a sensible world, everybody concerned in the manufacturing of pins would take to working four hours instead of eight, and everything else would go on as before. But in the actual world this would be thought demoralizing. The men still work eight hours, there are too many pins, some employers go bankrupt, and half the men previously concerned in making pins are thrown out of work. Johnny Cash: The Man In Black? There is, in the end, just as much leisure as on the other plan, but half the research men are totally idle while half are still overworked. In this way, it is insured that the unavoidable leisure shall cause misery all round instead of The Man in Black being a universal source of happiness. Can anything more insane be imagined? Continued from page two. When I was a child, shortly after urban working men had acquired the vote, certain public holidays were established by law, to x accomplish the great indignation of the upper classes. I remember hearing an The Man in Black old Duchess say: 'What do the poor want with holidays?

They ought to work.' People nowadays are less frank, but the sentiment persists, and is the source of much of our economic confusion. Let us, for a moment, consider the ethics of free korea sex work frankly, without superstition. Every human being, of necessity, consumes, in the course of Johnny The Man his life, a certain amount of the produce of human labor. Assuming, as we may, that labor is on the whole disagreeable, it is free korea sex, unjust that a man should consume more than he produces. The Man In Black? Of course he may provide services rather than commodities, like a medical man, for example; but he should provide something in return for his board and x accomplish, lodging. to this extent, the duty of work must be admitted, but to this extent only.

I shall not dwell upon the fact that, in all modern societies outside the USSR, many people escape even this minimum amount of work, namely all those who inherit money and Essay Cash: The Man, all those who marry money. I do not think the fact that these people are allowed to be idle is nearly so harmful as the fact that wage-earners are expected to overwork or starve. If the ordinary wage-earner worked four hours a day, there would be enough for everybody and no unemployment—assuming a certain very moderate amount of sensible organization. This idea shocks the well-to-do, because they are convinced that the poor would not know how to terry malloy use so much leisure. In America men often work long hours even when they are well off; such men, naturally, are indignant at the idea of Cash: in Black leisure for wage-earners, except as the grim punishment of unemployment; in fact, they dislike leisure even for their sons. Oddly enough, while they wish their sons to work so hard as to have no time to be civilized, they do not mind their wives and daughters having no work at all.

The snobbish admiration of harlem hughes uselessness, which, in an aristocratic society, extends to both sexes, is, under a plutocracy, confined to women; this, however, does not make it any more in agreement with common sense. The wise use of leisure, it must be conceded, is The Man, a product of civilization and education. A man who has worked long hours all his life will become bored if he becomes suddenly idle. But without a considerable amount of leisure a man is cut off from many of the best things. There is no longer any reason why the bulk of the population should suffer this deprivation; only a foolish asceticism, usually vicarious, makes us continue to terry malloy insist on work in excessive quantities now that the need no longer exists. In the Essay Cash: new creed which controls the government of Russia, while there is free korea sex, much that is very different from the traditional teaching of the West, there are some things that are quite unchanged. The attitude of the governing classes, and especially of those who conduct educational propaganda, on the subject of the dignity of labor, is almost exactly that which the governing classes of the Johnny in Black world have always preached to x accomplish what were called the 'honest poor'. Industry, sobriety, willingness to work long hours for distant advantages, even submissiveness to authority, all these reappear; moreover authority still represents the will of the Ruler of the Essay Johnny The Man Universe, Who, however, is now called by a new name, Dialectical Materialism.

The victory of the proletariat in Russia has some points in common with the victory of the feminists in some other countries. For ages, men had conceded the superior saintliness of hobbes equality women, and had consoled women for Essay Johnny Cash: their inferiority by maintaining that saintliness is more desirable than power. At last the terry malloy feminists decided that they would have both, since the pioneers among them believed all that the men had told them about the desirability of virtue, but not what they had told them about the worthlessness of political power. A similar thing has happened in Johnny The Man in Black, Russia as regards manual work. Free Korea Sex? For ages, the Essay Cash: in Black rich and their sycophants have written in praise of 'honest toil', have praised the simple life, have professed a religion which teaches that the poor are much more likely to go to heaven than the rich, and in general have tried to make manual workers believe that there is free korea sex, some special nobility about altering the position of matter in space, just as men tried to The Man in Black make women believe that they derived some special nobility from their sexual enslavement. In Russia, all this teaching about the excellence of did malcolm manual work has been taken seriously, with the result that the manual worker is more honored than anyone else. What are, in The Man in Black, essence, revivalist appeals are made, but not for the old purposes: they are made to research secure shock workers for special tasks. Manual work is the ideal which is held before the young, and Johnny, is the basis of all ethical teaching.

Continued from page three. In the West, we have various ways of dealing with this problem. We have no attempt at economic justice, so that a large proportion of the total produce goes to a small minority of the population, many of whom do no work at all. Owing to the absence of terry malloy any central control over production, we produce hosts of things that are not wanted. We keep a large percentage of the working population idle, because we can dispense with their labor by Essay Cash: in Black, making the others overwork. Terry Malloy? When all these methods prove inadequate, we have a war: we cause a number of people to Johnny Cash: The Man manufacture high explosives, and a number of others to explode them, as if we were children who had just discovered fireworks. Free Korea Sex? By a combination of all these devices we manage, though with difficulty, to keep alive the notion that a great deal of severe manual work must be the lot of the average man.

In Russia, owing to Johnny in Black more economic justice and central control over production, the problem will have to be differently solved. The rational solution would be, as soon as the necessaries and free korea sex, elementary comforts can be provided for The Man all, to reduce the hours of labor gradually, allowing a popular vote to decide, at each stage, whether more leisure or more goods were to be preferred. But, having taught the supreme virtue of hard work, it is difficult to see how the authorities can aim at a paradise in which there will be much leisure and terry malloy, little work. It seems more likely that they will find continually fresh schemes, by which present leisure is to be sacrificed to future productivity. I read recently of an ingenious plan put forward by Russian engineers, for making the White Sea and the northern coasts of Essay Cash: The Man in Black Siberia warm, by putting a dam across the what did malcolm x accomplish Kara Sea. An admirable project, but liable to Cash: The Man in Black postpone proletarian comfort for a generation, while the nobility of toil is being displayed amid the ice-fields and snowstorms of the Arctic Ocean. This sort of thing, if it happens, will be the research articles result of regarding the virtue of hard work as an end in Cash:, itself, rather than as a means to a state of affairs in harlem hughes, which it is no longer needed. The fact is Johnny, that moving matter about, while a certain amount of it is necessary to our existence, is emphatically not one of the ends of human life.

If it were, we should have to consider every navvy superior to Shakespeare. We have been misled in this matter by two causes. One is the did malcolm x accomplish necessity of keeping the poor contented, which has led the rich, for thousands of years, to preach the dignity of labor, while taking care themselves to remain undignified in this respect. The other is the new pleasure in mechanism, which makes us delight in the astonishingly clever changes that we can produce on the earth's surface. Neither of these motives makes any great appeal to the actual worker. If you ask him what he thinks the best part of his life, he is not likely to say: 'I enjoy manual work because it makes me feel that I am fulfilling man's noblest task, and because I like to Johnny think how much man can transform his planet. It is true that my body demands periods of rest, which I have to fill in as best I may, but I am never so happy as when the morning comes and terry malloy, I can return to the toil from which my contentment springs.' I have never heard working men say this sort of thing.

They consider work, as it should be considered, a necessary means to a livelihood, and it is from their leisure that they derive whatever happiness they may enjoy. It will be said that, while a little leisure is pleasant, men would not know how to fill their days if they had only four hours of work out Essay Johnny of the twenty-four. In so far as this is free korea sex, true in the modern world, it is a condemnation of our civilization; it would not have been true at any earlier period. There was formerly a capacity for light-heartedness and play which has been to some extent inhibited by the cult of efficiency. The modern man thinks that everything ought to be done for the sake of something else, and never for its own sake. Serious-minded persons, for example, are continually condemning the habit of going to the cinema, and Essay Johnny Cash: The Man, telling us that it leads the young into crime. But all the work that goes to producing a cinema is respectable, because it is work, and monopoly, because it brings a money profit. The notion that the desirable activities are those that bring a profit has made everything topsy-turvy.

The butcher who provides you with meat and the baker who provides you with bread are praiseworthy, because they are making money; but when you enjoy the food they have provided, you are merely frivolous, unless you eat only to get strength for your work. Broadly speaking, it is held that getting money is good and spending money is bad. Seeing that they are two sides of Essay Cash: The Man in Black one transaction, this is absurd; one might as well maintain that keys are good, but keyholes are bad. Whatever merit there may be in the production of what x accomplish goods must be entirely derivative from the advantage to Johnny in Black be obtained by consuming them. The individual, in our society, works for profit; but the social purpose of his work lies in the consumption of what he produces. It is this divorce between the individual and nursing, the social purpose of production that makes it so difficult for men to think clearly in a world in which profit-making is the incentive to industry. We think too much of production, and too little of consumption. One result is that we attach too little importance to enjoyment and simple happiness, and that we do not judge production by the pleasure that it gives to the consumer.

Concluded on page five. Continued from page four. I am not thinking mainly of the Essay Johnny sort of things that would be considered 'highbrow'. Harlem Hughes? Peasant dances have died out except in remote rural areas, but the Cash: in Black impulses which caused them to us history be cultivated must still exist in human nature. The pleasures of urban populations have become mainly passive: seeing cinemas, watching football matches, listening to the radio, and Essay Johnny Cash: in Black, so on. This results from the fact that their active energies are fully taken up with work; if they had more leisure, they would again enjoy pleasures in which they took an hobbes equality active part. In the past, there was a small leisure class and a larger working class. The leisure class enjoyed advantages for Johnny The Man which there was no basis in social justice; this necessarily made it oppressive, limited its sympathies, and caused it to free korea sex invent theories by which to justify its privileges. Essay Cash:? These facts greatly diminished its excellence, but in spite of this drawback it contributed nearly the whole of what we call civilization.

It cultivated the arts and discovered the sciences; it wrote the books, invented the philosophies, and refined social relations. Even the liberation of the free korea sex oppressed has usually been inaugurated from above. Without the leisure class, mankind would never have emerged from barbarism. The method of a leisure class without duties was, however, extraordinarily wasteful. None of the members of the class had to Johnny Cash: be taught to terry malloy be industrious, and the class as a whole was not exceptionally intelligent.

The class might produce one Darwin, but against Essay Johnny Cash: in Black him had to be set tens of thousands of country gentlemen who never thought of anything more intelligent than fox-hunting and punishing poachers. Articles? At present, the universities are supposed to provide, in a more systematic way, what the leisure class provided accidentally and as a by-product. Essay Johnny The Man In Black? This is hobbes equality, a great improvement, but it has certain drawbacks. University life is so different from life in the world at Essay large that men who live in did malcolm x accomplish, academic milieu tend to be unaware of the preoccupations and problems of ordinary men and women; moreover their ways of expressing themselves are usually such as to Cash: The Man rob their opinions of the influence that they ought to have upon the general public. Another disadvantage is that in universities studies are organized, and the man who thinks of some original line of what x accomplish research is likely to be discouraged. Academic institutions, therefore, useful as they are, are not adequate guardians of the interests of civilization in Essay Johnny Cash:, a world where everyone outside their walls is too busy for unutilitarian pursuits. In a world where no one is nursing articles, compelled to work more than four hours a day, every person possessed of scientific curiosity will be able to indulge it, and every painter will be able to paint without starving, however excellent his pictures may be. Young writers will not be obliged to draw attention to Essay Cash: themselves by monopoly, sensational pot-boilers, with a view to acquiring the economic independence needed for Essay Cash: The Man monumental works, for free korea sex which, when the time at Johnny The Man last comes, they will have lost the harlem hughes taste and capacity. Men who, in Essay Johnny, their professional work, have become interested in some phase of economics or government, will be able to develop their ideas without the academic detachment that makes the work of university economists often seem lacking in terry malloy, reality. Medical men will have the Johnny in Black time to learn about the progress of medicine, teachers will not be exasperatedly struggling to harlem hughes teach by routine methods things which they learnt in their youth, which may, in the interval, have been proved to be untrue.

Above all, there will be happiness and Cash:, joy of free korea sex life, instead of frayed nerves, weariness, and dyspepsia. The work exacted will be enough to make leisure delightful, but not enough to produce exhaustion. Since men will not be tired in their spare time, they will not demand only such amusements as are passive and vapid. At least one per cent will probably devote the time not spent in professional work to pursuits of some public importance, and, since they will not depend upon these pursuits for Cash: The Man their livelihood, their originality will be unhampered, and there will be no need to conform to the standards set by elderly pundits. But it is not only in these exceptional cases that the advantages of leisure will appear. Ordinary men and women, having the terry malloy opportunity of a happy life, will become more kindly and less persecuting and less inclined to Essay Cash: The Man view others with suspicion. The taste for war will die out, partly for this reason, and partly because it will involve long and severe work for all. Free Korea Sex? Good nature is, of all moral qualities, the one that the world needs most, and good nature is the result of ease and security, not of a life of arduous struggle. Modern methods of Johnny Cash: The Man in Black production have given us the possibility of ease and security for all; we have chosen, instead, to have overwork for some and starvation for others.

Hitherto we have continued to be as energetic as we were before there were machines; in harlem hughes, this we have been foolish, but there is Essay Cash:, no reason to go on being foolish forever.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Essay Cash: The Man! Read on hobbes equality for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Essay Johnny The Man In Black! Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it.

Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the research articles, accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. Essay Cash:! But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to hobbes equality, be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to Cash: in Black, include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . Articles! 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for Essay The Man in Black someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to monopoly us history, get your resume noticed . According to Essay Johnny The Man, Zhang , the hobbes equality, only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to.

In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for The Man in Black you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on hobbes equality your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in Essay Johnny Cash: your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the monopoly us history, bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and Cash: The Man making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to nursing research articles, do this. If you truly have enough relevant and Essay Cash: The Man in Black important experience, training, and credentials to monopoly us history, showcase on more than one page of Essay Johnny The Man in Black your resume, then go for research it.

But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to Johnny Cash: The Man, fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to what did malcolm, include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the Johnny Cash: in Black, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to us history, stand out in Johnny Cash: The Man in Black a minute. Harlem Hughes! But the most basic principle of Johnny Cash: in Black good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic.

Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of hobbes equality white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and Cash: the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for harlem hughes the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out Cash: from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully.

If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and us history whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and Essay Johnny Cash: in Black design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on hobbes equality the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in Johnny in Black this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for monopoly prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible.

These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in The Man in Black getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of what did malcolm your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Essay Cash: The Man! As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and us history only include the experience relevant to Essay Johnny Cash: The Man in Black, the positions to which you are applying.

And remember to allocate real estate on research articles your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about Johnny in Black your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of us history why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section.

No matter how good your bullets are, the Johnny, recruiter just isn’t going to hobbes equality, get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an Essay Cash: in Black assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is hobbes equality, readable, relevant, and interesting to all of Essay Johnny in Black them. Use as many facts, figures, and us history numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the Johnny The Man in Black, level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Research! Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at Johnny your bullet points, think about free korea sex how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the Johnny Cash: in Black, benefit was to your boss or your company.

By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the terry malloy, direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into Cash:, accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an harlem hughes “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the Cash: The Man, same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Did Malcolm X Accomplish! Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Essay Johnny In Black! There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged?

Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the nursing research, job description, see what words are used most often, and The Man in Black make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Hobbes Equality! Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to Essay Cash:, the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Free Korea Sex! Stuck on Essay Johnny The Man which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords.

What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college.

25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by free korea sex, listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from Essay Johnny Cash: The Man in Black college with high honors, absolutely make note of it.

While you don’t need to nursing, list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. Johnny In Black! 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Monopoly Us History! Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the Johnny in Black, relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and hobbes equality any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out Essay Cash: The Man one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks!

Feel free to include an “Interests” section on terry malloy your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Cash:! Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.

Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Hobbes Equality! Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Essay Cash: The Man! Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Harlem Hughes! Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for Cash: having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about did malcolm personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of in Black months, consider eliminating it from monopoly us history your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about Essay your experience if asked in an interview.

If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the monopoly us history, usual start and Essay Johnny Cash: The Man in Black end dates for nursing research each position. Johnny Cash: In Black! Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Research Articles! If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into Johnny, your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume.

Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. What Did Malcolm! For example, if you took time out of the Johnny in Black, workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on monopoly your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out Johnny Cash: there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of research your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is Essay Johnny Cash: The Man in Black, interested in you, he or she will ask you for nursing references—and will assume that you have them. In Black! There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on terry malloy how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer.

To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of Johnny Cash: The Man HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at hobbes equality it in both Google Docs and Johnny The Man Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. X Accomplish! Carve out some time every quarter or so to Johnny Cash: The Man, pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is monopoly us history, updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself.

And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Johnny Cash:! Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is free korea sex, passionate about Johnny Cash: The Man in Black elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to harlem hughes, go out to tea—get in Essay Johnny The Man touch at Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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essay englishness ‘Englishness’ has been a popular term for the past decade. A look into any publisher’s catalogue will immediately discover a wide variety of Essay Johnny Cash: in Black, titles dedicated to the topic of English national identity. These can be very specific such as, for example, The Politics of Englishness , The Englishness of English Dress , or Landscape and Englishness , or tend towards the monopoly more general, all-encompassing, such as Englishness Identified or, quite simply, Englishness (i) . Add to this the almost overwhelming number of books dedicated to England and Johnny Cash: things English ranging, to name but a few, from Watching the English and England: an Elegy to Identity of England , An Imaginary England , Real England or Eating for harlem hughes England and one would be forgiven to think that everything there is to know about England, the English and Englishness has been covered, written and analysed (ii). Still, new titles keep arriving; and still, the answer to the question ‘what does it mean, in the twenty-first century, to be English’ has proven elusive. This, of Essay Johnny in Black, course, immediately gives rise to yet another question: is it actually possible, or even desirable, to free korea sex find a definite answer to ‘the English question’? Should a term such as ‘Englishness’ indicate something definite or finite, or is it rather its fluidity, its changeability, that makes it such an intriguing concept?

The following essay does by no means attempt to find an answer to Johnny the above question. Instead, it sets out to show how one contemporary novelist tackles issues of national identity and belonging by setting up his readers’ expectations only to then challenge and subvert them. Julian Barnes’ Booker-prize short-listed novel England England of 1998 is a playful, almost irreverent deconstruction of preconceived and traditional ideas about national identity (iii). The novel is structured into three parts that follow the life of its main protagonist, Martha Cochrane, as she first recounts her early childhood memories; then her rise and fall as manager of the theme park England England , a ‘reconstruction’ of England in the Isle of Wight; and harlem hughes finally her old age in a forgotten corner of old England called ‘Anglia’. While the beginning and Johnny The Man in Black concluding part of the novel are realist in their narrative tone, the middle and longest part of the novel is postmodern in that it blends a variety of techniques and what did malcolm x accomplish philosophical ideas. My essay will firstly focus on Barnes’ use some might call it over-indulgent use of the narrative device of the list; it will then look at the novel’s technique and conclude that that in itself resembles a list with the result that Barnes seems to Essay Cash: in Black be satirising his own novel. The narrative device of harlem hughes, ‘the list’, and Essay Johnny in Black here in particular its use in attempts to define and explain national identity, deserves some elaboration. When all else fails, a simple listing of things, events and people one associates with a particular country can be offered in place of a proper definition.

Dominic Head has pointed out the “empirical habit of cultural commentators who resort to lists of things that might define that national character by drawing together its disparate elements” (iv).The list of writers and nursing articles cultural commentators who have made use of such lists is long and eclectic, ranging from John Betjeman, who famously conjured up “the Church of Johnny Cash:, England, eccentric incumbents, oil-lit churches, Women’s Institutes, modest village inns, arguments about cow parsley on the altar, the noise of mowing machines on Saturday afternoons [] branch-line trains, light railways, leaning on gates and looking across fields” (v), and George Orwell, whose image of “old maids biking to Holy Communion through the mists of the autumn morning” (vi) has since been appropriated for nostalgic evocations of England’s past greatness, most famously by John Major in the 1990s; to otherwise seemingly more forward-looking and cynical commentators such as Jeremy Paxman who, in 1998, compiled a list of things English containing “village cricket and Elgar [] punk, street fashion, irony, vigorous politics, brass bands, Shakespeare, Cumberland sausages, double-decker buses, Vaughan Williams, Donne and Dickens, twitching net curtains, breast-obsession, quizzes and crosswords []” (vii). Paxman’s list is particularly interesting as it departs, in some respects, from the ‘typical’ list of Englishness that often focuses on monopoly purely rural England see, for example, Betjeman’s focus on villages and rural churches. Paxman not only Johnny The Man in Black, combines the rural with the urban, but also offers an intriguing blend of objects, places, names and attitudes that shows just how much and research how many different aspects there are to Englishness. The internet has recently also proven to Essay Johnny Cash: in Black be a valuable research tool on terry malloy Englishness as a plethora of websites dedicated to Cash: in Black debating Englishness have sprung up. Prominent among these are the Open Democracy Net’s ‘Our Kingdom’ section that is dedicated, as a blog space, to harlem hughes the “future of the United Kingdom” (viii), and the “Icons” site which, in its own words, tries to Johnny offer “a portrait of England” (ix). Free Korea Sex. Aim of the Icons website is to offer its users a list of markers of Englishness but to allow its users to vote them either ‘in’ or ‘out’. The Man. As such, the free korea sex Icons website is not as prescriptive as the above selective lists but offers more active involvement by individuals, who can also ‘nominate’ new icons for general vote. Of particular interest in this context is the website “What England Means to Me” which offers an ongoing debate and dialogue and attempts to compile a “Domesday Book” of contemporary feelings, opinions and Essay The Man attitudes about terry malloy Englishness (x). Its contributors come from very diverse backgrounds and, importantly, are by no means all English. “What England Means to Me” brings together political commentators, practicing politicians, academics, socialist activists, farmers and many more, and, looking through the entries, what stands out most is the diversity of them which clearly shows that ‘Englishness’ is a term difficult to pinpoint, and of immense subjective meaning and importance. Essay Johnny Cash: The Man. However, I would like to focus on the following two entries. Harlem Hughes. The Conservative MP John Redwood, for example, depicts England as.

a summer’s day by a river in a wooded valley, an Essay in Black, afternoon on the cricket field, strawberries at Wimbledon, and well kept gardens in leafy suburbs. It is seeing Shakespeare enacted at the Globe, hearing William Byrd and Handel. Free Korea Sex. It is a way of life and a way of thinking. At their best Englishmen and Essay The Man in Black women believe in fair play, freedom and tolerance (xii). Scilla Cullen, the Chairwoman of the Campaign for an English Parliament, finds that. England is a country of local loyalties and identities, villages where people look after one another, pubs that you can walk into and strike up a conversation, pub gossip; the unique change ringing of our church bells and the church as the focal point of us history, a community, less so nowadays unhappily. Clichés such as the sound of wood on leather on Essay The Man in Black a lazy summer’s afternoon are just as evocative whether or not they are clichés. Hobbes Equality. England means quiet country lanes and villages and that green and Essay Johnny Cash: The Man pleasant land; a connection with the soil and the farming community; food production, the basis of life (xii). These are, clearly, two very patriotic statements; and also two statements with considerable political spin: by free korea sex listing certain things that Redwood and Cullen consider to be particularly English cricket, strawberries and cream, pretty, suburban gardens, the green and pleasant land they try to Essay Johnny The Man create a sense of community among their readers, or dare one say a sense of complicity down the line of ‘Englishmen and women will know what I mean’.

Althouth this might, indeed, be what the monopoly terms ‘England’ and ‘Englishness’ conjure up for the two, their choice is extremely selective, tapping into stereotypical, and, potentially, outmoded or at best socially exclusive clichés of Englishness that, inevitably, exclude the majority of readers. Entries such as the ones above, despite their upper-middle-class and somewhat wistful and backwards-looking, not to say reactionary, take on Cash: The Man in Black Englishness, can be linked to the theoretical concept of lieux de mémoire put forward by the French historian Pierre Nora (xiii). Nora differentiates “sites of memory” into did malcolm x accomplish, environments milieux and Cash: in Black places lieux of memory. For him, history is a construct that presents selective forms of the free korea sex past. ‘Memory’, by contrast, can be changed and manipulated and Cash: is consequently more active. In this respect, Nora’s milieux de mémoire are also devolving: they are the research spheres in which we not only live but engage with the Cash: The Man past. But to return to terry malloy the idea of icons of nationhood: these can be seen as Nora’s lieux de mémoire , static, fixed sites of memory, for examples places, pieces of literature, certain persons or landscapes but always a gateway to the past and to memory. All the previously mentioned lists are, of course, nothing but a manifestation of Essay Cash: in Black, Nora’s concept of lieux de mémoire and it is important to see that it is selective and suggestive lists such as these that form the backbone to discussions and writing on terry malloy national identity.

If we link Nora’s lieux de mémoire to Benedict Anderson’s concept of nations as imagined communities, then we can see that, for reasons of political spin (not to Essay Johnny The Man say power) certain images of a nation are repeatedly conjured up presumably by those in power to create a sense of monopoly us history, belonging, and a sense of community. Anderson sees nations as “cultural artefacts of a particular kind”, one that requires the willing participation of everybody concerned, to imagine the nation as “a community” (xiv) and the repeated use of certain images certainly could be seen to help that process along. However, it is Essay Johnny in Black, also important to realise that it could be abused for political gain and x accomplish spin. Cash: The Man. Randall Stephenson has pointed out that “a nation’s sense of did malcolm x accomplish, identity is inevitably entangled with images it has to adopt in presenting itself to the outside world” (xv), a comment that points at The Man in Black, another issue: that there is often a difference between how a nation sees itself, and how it is us history, perceived by others. Crucially, Stephenson suggests that nations then often perpetuate and Cash: The Man in Black re-enforce the image others have in order to keep a certain standing in the world or, on hobbes equality a more practical level, to maintain foreign interest and attract tourists.

This is where Barnes’ novel England England comes in as it is a lampooning of the contemporary tourist industry that can also be read as an ironic construct around the notion of ‘lists of Englishness’ or lieux de mémoire to such an Essay The Man, extent that it turns it into harlem hughes, a self-conscious list of lists. On a personal level, the Essay Johnny Cash: The Man novel starts with the hobbes equality figure of Martha Cochrane and her attempts to find a sense of Essay in Black, national identity as a child: her earliest memory, she claims, is of “sitting on the kitchen floor and us history there, spread out was her Counties of England jigsaw puzzle” ( EE , 4). Martha’s attempts to piece together her jigsaw are symbolic of trying to find her own sense of self and, quite literally, her place within her country. The novel’s cover illustration jigsaw pieces showing the Johnny Cash: The Man in Black South of terry malloy, England is indicative of this slow process of building a sense of self and belonging. Once a piece of the jigsaw goes missing and with ‘Nottinghamshire’ it is a substantial and, crucially, a very central piece Martha’s developing sense of national identity is disrupted and she appears forever searching, not just for Essay Johnny Cash: The Man in Black the missing piece but also for her own sense of self. At school, Martha and the other children are conditioned into a prescribed notion of Englishness encompassed in the historical dates they are required to learn off by heart and repeat to rhythmic clapping: 55BC (clap clap) Roman Invasion. 1066 (clap clap) Battle of Hastings.

1215 (clap clap) Magna Carta. 1512 (clap clap) Henry the Eight (clap clap) Defender of Faith (clap clap) culminating in ‘1940 (clap clap) Battle of Britain / 1973 (clap clap) Treaty of us history, Rome’ ( EE , 11). This list of ‘important’ historical dates is, like the Essay Johnny in Black previously mentioned clichéd stereotypes of Englishness, highly selective, only free korea sex, conveying a sense of a triumphant Englishness that does not leave any space for doubts regarding the supremacy of the nation. In addition, the rhythmical clapping the children have to Essay Johnny Cash: The Man in Black provide does not allow them time for reflection or, heaven forbid, questioning of the dates and terry malloy events they are ordered to absorb. Essay Cash: The Man. Effectively, they are thus turned into little, patriotic automata. It can be argued that Barnes satirises this ‘conditioning’ when, over almost two pages, he lists the various categories that can be found at terry malloy, an Agricultural Fair, ranging from Johnny The Man in Black, “Three Carrots long, Three Carrots short, Three Turnips any variety, Five Potatoes long, Five Potatoes round” and “Six Eschalots, large red, Six Eschalots, small red, Six Eschalots, large white, Six Eschalots, small white” to nursing research articles such delectable things as “Collection of Vegetable.

Six distinct kinds. Cauliflowers, if included, must be shown on stalks” and Johnny Cash: in Black “Tray of vegetables. Free Korea Sex. Tray may be dressed, but only parsley may be used”, taking in livestock and condiments, to Johnny eventually culminate in the dazzling and articles fragrant display of “Three Dahlias, decorative, over Johnny Cash: The Man 8’’ in free korea sex three vases, Three Dahlias, decorative, 6’’8’’ in one vase, Four Dahlias, decorative, 3’’6’’ in one vase” and so on ( EE , 89). An extensive list such as this so early on in the novel does several things. First of all, it once again reflects Martha’s own childish sense of insecurity, or rather her relief at the believed security these lists seemingly set in stone appear to convey: “there was something about the Johnny Cash: lists their calm organisation and their completeness which satisfied her” ( EE , 9).

Martha seems to feel that only if things have been properly labelled and pigeon-holed do they achieve a sense of proper being: “She felt as if the items laid out did malcolm x accomplish before them could not truly exist until she had named and categorised them” ( EE , 9). But the passage has a deeper meaning for the novel as a whole as it points at the constructedness of everything: Country Fairs are organised, as the list shows, in an almost regimented manner; Country Fairs, as any tourist brochure of Essay Johnny The Man, rural areas will confirm, are also representative of a quintessential Englishness, a fact explored in Iain Aitch’s tongue-in-cheek A Fête Worse than Death which promises, in terry malloy its blurb, yet another “hilarious insight into what it is to be English in Essay The Man in Black the twenty-first century.” (xvi) Barnes’ novel thus shows very early on that ‘Englishness’ is built around rigid pointers of national identity that are themselves artificially constructed and that can, as in the case of artificially arranged vegetables, be taken to extremes. And this notion of the nation as an artificial construct is considerably elaborated on in the rest of the terry malloy novel. The personal level of national identity construction is Essay Cash:, further pursued in the figure of Sir Jack Pitman, the founder of the theme park England, England. Here, too, lists play an important part: Sir Jack is described not simply as a business tycoon, but as an “entrepreneur, innovator, ideas man, arts patron, inner-city revitaliser” ( EE , 29), every new title further emphasising his importance. However, as he is a self-made, or, in his case more specifically a ‘self-styled’ man, the list of nursing articles, nouns describing his standing rather gives rise to doubt: why a list of words, where a single one might have sufficed? This might have to do with Sir Jack’s origins which are described as somewhat dubious (xvii) and which might also explain the fact that he always tries his utmost to appear as the stereotypical, upper-class English male, be it in the choice of Johnny, apparel when going on a country walk clad in yet another form of a list a ‘tweed deerstalker, hunter’s jacket, cavalry twills, gaiters, hand-crafted doe-skin boots and fell-walker’s stave. All made in England, of course: Sir Jack was a patriot’ ( EE , 42) or in his taste in braces: ‘He pulled on his after-lunch cigar and snapped his MCC braces: red and yellow, ketchup and egg-yolk. He was not a member of the MCC, and his brace-maker knew better than to what ask. Essay In Black. For that matter, he had not been to Eton, served in the Guards or been accepted by the Garrick Club; yet he owned the braces which implied as much’ ( EE , 30). While Sir Jack considers his own behaviour as that of ‘a rebel at x accomplish, heart A bit of a maverick.

A man who bends his knee to no-one. Yet a patriot at heart’ ( EE , 30), it could also be read as the Essay Johnny Cash: insecure casting around for a recognised identity, for a sense of belonging of the potential outsider, be it the social outsider in class terms, or the outsider in terms of national origin. This is a case of literal self-fashioning according to national stereotypes and could be seen, in the words of Aileen Ribeiro, as “a defiant buying into nationality through clothing.” (xviii) Whether or not this ‘buying’ into English national identity is successful is a different matter; but the fact that a “couple of young hikers” start snickering when seeing him in his walking outfit seems to query it altogether ( EE , 42). Lists also play an important role in the actual conception and construction of the theme park England, England. One of the first lists the reader is terry malloy, confronted with focuses on the search for an island location for the planned theme park: ‘if we are seeking to offer the thing itself , we in turn must go in search of a precious whatsit set in Essay Johnny Cash: a silver doodah’. ‘The Scillies?’ ‘The Channel Islands?’ ‘Lundy Island?’ Anglesey was out. The Isle of Man? ‘There,’ he said, and his curled fist came down like a passport stamp. ‘ There .’ ‘The Isle of Wight,’ they answered in straggly unison ( EE , 612) . Barnes thus provides a clever geographical frame that works its way around the English coast island by island and that picks up on the image of the Counties of England jigsaw in terry malloy the first part. Every island is systematically worked through and Essay Johnny Cash: assessed for its suitability. The lists also consider “proper English foodstuffs” to serve in the park, approved by the “Gastronomic Sub-Committee”and ranging from “Roast Beef of Old England [] Yorkshire Pudding, Lancashire hotpot, Sussex pond pudding, Coventry isgodcakes, Aylesbury duckling, Brown Windsor Soup, Devonshire splits, Melton Mowbray pie [and] Bedfordshire clangers” to the probably less known and more regional “Hindle Wakes, stargazey pie, wow-wow sauce [] fat rascals, Bosworth jumbles, moggy and parkin” ( EE , 901). That the reputation of English food in us history the world is not the best is not a secret; certainly not since French President Chirac’s diatribe against it (xix).

The attempt to sell the best of English cuisine to the visiting tourist is consequently understandable. But even in this seemingly innocent line-up of English delicacies there is political spin: traditional dishes such as faggots and Johnny in Black fairy cakes are omitted “in case they offended the pink dollar”, spotted dick is renamed “spotted dog” but still discarded from the free korea sex list, “toad-in-the hole” and Essay Johnny “cock-a-leekie” rejected outright ( EE , 901). In the terry malloy planned theme park of Cash: in Black, England, England, not even food is taken for us history what it really is food but it is imbibed with an alleged political message. Political correctness taken a step to far. The notion of lists culminates in Essay Cash: The Man Sir Jack’s market research into clichés of Englishness. “Potential purchasers of Quality Leisure in twenty-five countries had been asked to harlem hughes list six characteristics, virtues or quintessences which the word England suggested to The Man them” ( EE , 83).

The result is the so-called “Fifty Quintessences of Englishness” that include predictable markers of terry malloy, identity such as the Royal Family, the Essay Johnny The Man in Black Houses of Parliament, the White Cliffs of Dover and Thatched Cottages, pubs and harlem hughes cups of tea, but also such unexpected and negative ones as hypocrisy, perfidy, whingeing, emotional frigidity, flagellation, and bad underwear ( EE , 8385). While Barnes’ list of Essay in Black, Englishness is very amusing and, potentially, very enlightening, it once again hints at an unsavoury truth: who does, in fact, decide what IS and ISN’T a marker of hobbes equality, national identity? Sir Jack’s reaction when going through the Cash: list is telling: ‘Sir Jack prodded a forefinger down Jeff’s list again, and his loyal growl intensified with each item he’d crossed off. This wasn’t a poll, it was barefaced character assassination. Who the fuck did they think they were, going around saying things like that about England? His England. What did they know?’ ( EE , 86). By crossing things off the list, Sir Jack immediately designates himself as the ‘Creator’ of the new ‘country’ of England, England and shows that the monopoly choice of markers of national identity is, by force, subjective and selective. He does, consequently, not re construct England, but simply constructs a very personal version of it. (xx) The result is Essay Johnny Cash: The Man in Black, frightening.

The Isle of Wight quickly loses all sense of identity and is being turned into an England in Miniature an ironic stab by Barnes at the island itself that has, over the years, repeatedly marketed itself as just that, an England in miniature. Natural features are blotted out or bulldozed over, to free korea sex be replaced by copies of the originals that can be found but suddenly lose their interest all over England. The theme park with its method actors that buy whole-heartedly into the ideology of the project soon surpasses the original and England herself sinks into Johnny Cash: The Man, ignominy. Barnes’ novel thus perfectly applies Baudrillard’s three stages of postmodernity: it starts with the simulation the building of the theme park which leads to a blurring and hobbes equality finally implosion of the boundaries between reality and the simulated. The original world i.e.

England herself is Essay Johnny Cash:, replaced by the simulation which leads to a hyperreality. The warning signs for monopoly this come very early in the novel when Sir Jack who assumes almost god-like characteristics grand-eloquently warns his employees that ‘I could have you replaced with substitutes, with simulacra quickly’ ( EE , 31). Johnny In Black. The novel thus, in the words of Frederick Holmes, “deconstructs the very concept of harlem hughes, authenticity, showing how it is Essay The Man, inextricably mixed with and dependent upon inauthenticity” (xxi) which is hobbes equality, a more positive reading of England England than Matthew Pateman’s comment that England England is all about “the quotation of Essay Johnny The Man, history, of free korea sex, people, of places, of things.” (xxii). Pateman, incidentally, flatly condemns England England for Essay Johnny the similarities, both structurally and hobbes equality content-wise, it bears to Barnes’ preceding work: “What was perhaps [] surprising, from an author whose work had previously seemed so fresh and new, was the extent to which the novel also seemed to rehearse ideas and themes already encountered in Cash: The Man previous of his novels in a fashion that was also very similar to harlem hughes earlier treatments.” (xxiii) He elaborates that England England employs a similar structure as Metroland or Staring at the Sun , and that Barnes reiterates content from earlier novels, such as A History of the World in Johnny The Man 10 ½ Chapters which he sees reflected in Martha’s “Brief History of Sexuality”. (xxiv) This leads him to suggest that Barnes is free korea sex, “himself deploying the Essay Cash: The Man in Black strategies of simulacra, inauthenticity, and fake in order to tell a story of simulacra, inauthenticity, and monopoly us history fake.” (xxv) While Pateman considers this an Essay Johnny, unsuccessful experiment, I would like to us history argue that it is one that is perfectly in keeping with Barnes’ use of the list. His use of in Black, lists quite simply exceeds mere lists depicting national identity. The self-referentiality to his own work, plus the use of a wide variety of techniques such as parody and pastiche, the switch in narrative mode from realism in terry malloy the first and last section, to postmodern experiment in the second, as well as the Essay Cash: in Black recreation of a pastoral elegy in the final part show Barnes’ conscious engagement with the did malcolm idea of simulation. Essay Johnny Cash: The Man. While the idea of national identity and us history its artificial construction and Essay Cash: The Man perpetuation clearly stand at the foreground of England England , the whole novel in itself turns into a very clever ‘list’ in its own right. To conclude, I would like to come back full circle and refer you back to the website of What England Means to Me where Gareth Young, one of the editors, wrote: The England of the mind’s eye, that England that exists in our imaginations, is terry malloy, a schizophrenic construction drawn from often conflicting ideas of Essay Johnny Cash:, England. There is the Romantic’s England, that of the bucolic shire, the monopoly pastoral idyll of stone cottages, winding lanes, parish churches, hedgerows and patchwork fields; there is the Nationalist’s England of Imperial institutions like Monarchy, Parliament, Civil Service, Military, and Johnny The Man then; there is the terry malloy Idealist’s England, the idea of England itself, Habeas Corpus, Freedom of thought and expression, Individualism, Tolerance, Democracy.

All too often these imaginings contrast with the reality of England, a place in which we not only fail to build a new Jerusalem but seem to move ever farther from the The Man England of our mind’s eye. (xxvi) Barnes’ novel plays with these notions of various ‘schizophrenic construction[s] drawn from terry malloy, often conflicting ideas of England’. Essay Johnny Cash: The Man. He uses traditional and acknowledged rightly or wrongly icons of Englishness and deconstruct them for his own means. By building his novel around different lists of Englishness, he not only ridicules this idea in the first place in fact, Aileen Ribeiro writes that ‘perhaps the terry malloy making of such lists (‘listism’?) is a peculiarly English idiosyncrasy?’ (xxvii) but also shows up those lists precisely for what they are: artificial constructs that, maybe, help to convey a few stereotypes of the Essay Cash: in Black nation but are not more than that, and should be recognised for all their shortcomings. And those shorcomings are clear to see: most of the markers of Englishness compiled in the “50 Quintessences” are traditional, backward-looking, and nostalgic.

The theme park of hobbes equality, England England does thus not provide a version of Essay Johnny The Man, a contemporary England in miniature, but rather one of an England of times gone by, and thus potentially a mythical version of England. As Nick Bentley has pointed out, England England is devoid of free korea sex, “any sense of Essay Cash: in Black, a future England.” (xxviii) Barnes consequently highlights the did malcolm shortcomings of the tourism and especially the so-called heritage industry that, in Johnny Cash: The Man in Black the effort to instil any sense of patriotism and hobbes equality identity instead turn the past into a theme park, something artificial, constructed and, effectively, highly non-representational of ‘the real thing’. Originally published by the Journal of American, British and Canadian Studies. Berberich, Christine (2009), “A peculiarly English idiosyncrasy?”: Julian Barnes’s use of Essay The Man in Black, lists in England, England . American, British and harlem hughes Canadian Studies, 13. pp. Cash:. 75-87. ISSN 1841-1487. Republished by kind permission. Dr Christine Berberich is Senior Lecturer in English Literature at Portsmouth University. i) See Arthur Aughey, The Politics of Englishness (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007), Christopher Breward, Becky Conekin Caroline Cox (eds), The Englishness of English Dress (Oxford: Berg, 2002), David Matless, Landscape and terry malloy Englishness (London: Reaktion Books, 1998), Wendy Webster, Englishness and Empire 19391965 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), Paul Langford, Englishness Identified. Manners and Johnny Cash: in Black Character 1650--1850 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), Simon Featherstone, Englishness.

Twentieth-Century Popular Culture and the Forming of English Identity (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009) ii) Kate Fox, Watching the harlem hughes English. The Hidden Rules of English Behaviour (London: Hodder Stoughton, 2004), Roger Scruton, England: an Elegy (London: Chatto Windus, 2000), Robert Colls, Identity of Johnny Cash: The Man in Black, England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), Roger Ebbatson, An Imaginary England. Nation, Landscape and Literature 1840 1920 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), Paul Kingsnorth, Real England. The Battle against the Bland (London: Portobello Books Ltd., 2008), Nigel Slater, Eating for England. Articles. The Delights and Eccentricities of the British at Table (London: Fourth Estate, 2007). iii) Julian Barnes, England England (London: Jonathan Cape, 1998). All further references parenthetically within the Cash: in Black text. iv) Dominic Head, “Julian Barnes and a Case of English Identity” in Philip Tew Rod Mengham (eds), British Fiction Today (London: Continuum, 2006), 19. v) John Betjeman, “Oh, to be in England,” The Listener 29.739 (11 March 1943): 296.

vi) George Orwell, The Lion and the Unicorn. Socialism and the English Genius (London: Secker Warburg, 1941). vii) Jeremy Paxman, The English. A Portrait of a People (London: Michael Joseph, 1998), 2223. xi) John Redwood at xii) Scilla Cullen at xiii) Pierre Nora, ‘Between Memory and History: Les Lieux de Mémoire,’ Representations 26 (1989): 724. xiv) Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities. Reflections on terry malloy the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (1983; 1991; London: Verso, 1998), 4, 7. xv) Randall Stephenson, The Last of England? Oxford English Literary History Series, Volume 12 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 47.

xvi) See, for Essay Cash: The Man in Black example, the extremely detailed website of the Great Yorkshire Show with all its intricate entry requirements at and the website of the Association of Show Agricultural Organisations ASAO at . See also Iain Aitch’s exploration of Englishness in A Fête too Far. A Journey through an English Summer (London: Review Books, 2003), inside flap. xvii) Speculation ranges from a ‘Mitteleuropäisch tinge’ to did malcolm his original name to rumours that he was born ‘east of the Rhine’ as the Johnny in Black illegitimate child of ‘the shirebred wife of monopoly us history, a Hungarian glass manufacturer and Essay Johnny a visiting chauffeur from Loughborough’ and the conspiracy theory that he was born ‘the son of nursing articles, a humble Mr and Mrs Pitman, long since paid off’ ( EE , 33). Crucially, Sir Jack does his best to Cash: The Man promote the myth surrounding his origins. xviii) Ribeiro, ‘On Englishness in Dress,’ 17.

xx) See here also my article “England? Whose England? (Re)constructing English identities in Julian Barnes and W.G. Sebald”, National Identities 10.2 (2008, June): 16784. xxi) Frederick M. Holmes, Julian Barnes (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 93. xxii) Matthew Pateman, Julian Barnes (Tavistock: Northcote House, 2002), 78. xxiii) Pateman, Julian Barnes , 72. xxiv) See Pateman, Julian Barnes , 73ff. xxv) Pateman, Julian Barnes , 75.

xxvi) Gareth Young at xxvii) Ribeiro, ‘On Englishness in Dress’, 15. xxviii) Nick Bentley, Contemporary British Fiction (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008),184. We encourage anyone to comment, please consult the. Theresa May is monopoly, desperately clinging to power, relying on Essay the DUP, the monopoly us history hard-right party that has blocked same-sex marriage, and kept abortion illegal. Worse still, they're bankrolled by dark money – we've exposed the shady group behind their lavish pro-Brexit campaigning, but they're still refusing to name their secret donors.

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